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SEMINAR 2011-2012
          Vaisali K
        B070225AR
CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION
                    o   INTRODUCTION
                    o   BACKGROUND
                    o   APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY
                    o   PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY
                    o   STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMICRY
                    o   LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY
                    o   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY
                    o   CASESTUDY
                    o   ANALYSIS
                    o   INFERENCE
                    o   APPLICATION
                    o   CONCLUSION



15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                         VAISALI K
                                             CONTENTS       B070225AR
                                                                         2
WHAT IS BIOMIMETICS?

               Biomimetics is the term used to describe the
               substances, equipment, mechanism and systems by
               which humans imitate natural systems and designs.




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                          VAISALI K
                                       INTRODUCTION          B070225AR
                                                                          3
• Biomimicry originates from two Greek words
                             Bios = Life
                          Mimesis= imitate

       • Biomimicry operates on the principle that in its 3.8
         billion year history, nature has already found
         solutions to many problems we are trying to solve.

       • Biomimicry is multi-disciplinary subject involving
         wide diversity of other domains like architecture,
         electronics, medicines, biology, chemistry,
         mathematics etc.

15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                    VAISALI K
                                       INTRODUCTION    B070225AR
                                                                    4
15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE              VAISALI K
                                       CONCEPT   B070225AR
                                                              5
FLIGHT OF BIRD                        LEONARDO DA VINCI’S FLYING MACHINE




             AEROPLANE TODAY                    WRIGHT BROTHER’S FIRST PROTOTYPE


15-11-2011      BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                               VAISALI K
                                          CONCEPT                    B070225AR
                                                                                     6
GECKO TAPE




             Inspiration                    Precedence                Product

                              SHARKLET TECHNOLOGIES




                Inspiration              Precedence             Textiles            Surfaces

15-11-2011     BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                           VAISALI K
                                                      CONCEPT                   B070225AR
                                                                                               7
HOW DID IT BEGIN?
       • American biophysicist and
         polymath.

       • Coined the term Biomimetics in
         1950’s.

       • Developed Schmitt trigger by
         studying the nerves in squid.

       • Attempted to engineer a device
         that replicated the system of
         nerve propagation.

                                                   Otto Schmitt (1913-1998)

15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                               VAISALI K
                                          BACKGROUND              B070225AR
                                                                               8
HOW DID IT BEGIN?
   • American writer and scientific observer
     from Montana.

   • Wrote the book “Biomimicry: Innovation
     Inspired by Nature” in 1997

   • The books gives an insight on how
     significant biomimicry is in shaping the
     future.

   • In 1998 she co-founded the Biomimicry
     Guild which helps inform , inspire and
     empower the bridging of nature’s wisdom        Janine M. Benyus (b 1958)
     with human knowledge.


15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                               VAISALI K
                                           BACKGROUND             B070225AR
                                                                                9
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY

                       There are two approaches to Biomimetic design




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                    VAISALI K
                                       APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY       B070225AR
                                                                                    10
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY
                                       DESIGN TO BIOLOGY

                                                                    •   More fuel efficient due to
                                                                        aerodynamic body mimicking
                                                                        BOX FISH

                                                                    •   More material efficient due
                             The approach requires designers to identify problems
                                                                    to mimicking tree growth
                             and biologists to match these to organismsform structure.
                                                                    patterns that have
                                              solved similar issues.The car not new approach to
                                                                 •
                                                                        transportation but
                                                                        improvement to existing
                                                                        technology


                        DaimlerChrysler’s Bionic Car


15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                              VAISALI K
                                        APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY                B070225AR
                                                                                                      11
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY
                                        BIOLOGY TO DESIGN
                                                              •   Lotus flower emerges clean
                                                                  from swampy waters.

                                                              •   Lotusan paint enables
                                                                  buildings to be self cleaning.

                         The approach requires to have relevant biological or
                                                           • Biology can influence
                                                             humans in ways outside
                        ecological knowledge and research rather than design
                                                             predetermined design
                                              problem        problem.

                                                              •   This will result in previously
                                                                  unthought-of technologies or
                                                                  systems or approach to
                                                                  design solutions.
                    Lotus inspired’s Lotusan Paint

15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                            VAISALI K
                                       APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY               B070225AR
                                                                                                   12
PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                               VAISALI K
                                       PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                               13
PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY
      •      Nature runs on sunlight.

