Other people are leaders; I am not a leader. Leader-centric, positional, hierarchical views of leadership, followers, looking for direction by leader; vs. non-positional leaders doing leadership Recognize process and not only outcome; Leadership can be learned; lifelong learning. Engaging in learning opportunities; over time building one’s capacity of efficacy to engage in leadership.
Relational -- values collaboration, trusting relationships; emphasis on relationships -- what skills and knowledge required to build healthy collaborative relationships; link to specific learning and development outcomes, such as listening, mentoring, coaching, facilitating, resolving conflicts, raising concerns, …. Plus understanding how to influence change (systemic understanding) -- cause and effect, bigger picture - holistic view, what impact do my actions and decisions have others, community, society.
Integrating student development with leadership development perspective (2 theories: psychosocial and cognitive) Chickering (psychosocial theory: vectors moving through autonomy towards interdependence; developing mature interpersonal relationships; = relationships are the foundation of identity) King, Baxter Magolda (cognitive; thought process involved in identity development; students able to be reflective in their thinking; develop a stronger Sense that knowledge is constructed in social contexts; it’s their responsibility to make sense of the world) Interdependence: “self authorship”, realizing one’s autonomy and recognizing one’s interdependence with others
Connect leadership identity development to student experiences What’s our role in developing specialized learning interventions? Ability to measure or assess -- or at least understand Astin Involvement Theory: (I)nput + (E)nvironment) + (O)utput; Multi Instutional Study of Leadership.
Advisors/Mentors: “meaning makers”, process of leadership development Role of the Group: continuity/transition; act as mentors and role models “Who is coming after me?” Reflection: (critical -- reflective practitioner “Schon”; how to respond differently next time. Commit to lifelong learning and development; transferability to any context; confidence/self-efficacy
Related to text” Talent is overrated”… Leaders are not born; they are made”. Leadership can be learned; how do we people learn leadership. Using Adult Education theories, e.g. David Kolb “Experiential Learning”, Leadership requires deliberate practice -- purposeful and deliberate approach to learning. For example, “Reflection” how do students make meaning of their experiences? What’s our role in facilitating or helping them sense of their experiences?
Leadership Identity Development Model
The Leadership Identity
Summer Institute on
University of Toronto June 2009
Social Construction of Leadership
Industrial /Conventional Paradigm
Great Man Theory
Post- Industrial Paradigm
Chaos or Systems Theory
Leadership is a relational and
ethical process of people
together attempting to
accomplish positive change
Komives, Lucas & McMahon (2007).
Exploring Leadership (2nd
ed.), San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Developing a Leadership Identity:
A Grounded Theory
Leadership identity is the cumulative confidence in
one’s ability to intentionally engage with others to
accomplish group objectives and be perceived
congruently by others in that context.
A sense of self as one who believes that groups are
comprised of interdependent members who do
Leadership Identity Development Model
Aware of national
Positional roles or
Awareness of the
value of others,
Let go of control,
leading as a
leadership is a
Leadership as a life-long developmental
process, want to make a difference,
understands organizational complexity,
know how to engage in different
Implications for practice
• Work with individual students to facilitate
movement across the LID stages;
• Design appropriate learning experiences
for groups, which may have stage-based
• Create environmental conditions that
facilitate learning and support.
Recommendations for practice
• Advisors and Mentors
• Role of the Group
The Learning Process
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Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1998). Developing selfauthorship in young adult life. Journal of College
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Komives, S. R., Casper, J. O., Longerbeam, S., Mainella, F. C., & Osteen, L. (2004) Leadership
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Komives, S. R., Lucas, N., & McMahon, T. R. (1998). Exploring leadership: For college students
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