Copyright & Plagiarism for Educators

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  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p

  • Poll Title: What do you think the difference is between copyright and plagiarism?
    http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/cuVf0ohH7JJZ51p
  • Copyright & Plagiarism for Educators

    1. 1. EDU 320: Instructional Media & Technology Presented by Valerie Knight, Reference Librarian This is for informational use only and is not intended as legal advice.
    2. 2.  On the “Copyright & Plagiarism” tab of the Education Research Guide, you were to access the following resources and answer a few questions:  Copyright on Campus (video)  Creative Commons & Copyright Info (video)  Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy Education  Plagiarism 101 (video)  10 Signs of Plagiarism Every Teacher Should Know
    3. 3. 5. Digital Etiquette - electronic standards of conduct or procedure 6. Digital Law - electronic responsibility for actions and deeds 7. Digital Rights & Responsibilities - those freedoms extended to everyone in a digital world 8. Digital Health & Wellness - physical and psychological well-being in a digital technology world 9. Digital Security – electronic precautions to guarantee safety  “the norms of appropriate, responsible behavior with regard to technology use”  There are nine areas of digital citizenship: 1. Digital Access - full electronic participation in society 2. Digital Commerce - electronic buying and selling of goods 3. Digital Communication -electronic exchange of information 4. Digital Literacy -process of teaching and learning about technology and the use of technology Quoted from (Ribble, 2014)
    4. 4. Q&A What do you think is the difference between copyright & plagiarism?
    5. 5. Copyright Infringement  Construct of the LAW  Concerned with FIXED EPRESSIONS OF IDEAS  “any infringement on the rights of a copyright holder”  Copyright law gives a copyright holder “a set of rights that they and they alone can exploit legally.”  Copyright is limited by time constraints and exceptions such as fair use.  Has one victim – the copyright holder Plagiarism  Construct of ETHICS  Concerned with IDEAS  “taking the original work or works of another and presenting it as your own”  “Anything that is seen as an unethical and unattributed use of another’s original creation” can be considered plagiarism.  It is possible to plagiarize something that does NOT have a copyright, or things not covered by copyright such as facts, ideas & plot lines.  Has two victims – the copyright holder & the people who were lied to about where the work came from (Bailey, 2013; Electronic Frontier Foundation, n.d.)
    6. 6. the exclusive right to make copies, license, and otherwise exploit a literary, musical, or artistic work, whether printed, audio, video, etc (“Copyright,” n.d.) Copyright image is in the public domain.
    7. 7. Q&A What exclusive rights do copyright holders have? The right to copy, distribute, display & perform their work and to create a derivative work.
    8. 8.  Literary Works  Music & Lyrics  Dramatic works & Music  Pantomimes and Choreographic Works  Photographs, Graphics, Paintings and Sculptural Works  Motion Pictures and Other Audiovisual Works  Video Games and Computer Software  Audio Recordings  Architectural Works (Electronic Frontier Foundation, n.d.)
    9. 9. Q&A What is NOT protected under copyright law? Ideas, facts, data, logos, taglines, anything created by the US government, works in which copyright has expired.
    10. 10. Copyright status is AUTOMATIC upon creation of your original creative work in a fixed, tangible form. Registration with the U.S. Copyright Office is NOT necessary for copyright status and protection, though registration is needed in order to pursue an infringement claim in court. Quoted from (Electronic Frontier Foundation, n.d.)
    11. 11.  Author/Creator  Author/Creator’s heirs if the creator is dead.  Creators of a JOINT work share unless there is an agreement that states otherwise  Someone whom the author/creator has given/assigned the copyright to  Done as “work for hire” for an employer  Given in exchange for publishing/recording contracts  For professionally recorded music it can be complicated since a recording may be owned by the songwriter, performer, producer, record label, publisher or a combination of those entities Copyright Clearance Center (2011). Copyright on campus [Video screenshot]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/2UWaQK5Wbvs (Electronic Frontier Foundation, n.d.)