      •      Nature uses only the energy it needs.

      •      Nature fits form to function.

      •      Nature recycles everything.

      •      Nature rewards cooperation.

      •      Nature banks on diversity.

      •      Nature demands local expertise.

      •      Nature curbs excesses from within.

      •      Nature taps the power of limits

15-11-2011      BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                  VAISALI K
                                             PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                                     14
NATURE AS A MODEL




             NATURE AS A MEASURE




             NATURE AS A MENTOR




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                               VAISALI K
                                       PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                               15
STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMCRY

                                                              Biologize the
                                                              question: ask
                                                             Develop a design
                                                              from nature’s
                                                             brief of human
                                                              perspective.
                                                              Find the
                                                             needs ideas
                                                             Develop
                                                              repeating
                                                             Look for
                                                             and solutions
                                                             Evaluate the
                                                             based on and
                                                              patterns the
                                                             champions in
                                                             design against
                                                              processes within
                                                             naturalwho solve
                                                             nature model
                                                             Life’s Principles
                                                              nature that
                                                             the challlenges
                                                              achieve success




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                          VAISALI K
                                       STEPS TO BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                          16
LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY
                 ORGANISM LEVEL




                 BEHAVIOUR LEVEL




                 ECOSYSTEM LEVEL



15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                           VAISALI K
                                       LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                           17
Form/ process mimicry at ORGANISM LEVEL




      Waterloo International Terminal , London



15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                           VAISALI K
                                       LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                           19
Process/function mimicry at BEHAVIOUR LEVEL




Eastgate                                                                      Council
Centre ,                                                                      House 2,
Harare                                                                        Melbourne

   15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                           VAISALI K
                                          LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                                   21
Function mimicry at ECOSYSTEM LEVEL




   Mithūn Architects and GreenWorks Landscape
   Architecture
   Lloyd Crossing Project proposed for Portland,
   Oregon.

15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                           VAISALI K
                                       LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY   B070225AR
                                                                           23
WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?
         "Sustainable development is development that
         meets the needs of the present without
         compromising the ability of future generations to
         meet their own needs.”




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K
                                                                           B070225AR
                                                                                        24
CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K
                                                                           B070225AR
                                                                                        25
In order to tackle the issue of global climate change two approaches can
             be adopted:




                                     MITIGATION

                                     ADAPTATION



15-11-2011      BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K
                                                                              B070225AR
                                                                                           26
SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK
1. SITE & CLIMATE ANALYSIS: analysing site, orientation, exposure, climate,
topographical factors, local constraints and natural resources

2. FLEXIBLE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: investigating structural characters,
permanence/temporariness, integration with building components, etc

3. RENEWABLE BUILDING MATERIALS: analysing efficiency of a material or a
product, size, standardization, structural adequacy, complexity,
appropriateness, cost, labour involved, plantation origin, method of growth,
embodied energy, recycled and reused content, toxicity, etc.

4. BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: control of energy flows that enter (or leave)
an enclosed volume, including consideration of orientation, seasonal
variations, surrounding environment, function, and typology.

 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K
                                                                            B070225AR
                                                                                         27
5. MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEMS: construction and assembling methods to
facilitate substitution, repair, maintenance, diversified lifetime, etc.

6. RENEWABLE & NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS: integrating sources
of energy that do not reduce or exhaust their point of origin;

7. INNOVATIVE HVAC SYSTEMS: implementing strategies to provide thermo-
hygrometric and air quality comfort, exploiting mechanically regulated, hybrid,
or, preferably, totally passive techniques;

8. WATER COLLECTION & STORAGE SYSTEMS: adopting methods, system and
strategies to collect, store, distribute, use, recycle and re-use water.




