Leadership Identity Development Model


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  • Ian Simmie <ian.simmie@utoronto.ca>
  • Other people are leaders; I am not a leader.
    Leader-centric, positional, hierarchical views of leadership, followers, looking for direction by leader; vs. non-positional leaders doing leadership
    Recognize process and not only outcome;
    Leadership can be learned; lifelong learning. Engaging in learning opportunities; over time building one’s capacity of efficacy to engage in leadership.
  • Relational -- values collaboration, trusting relationships; emphasis on relationships -- what skills and knowledge required to build healthy collaborative relationships; link to specific learning and development outcomes, such as listening, mentoring, coaching, facilitating, resolving conflicts, raising concerns, …. Plus understanding how to influence change (systemic understanding) -- cause and effect, bigger picture - holistic view, what impact do my actions and decisions have others, community, society.
  • Integrating student development with leadership development perspective (2 theories: psychosocial and cognitive)
    Chickering (psychosocial theory: vectors moving through autonomy towards interdependence; developing mature interpersonal relationships;
    = relationships are the foundation of identity)
    King, Baxter Magolda (cognitive; thought process involved in identity development; students able to be reflective in their thinking; develop a stronger
    Sense that knowledge is constructed in social contexts; it’s their responsibility to make sense of the world)
    Interdependence: “self authorship”, realizing one’s autonomy and recognizing one’s interdependence with others
  • Connect leadership identity development to student experiences
    What’s our role in developing specialized learning interventions?
    Ability to measure or assess -- or at least understand
    Astin Involvement Theory: (I)nput + (E)nvironment) + (O)utput; Multi Instutional Study of Leadership.
  • Advisors/Mentors: “meaning makers”, process of leadership development
    Role of the Group: continuity/transition; act as mentors and role models “Who is coming after me?”
    Reflection: (critical -- reflective practitioner “Schon”; how to respond differently next time.
    Commit to lifelong learning and development; transferability to any context; confidence/self-efficacy
  • Related to text” Talent is overrated”… Leaders are not born; they are made”. Leadership can be learned; how do we people learn leadership. Using Adult Education theories, e.g. David Kolb “Experiential Learning”, Leadership requires deliberate practice -- purposeful and deliberate approach to learning. For example, “Reflection” how do students make meaning of their experiences? What’s our role in facilitating or helping them sense of their experiences?
  • Leadership Identity Development Model

    1. 1. The Leadership Identity Development Model Summer Institute on Leadership Development University of Toronto June 2009 Valeria Cortes Ian Simmie
    2. 2. Social Construction of Leadership Industrial /Conventional Paradigm Great Man Theory Traits Theory Behavioural Theory Situational Theory Excellence Theory Post- Industrial Paradigm Reciprocal (Relational) Theory Chaos or Systems Theory
    3. 3. Relational Leadership Leadership is a relational and ethical process of people together attempting to accomplish positive change Komives, Lucas & McMahon (2007). Exploring Leadership (2nd ed.), San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    4. 4. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory Leadership identity is the cumulative confidence in one’s ability to intentionally engage with others to accomplish group objectives and be perceived congruently by others in that context. A sense of self as one who believes that groups are comprised of interdependent members who do leadership together.
    5. 5. Leadership Identity Development Cycle
    6. 6. Leadership Identity Development Model Awareness 1 Exploration/ Engagement 2 Leader Identified 3 Key Transition Developing Self Aware of national figures, authority figures Membership in groups, self- awareness, self- confidence Positional roles or member roles, focused interests, leader=in charge Awareness of the value of others, complex tasks LeaderSHIP Differentiated 4 Generativity 5 Integration/Systems 6 Developing Self Let go of control, comfortable leading as a member, leadership is a process Concern for sustainability, development of others Leadership as a life-long developmental process, want to make a difference, understands organizational complexity, know how to engage in different contexts Stage Category Stage Category
    7. 7. Implications for practice • Work with individual students to facilitate movement across the LID stages; • Design appropriate learning experiences for groups, which may have stage-based needs; • Create environmental conditions that facilitate learning and support.
    8. 8. Recommendations for practice • Assessment • Advisors and Mentors • Role of the Group • Reflection
    9. 9. The Learning Process Concrete Experience Active Experimentation Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualization Kolb, 2005
    10. 10. References Allen, K. E., & Cherrey, C. (2000). Systemic leadership: Enriching the meaning of our work. Washington, DC: National Association of Campus Activities and the American College Personnel Association. Astin, A. W., & Astin, H. S. & Associates (2001). Leadership reconsidered: Engaging higher education in social change. Battle Creek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Astin, H.S. (1996). Leadership for social change. About Campus, 1, 4-10. Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1998). Developing selfauthorship in young adult life. Journal of College Student Development, 39, 143-156. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row. Cress, C., Astin, H., Zimmerman-Oster, K., & Burkhardt, J. (2001). Developmental outcomes of college students’ involvement in leadership activities. Journal of College Student Development, 42(1), 15-26.
    11. 11. References Kolb, D. A. (1981). Learning styles and disciplinary differences. In A. W. Chickering & Associates, The modern American college. (pp. 232-255). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Komives, S. R., Casper, J. O., Longerbeam, S., Mainella, F. C., & Osteen, L. (2004) Leadership identity development. Concepts & Connections, 12 (3). 1, 3-6. Komives, S. R., Lucas, N., & McMahon, T. R. (1998). Exploring leadership: For college students who want to make a difference. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. McCormick, M. J. (2001). Self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness: Applying social cognitive theory to leadership. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 8 (1), 22-33. Rost, J.C. (1993). Leadership development in the new millennium. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 1(1), 92-110.