    12. 12.  For original works created after 1977, copyright lasts for the life of the author + 70 years from the author’s death for his/her heirs.  For “works for hire” corporate works & anonymous works created after 1977, copyright can last from 95-120 years from publication.  Anything published in the U.S. BEFORE 1923 has had its copyright expire.  Any unpublished work created BEFORE 1894 is in the public domain. Mickey Mouse Copyright Logo by Charles Kenny is licensed under CC BY SA. Mickey Mouse is 87 today. The change in the law in 1977 extended his corporate copyright from 75 years to 120 years, meaning that he would have been in the public domain TODAY, if not for the change (Kenny, 2010). (Electronic Frontier Foundation, n.d.; Hirtle, 2014)
    13. 13. the status of a published work or invention upon which the copyright or patent has expired or which has not been patented or subject to copyright (“Public domain,” n.d.) Public Domain image is in the public domain.
    14. 14. Q&A Does citing a source meet copyright requirements? NO!
    15. 15.  Citing a source or image is NOT enough to satisfy copyright requirements – that only covers the ETHICAL issues related to plagiarism.  So, when can you LEGALLY use/modify something?  If it is in the Public Domain, you CAN use and modify it without asking permission.  If its NOT in the Public Domain, you need to ASK permission first.  There ARE exceptions such as:  First Sale  Creative Commons Licensing  Fair Use
    16. 16. allows a consumer to resell a product containing copyrighted material, such as a book or CD that the consumer bought or was given, without the copyright owner’s permission Copyright Clearance Center (2011). Copyright on campus [Video screenshot]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/2UWaQK5Wbvs
    17. 17. Q&A What does creative commons do? Provides a licensing tool that is free to use, redefines copyright to say how you, as the copyright holder want it to be used.
    18. 18. “one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work” A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use and build upon a work that they have created. Click here for Handout (“Creative commons license,” 2014, para. 1) Creative Commons image by Creative Commons is licensed under CC BY.
    19. 19.  ATTRIBUTION (BY): Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these.  NO DERIVATIVE WORKS (ND): Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform only verbatim copies of the work, not derivative works based on it. Creative Commons Icons by Creative Commons are licensed under CC BY.  NONCOMMERCIAL (NC): Licensees may copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only for noncommercial purposes.  SHARE ALIKE(SA): Licensees may distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs the original work. (“Creative commons license,” 2014, sec. 2)
    20. 20. Q&A Which creative common’s license gives the most freedom? Attribution
    21. 21. Creative Commons Search by Creative Commons are licensed under CC BY. Use Creative Commons Search http://search.creativecommons.org/
    22. 22. Q&A Fair Use is covered under what section of the U.S. Copyright Act? Section 107
    23. 23. the doctrine that brief excerpts of copyright material may, under certain circumstances, be quoted verbatim for purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching, and research, without the need for permission from or payment to the copyright holder Fair Use logo by Creative Energy Engineering is licensed under CC BY NC. (“Fair use,” n.d.)
    24. 24. Q&A What are the 4 factors of fair use?
    25. 25.  Purpose & Character of the 2nd Use  Is it just a copy, or are you doing something different from the original work? Is your use commercial?  Tips in your favor for educational use  Tips further in your favor if access is restricted to students  Nature of the Copyrighted Work  Was the original work creative or factual? Is it published or out of print?  Amount & Substantiality  How much of the original work was used, and was that amount necessary?  Tips in your favor if you use a small portion of a whole.  Effect on the Market  Did the use harm the market for the original work? For example, would people buy THIS work instead of the original? Copyright/Copyleft by The Cost of Free is licensed under CC BY SA. (Association of Research Libraries, 2007; Electronic Frontier Foundation, n.d.)
    26. 26. Guidelines have been developed to help teachers determine what they can do under the law It is important to note that these are ONLY guidelines and that fair use can be much more expansive depending upon how the factors of fair use are balanced. Use the Golden Rule: If you were the copyright holder, would you see the use as fair and not expect to be asked for permission? LET’S TAKE A QUIZ! (click here for quiz & discussion)
    27. 27. A journalism teacher annotates a newspaper article from today’s paper and photocopies it to teach his journalism students about the format of a news article. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is FAIR USE because of the transformative value of the material. The teacher is clearly not making a profit and will not cut into any market value for the article. In addition, the work is nonfiction. Also, the teacher is using the material for a clear educational purpose.
    28. 28. A literature teacher photocopies an unpublished short story written by Stephen King and passes it out in her literature class. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) She is NOT protected by FAIR USE . The courts have tended not to support dissemination of unpublished works as such sharing might cut into the future profits of the creator. In addition, a short story would be considered highly creative. Though sharing the work was for an educational purpose, the teacher is probably not protected.