 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K
                                                                            B070225AR
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15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K
                                                                           B070225AR
                                                                                        29
EXAMPLE-           COUNCIL HOUSE 2
Architecture (CH2), Mick Pearce with DesignInc., 2005
Maximum Six Green Star
rating




  15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                   VAISALI K
                                            CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                     30
“DIVERSIFY AND COOPERATE TO FULLY USE THE HABITAT”



     Same amount of
     foliage on the
     building as original
    Harvests site
     state of
    sunlight, cool
    night air, water,
    wind of natural
     Use and rain
     convection,
     thermal mass,
     ventilation
     stacks and water
     for cooling


 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K
                                        CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                 31
“USE WASTE AS RESOURCES”




 Sustainable timber selection
                                                     Recycled structural
                                                     concrete




                                                       PVC minimisation
Recycled structural steel
  15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                      VAISALI K
                                         CASESTUDY         B070225AR
                                                                           32
“USE WASTE AS RESOURCES”
 Use waste as amenities




                                        Recycled
                                        Untreated
                                        from old
                                        housing
                                        frames




 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                      VAISALI K
                                              CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                       33
“GATHER AND USE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY”


                                        Gas-fired
micro-turbine (co-generation)                                    Electricity
                                          micro-
                                         turbine
lifts  generate power in breaking                  Waste heat             Used in A/C
mode                                                                          plant
                                                                           Heating hot
solar hot water produced by 48
                                                                             water;
square metres of solar hot water
panels on roof, supplemented by gas                                        cooling via
boiler                                                                     absorption
                                                                             chiller
solar power (PV cells) : 3.5kW
energy  used to power Western
timber shutters



 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                    VAISALI K
                                          CASESTUDY                     B070225AR
                                                                                     34
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”




 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K
                                        CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                 35
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”




 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K
                                        CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                 36
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”




 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K
                                        CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                 37
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE”




 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K
                                        CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                 38
“DON’T DRAW DOWN RESOURCES”




  Water
 • 72% reduction in mains water consumption
 compared to the existing Council House of similar
 size
 • Multi-Water Reuse (MWR) sewer mining plant
 • Sprinkler water reclaim and rainwater collection

  Waste
 • building waste during construction was recycled
 (87%)
 • recycling carried through within building after
 operations  waste separation




 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                         VAISALI K
                                                 CASESTUDY   B070225AR
                                                                          39
ANALYSIS




15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE               VAISALI K
                                       ANALYSIS   B070225AR
                                                               40
Materials                                                                                       Level of
Name of building      Inspiration                            Application in design                     Problem solved
                                     used                                                                                         Biomimicry
                                                         The outward flares at base resemble
                                                                                                        Can withstand bending
                                                         the upper curved portion of femur.
                                                                                                        and shearing effects
                                    Exposed              The internal wrought iron braces
1.Eiffel Tower        Thigh bone
                                    iron                 closely follow design of original
                                                                                                        due to wind
                                                                                                        Ventilation problem       Organism level
                                                         trabeculae within femur.
                                                                                                        solved

                                                                                                  Controls the amount of
                                                                                                  sunlight entering the
                                    Steel, glass
2.L’institute Du                                   Cladded with screens with automated lens to    building, keeping it cool and
                      Iris of eye   &                                                                                             Organism level
Monte Arabe                                        control light                                  flooding room with natural
                                    Aluminium
                                                                                                  light.


3.Waterloo                                         The glass panel fixing that makes up the       Ability to move in response
                                    Steel &        structure mimic the flexible scale             to the imposed air pressure
International         Pangolin
                                    glass          arrangement of Pangolin.                       forces when trains enter and
                                                                                                                                  Organism level
Terminal                                                                                          depart.
                                                         The building is designed with a unique
                                                         ventilation system, which draws
                                                         outside air and cools or warms it
                                                                                                  Temperature remains
                                                         depending on temperature.
                                                                                                  regulated all year around
4. Eastgate Centre,   Termite                            The central open space draws more air
                                    Concrete                                                      without using conventional      Behaviour level
Harare                mound                              with help of fans and is pushed up
                                                                                                  air-conditioning or heating
                                                         through ducts located in the central
                                                                                                  systems.
                                                         spine of the buildings,
Inspiratio     Materials                                                                               Level of
Name of building                                        Application in design               Problem solved
                       n           used                                                                                 Biomimicry
                                                                                            Protects spectators
                                                                                            from elements
                                                                                            Provides acoustic
                                              “Cushion system” adopted where façade is
                                                                                            insulation,
5.Beijing                        Steel,       in-filled with translucent ETFE panels just
                   Bird’s nest                                                              Reduces maintenance        Behaviour Level
National Stadium                 ETFE         like a nest is insulated by small pieces of
                                                                                            cost
                                              material.
                                                                                            Reduces dead load,
                                                                                            Filters sun rays


