Jamaica’s cattle sector has been affected by several calf diseases. In our Presentation we will highlight three significant local calf diseases, namely; calf scours, calf pneumonia and tick fever. Diagnosing, treating and preventing these diseases is very important for every cattle industry.
Calf scours can be defined as diarrhea in calves. Calf scours is not a specific disease with a specific cause, but it is actually a clinical sign of a disease complex with many possible causes.
1.Bacterial scours – E.Coli, Salmonella Clostridium perfringens Types C & D2. Viral scours Rotavirus and Corona virus Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)3.Protozoan Scours Coccidia and Cryptosporidia
Calves do not drink milk or milk replacer. Calves become severely dehydrated and depressed. They have a high fever. Faeces are watery and often tinged with blood Calves show uneasiness and strain or kick at their abdomen There may be drooling of saliva
Calves running around the pasture with their tails in the air, bucking and kicking with yellow or white diarrhea may not need treatment. The main indications for treatment are: General disposition Appetite Dehydration Body temperature
The main treatment is fluid therapy Secondary treatments are: Antibiotics Nursing care.
If more than 5% of your calves are scouring If death loss is greater than 2% due to calf scours If after treatment your calves keep getting worse
Calf pneumonia is a major problem in dairy and beef herds. It is a multifactorialdisease, and the most common post-mortem diagnosis in calves between one to five months of age.
• Chronic Pneumonia - Chronic pneumonia is more gradual in onset with no distinct ill phase and the cow may appear to still eat well but may have a slight nasal discharge, sometimes with an increased respiratory rate and cough.• Acute Pneumonia - acute (calf or enzootic) pneumonia is usually more sudden in onset.
Short-term consequences - reduced dry matter intake, delayed weaning and higher risk of an additional pneumonia event at weaning. Long-term Consequences - delayed breeding, higher age at first calving and compromised milk production.
Dull and depressed High temperature Raised breathing due to lung damage Nasal discharge Coughing Reduced food intake Aloofness Weight Loss
Antibiotics,anti-inflammatories or anthelmintics can be prescribed for treatment.
Ventilation: There should be proper ventilation.Often if ammonia can be smelled it is a sign of poor ventilation. Vaccination: Vaccines are available to reduce risk of infection, however they must be used alongside an effective management programme Nutrition: Feeding calves inadequately will reduce calf growth and their immune system response which helps fight diseases. Colostrum: : All calves must have one gallon of colostrum within four to six hours of birth to receive adequate immunity.
A febrile disease transmitted by the bites of ticks.The disease is believed to have been introduced as early as 1829 by cattle from Indonesia infested with the cattle tickBoophilus microplus
fever (higher than 40oC) for several days before other signs become obvious loss of appetite depression weakness and a reluctance to move red urine (haemoglobinuria) followed by anaemia and jaundice in the latter stages of infection diarrhoea abortion in cows
Treatsick cattle Confirm diagnosis Remove ticks Assess the severity Vaccinate all at-risk animals Protect the rest of the herd Monitor cattle in adjoining paddocks Start a long-term risk management strategy
There are several options for the prevention of tick fever, ranging from keeping animals tick- free and use of Imidocarb for short-term control, to vaccinating with tick fever vaccine