    29. 29. A teacher copies the balcony scene from a film production of Romeo and Juliet and puts it on his website for students to view. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) He is using a small enough portion of the work to be safely protected. This teacher is probably infringing the copyright of the creator of the film. He has not transformed the portion of film he has used. He might be cutting into the market value of the entire film if others find it online and as a result didn't purchase the entire DVD because the clip they wanted was available online. Some might even consider that he has taken the most important part of the work as well. Although the teacher might consider sharing the video educational, it could also be seen as entertainment. However, it should be noted that new exemptions have been made to the DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act) that gives "[p]ermission for college professors, film students and documentary filmmakers to break copy-protection measures on DVDs so they can embed clips for educational purposes, criticism, commentary and noncommercial videos." Whether posting the subsequent work to a website infringes copyright is unclear. You can read more about these new exceptions in this New York Times article. K-12 teachers and students in other disciplines, however, have not been granted the right to rip clips from DVD's. The bottom line: tread very carefully with video.
    30. 30. Students write a skit parodying a scene from the movie Titanic and film it. Their teacher puts the video of the parody on his website. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is FAIR USE. Most forms of parody, particularly transformative forms of art like this video, are covered by the fair use exception to copyright law. While the purpose of such satire may or may not be educational, it is clear that sharing a parody clip will not likely cut into profits to be made from the original film.
    31. 31. A teacher finds a photo online dramatizing a pre-Columbian Viking landing in America. Since the school symbol is the Viking, he posts this photo on the school web page. It links back to the original website. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is NOT FAIR USE. The teacher is not using the image for educational purposes. Merely linking to the original image is not the same as obtaining the rights to reproduce it. The image is copyrighted and owned by the creator. The teacher did not transform the image into something new.
    32. 32. A teacher makes color photocopies of public domain art works published in an art book and laminates them for use as posters in her classroom. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is NOT FAIR USE. The teacher has not transformed the work in any way. Even though the art is in the public domain, the book is copyrighted. Whether or not the use is considered educational is a gray area. A teacher might have a hard time arguing that using the artwork this way is substantially transformative and would not cut into the possible profits of companies who sell prints of the artwork.
    33. 33. A professor gathers photocopies of chapters from several textbooks and has them photocopied and sold at a copycenter for students. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is NOT FAIR USE. In fact, Kenneth Crews describes a case against Kinko's in which courts decided that such copying could cut into potential profits for the textbook manufacturers, took a substantial portion of the work, and was not sufficiently transformative enough. While Kinko's attempted to argue that their purposes were educational, the courts found that the purpose was more commercial.
    34. 34. A student uses the cover of a Life magazine showing a flapper as part of a historical presentation on the 1920’s. She shares the presentation online in SlideShare. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is FAIR USE. The student is transforming the work into a part of a larger presentation for educational purposes. She does not stand to profit from using the work, nor will she likely cut into potential profits from Life magazine by using the work.
    35. 35. A teacher creates a Kindle version of a collection of poetry by Elizabeth Barrett Browning with her explanatory footnotes. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is considered FAIR USE. Not only is the teacher using public domain works, but she is transforming them into something potentially even more valuable with her explanatory notes. While she stands to gain commercially as a result of the use of the poems, the purpose is also educational.
    36. 36. A science teacher uses AP images in an interactive white board presentation about global warming for her science class. She saves the presentation as a PDF and uploads it to her website so that her students can download it later. Quoted from (Fair Use Quiz Discussion, 2014) This is FAIR USE. The teacher is sharing the images for educational purposes and will not likely cut into profits the AP might have made from the images. In addition, the use is transformative as the images are part of a larger presentation.
    37. 37. Q&A Define media literacy. The capacity to access, analyze, evaluate and communicate messages in a variety of forms.
    38. 38.  Media literacy is “the capacity to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate messages in a wide variety of forms.”  Sometimes it is taught in a stand-alone course. However, it is usually incorporated in many different subject areas.  Media literacy provides some unique challenges since it involves the transformation of media.  So, HOW DO we apply fair use in such situations?  Several organizations and associations worked together to develop the Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy Education.  It includes 5 fair use principles.  About the principles:  They apply to ALL forms of media.  They apply in institutional settings as well as non-school-based programs.  They concern the “unlicensed fair use of copyrighted materials for education, not the way those materials were acquired”  They are subject to a “rule of proportionality”  Although “rules of thumb” exist – you do not have to follow them exactly. Fair Use is MORE flexible.  “The fairness of a use depends, in part, on whether the user took more than was needed to accomplish his or her legitimate purpose.” (Center for Social Media, 2008)
    39. 39. Educators can: 1. employ copyrighted material in media literacy lessons (such as making copies of newspapers, TV shows, etc) 2. use copyrighted material in preparing curriculum materials for media literacy 3. share media literacy curriculum materials (that have copyrighted materials embedded in them) Learners can: 4. use copyrighted materials in their own academic and creative work 5. distribute their works digitally to develop an audience for the work IF they meet the transformativeness standard. Center for Social Media. (2008). Code of best practices in fair use for media literacy education [cover image]. Retrieved from http://mediaeducationlab.com/code-best-practices-fair-use-media-literacy- education (Center for Social Media, 2008; Hobbs, 2011)
    40. 40. Elementary school teachers strengthen critical thinking and communication skills by engaging students in using copyrighted materials to create their own public service announcement on global warming (5 min, 49 sec). Hobbs, R. (2008). Video case study, P.S. 124, media literacy, copyright and fair use [Video screenshot]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/VoCnzVZ1phY
    41. 41. This high school case study features a project created by biology students who developed a "Virtual Zoo" demonstrating their learning by created web pages using images they found online through the photo sharing site Flickr.com (5 min, 3 sec). Hobbs, R. (2008). Video case study, Upper Merion Area H.S., media literacy, copyright and fair use [Video screenshot]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/cnXqNgi1rRw
    42. 42.  Consider:  Rationale of project  Purpose of Original Copyrighted Material  YOUR Purpose  Nature & Amount of the Material to be Used  Transformativeness  Effect on Owners TOOL FOR SUPPORTING THE FAIR USE REASONING PROCESS (click here)
    43. 43. (Hobbs, 2011)
    44. 44. Use the Tool for Supporting Fair Use Reasoning Process to decide if this is Fair Use or not. A group of students create a documentary about John Lennon's role as an anti-war activist, weaving old news clips from footage about the Vietnam War and clips from various Lennon songs to show how his lyrics reflected his beliefs about the war.
    45. 45. Use the Tool for Supporting Fair Use Reasoning Process to decide if this is Fair Use or not. A teacher uses a copyrighted image, found on Flickr, adds the title of the school play, and uses it on a T-shirt to promote the school's upcoming dramatic production.
    46. 46.  Is it plagiarizing when teachers use other teachers’ resources? Only if you pass them off as your own. Otherwise, it is really a copyright issue. Either their use falls under fair use, or you need to get permission.  How would an elementary teacher violate copyright/plagiarize? Or are we just concerned with what the students are doing to violate these laws? Both student AND teacher should follow copyright laws and avoid plagiarism. There are no differences here other than differences in copyright based on fair use.  How do you stay away from copyright so you don’t get into trouble? Copyright cannot be avoided. However, remember that items in the public domain are free to use without permission. You can use items with creative commons licenses more freely since they give certain permissions up front. Then follow the fair use guidelines.  How do you know if something has a copyright on it? Everything created/made has a copyright. However, after a period of time, copyright does expire. Refer to those guidelines.
    47. 47.  How can you determine if a student’s work is taken from something that is copyrighted? Anything that is not uniquely created by a student will be copyrighted unless that copyright has expired and the work is now in the public domain. Determining plagiarism, on the other hand, is more difficult. We will address that in the next section.  How do you get something copyrighted? Is there any material that you don’t need to put a copyright on? Copyright is automatic for anything created… books, music, videos, etc. Only ideas and facts are not copyrighted. You don’t have to do anything to obtain a copyright. However, you can register your work with the U.S. Copyright Office. This enables you to sue someone for copyright infringement and provides additional legal evidence during such suits. You can also license a work through creative commons to obtain one of those copyrights.  Can you legally download things that are copyrighted? Yes, if you own them. Otherwise, you need permission or to follow fair use guidelines.  How much of a song can you use before it is considered plagiarism? This is a question of copyright, not plagiarism. Approximately 10% or 30 sec of a copyrighted song should be integrated into an educational multimedia/video project. For in-class listening, you can play it if it been legally purchased and is intended for educational purposes. Public domain songs can be used at will.
    48. 48. Q&A How would you define plagiarism?
    49. 49. an act or instance of using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another author without authorization and the representation of that author's work as one's own, as by not crediting the original author Using someone else’s work incorrectly  Using another’s work without giving credit  Pretending another’s work is your own, even if you have permission from that person to use it  Copying something exactly while pretending it is your ideas and work.  Not doing your own work  Recycling your own work, but submitting it as if it is new  Relying on others in a group to get a good grade  Having someone else do the work (either for free or for a fee) while saying you did it yourself Image is licensed under CC BY SA. (“Plagiarism,” n.d.; LIRC Productions, 2013)
    50. 50. 1. Plan Ahead! Don’t leave everything to the last minute. 2. Do Your Own Work! 3. If you use someone else’s work, give them credit!  Create a Bibliography  Use In-Text Citations (for BOTH direct quotes & paraphrases) (LIRC Productions, 2013)
    51. 51.  Plagiarism ranges from copying word-for-word to paraphrasing a passage without credit and changing only a few words.  The next three slides show how the following passage from a book was used in three student papers. Still, the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. Which ones do YOU think are plagiarism?
    52. 52. The telephone was a convenience, enabling Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. ORIGINAL: Still, the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. PLAGIARISM! Quoted from (Wayne State College Library, 2008)
    53. 53. Daniel J. Boorstin (1973) argues that the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. PLAGIARISM! Quoted from (Wayne State ORIGINAL: Still, the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. College Library, 2008)
    54. 54. Daniel J. Boorstin (1973) as noted that most Americans considered the telephone as simply "a convenience," an instrument that allowed them "to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before" (p. 390). ORIGINAL: Still, the telephone was only a convenience, permitting Americans to do more casually and with less effort what they had already been doing before. NOT PLAGIARISM! Quoted from (Wayne State College Library, 2008)
    55. 55.  ALWAYS  Use quotation marks around direct quotes.  Provide attribution to the author for both quotations and paraphrases  Blogs  Link to the original source  Twitter  include a "via @username"  If you modify it change RT (retweet) to MT (modified tweet)  Facebook  If sharing from a timeline, use the Share Button  If citing from elsewhere on the web, provide a link to their Facebook timeline or their website if they don’t have a Facebook account. Eridon, C. (2012). How to cite on the internet [PNG]. Retrieved from http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/33098/How- Not-to-Steal-People-s-Content-on-the-Web.aspx Eridon, C. (2012). Facebook source[PNG]. Retrieved from http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/33098/How-Not-to- Steal-People-s-Content-on-the-Web.aspx (Eridon, 2012)
    56. 56. All images, regardless of whether or not they are copyrighted or in the public domain or should be cited according to the citation style (APA, MLA, etc.) you are using. For presentations and papers that do not require a specific citation style, you should still include an attribution. The only images you do not need to include a citation or attribution for are stock photos/images provided by the software you are using (such as Microsoft images in PPT or Word). University of California Irvine. (2013). Visual literacy: Citing images [Screenshot]. Retrieved from http://libguides.lib.uci.edu/content.php?pid=55242&sid=1099213
    57. 57.  Creative Commons recommends that you use the acronym: TASL  T: Title What is the name of the material?  A: Author Who owns the material?  S: Source Where can I find it?  L: License How can I use it?  Lastly, is there anything else I should know before I use it? Used As Is "Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco" by tvol is licensed under CC BY Modified "Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco" by tvol, used under CC BY / Desaturated from original (Creative Commons, 2013)
    58. 58. Q&A What are some signs that can help a teacher identify plagiarism? 1) Sudden changes in diction, 2) More than one font, 3) Uncalled for hyperlinks, 4) Odd intrusions of first-person or shifts in tense, 5) Outdated information, 6) Apparent quotes with quotation marks, 7) Incorrect or mixed citation systems, 8) Missing references, 9) A paper that doesn’t really fit the assignment, 10) Getting a hit on a search engine.
    59. 59.  What if a person plagiarizes and truly doesn’t know they did that? Ignorance is not an excuse. If you are the teacher, you can use that as a teaching opportunity. If you are the guilty party, you will have to take the consequences and learn from them.  How often do students in colleges and universities get kicked out for using plagiarism? That depends on the institution and their policies. There is a wide variety of responses and consequences for plagiarism.  When you cite something, do you need to use APA citing? No. However, you do need to include BOTH in-text citations/footnotes and a Reference List at the end of the paper. It is highly recommended that you follow a specific citation style. For Education, APA is usually recommended.  What are the common plagiarizing mistakes college kids make? The most common mistake is to forget the in-text citations. In-text citations are required for BOTH direct quotations and paraphrases. College students also frequently forget to put quotation marks around small sections that they have taken from a source.  Is it plagiarizing if you use your own work more than once? Yes. You are passing it off as a new work endeavor when you turn it in. Instead, get permission first.
    60. 60.  When you put quotes around wording from a text and list the page number is that ok? Or is that copyright still? This is a plagiarism issue, not a copyright issue. This is an appropriate way to attribute a source. However, don’t forget to mention the author and include a Reference List.  Is looking at someone’s work and rewriting it with little difference in wording considered plagiarism? This is paraphrasing, which is a great method for including material from a source. It would only be considered plagiarism IF you did not attribute it to the original work.  How far can you go before it is considered plagiarism? How much of a text can you duplicate? Plagiarism is always avoided as long as you use attribution, no matter the length. However, copyright infringement may occur if you use too much, especially if it is the “heart” of the material. Follow fair use guidelines to make that determination.  What constitutes plagiarism? I have heard that it is 4 words in a row that are the same in a work that you are using. Plagiarism has to do with not providing attribution no matter HOW much you use…. one word or an entire paragraph.  I always worry about plagiarism and have used plagiarism websites in high school. However, I didn’t believe them because they said I plagiarized from sites I never visited. What is a good online tool to use? Most plagiarism tools compare a paper against web and book content, looking for exact phrasing. Sometimes exact phrasing may be in several different places because of publishing/copyright sharing agreements. Plus if someone else had plagiarized a source, the tool may identify it as a source as well. Such tools will also indicate plagiarism for any quotations you use. So, double-check that those are in direct quotes. There are several tools out there that you can use. TurnItIn is the most prevalent of those tools. Additional ones to try for FREE are listed on the Education Research Guide. However, a simple Google search can assist you in identifying plagiarism.  Can we copy pictures from the Internet without citing our source? Only if the pictures are in the public domain, are stock photos for a software (such as Microsoft Office photos) or you purchase them. Otherwise, all pictures (including ones with creative commons licenses) require attribution.
    61. 61. Stop by the Reference Desk or Contact Valerie Knight, Reference Librarian (asklibrary@wsc.edu)
    62. 62. Association of Research Libraries. (2007). Know your copy rights. Retrieved from http://academic.wsc.edu/conn_library/research/copyright/kycrbrochurebw.pdf Bailey, J. (2013, October 7). The difference between copyright infringement and plagiarism. Retrieved from http://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2013/10/07/difference-copyright-infringement-plagiarism/ Center for Social Media. (2008). Code of best practices in fair use for media literacy education. Retrieved from http://mediaeducationlab.com/sites/mediaeducationlab.com/files/CodeofBestPracticesinFairUse_0.pdf Creative Commons. (2013, November 25). Best practices for attribution. Retrieved from http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Best_practices_for_attribution Creative commons license. (2014, January 20). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons_license Copyright. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/copyright Electronic Frontier Foundation. (n.d.). Copyright frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.teachingcopyright.org/handout/copyright-faq Eridon, C. (2012, August 3). How not to steal people’s content on the web. Retrieved from http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/33098/How-Not-to-Steal-People-s-Content-on-the-Web.aspx
    63. 63. Fair use. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=define:+fair+use Hirtle, P. B. (2014, January 3). Copyright term and the public domain in the United States. Retrieved from http://copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm Hobbs, R. (2011, June 29). Copyright clarity: Using copyrighted materials for digital learning [PPT]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/reneehobbs/copyright-clarity-using-copyrighted-materials-for-digital-learning Kenney, C. (2010, April 19). Mickey Mouse’s copyright law. Retrieved from http://animationanomaly.com/2010/04/19/mickey-mouse- copyright-law/#.Uwd-VXdAeux LIRC Productions. (2013, October 29). Plagiarism 101 with year 6 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/fDd7up936MQ Plagiarism. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Plagiarism Public domain. (2014, February 19). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain Public domain. (n.d.). In Collins English Dictionary: Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/public domain Ribble, M. (2014). Nine themes of digital citizenship. Retrieved from http://digitalcitizenship.net/Nine_Elements.html Wayne State College Library. (2008). Plagiarism? It's your call! Retrieved from http://academic.wsc.edu/conn_library/help/student/empower/module6/itsyourcall/index.php

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