                                                                                            The epidermis provides
                                                    CH2 uses ventilation strategy similar
                                                                                            primary sun and glare
                                                    to termite mould using natural
                                                                                            control while creating
                                                    convention, ventilation stacks,
                                                                                            a semi-closed micro-
                                                    thermal mass, phase change material
                                                                                            environment.
                                                    and water for cooling
                                                                                            The wavy design helps
                                                    The façade is composed of dermis
                                                                                            it efficient collection
                                                    and epidermis, which provides
                                                                                            and channelling out of
                                                    microclimate
                                 Concrete,                                                  heated air.
6. Council House   Termite                          Ventilation stacks are implemented
                                 recycled                                                   The vaulted ceiling also   Behaviour level
2, Melbourne       mound                            on the north and south facades of the
                                 timber                                                     allow more filtration of
                                                    building
                                                                                            natural light to the
                                                    The ceilings are wavy shaped to
                                                                                            deeper parts of the
                                                    optimise surface area to increase
                                                                                            space.
                                                    thermal mass capacity
                                                                                            Shower towers provide
                                                    The west façade is covered with
                                                                                            a reduction of 4-13
                                                    system of timber louvers to optimize
                                                                                            degrees C from the top
                                                    the penetration of natural light and
                                                                                            of the tower to the
                                                    views.
                                                                                            bottom.
Name of                       Materials                                                                                         Level of
                   Inspiration                             Application in design                       Problem solved
    building                       used                                                                                           Biomimicry

                                                                                                        Minimum possible
                                                                                                        energy used in the
7. Sinosteel                                                                                            form of conventional
                                 Concrete,       The windows are designed in five different
                                                                                                        energy.
International      Bee hive      steel and       sizes of hexagon, placed in an energy-
                                                                                                        The skin removes the
                                                                                                                                  Organism level
Plaza                            glass           efficient configuration.
                                                                                                        need for internal
                                                                                                        structures


                                                       The exterior designs as living skin
                                                       which serves connection between                  Electricity not
                                                       exterior and interior, like stomata on           required during day
                                                       leaf surface.                                    Air and wind filtered
                   Stomata of    Designed as           The surface automatically positions              to provide clean air
8. Habitat 2020    leaves        living skin           itself according to the sunlight and let         and natural air
                                                                                                                                  Organism level
                                                       it in                                            conditioned
                                                       Surface absorbs water and converts               Recycling of water air
                                                       waste to biogas energy                           and waste


                                                       The building sits on 12 columns to
                                 Tensile               allow other species to develop around
                                                                                                  Effective air conditioning at
9. Rafflesia       Rafflesia     environment           it, trying to change traditional
                                                                                                  independent zones               Behaviour level
House              flower        ally friendly         definitions of its characteristics.
                                 fabric                Concave and convex internal walls to
                                                       regulate flow of air inside.

10. National                                                                                      The bubbles collect solar
                                                 The surface is covered with membrane of lit
                   Water         Steel,                                                            energy to heat swimming          Organism
Aquatics Centre,   bubbles       ETFE
                                                 blue bubbles or pneumatic cushions made of
                                                                                                   pools.                             level
Beijing                                          EFTE creating bubble effect
                                                                                                  Temperature regulation
Material                                                                                       Level of
Name of building   Inspiration                      Application in design                     Problem solved
                                   s used                                                                                      Biomimicry
                                                                                        Its aerodynamic, Glazed shape
                                                   Using a series of triangulations
                                                                                        minimizes wind loads and
                                                   on the exterior similar to those
                                                                                        maximizes natural light and
                                                   of a glass sponge
                                                                                        ventilation, reducing the building's
11. Swiss Re                                       The building ventilates air in a
                                                                                        energy consumption
                                  Steel &          similar fashion just like glass
Headquarters,      Glass sponge
                                  glass            sponge filters nutrients from the
                                                                                        Triangulations on the exterior         Organism level
London                                                                                  similar to those of a glass sponge
                                                   water by sucking water from its
                                                                                        makes the structure stiff enough to
                                                   base and expelling it through the
                                                                                        resist lateral structural loads
                                                   holes at its top
                                                                                        without extra reinforcements.


                                                                                        It uses minimal construction
                                                   The southern façade would be         materials, while making maximum
                                                   made of photovoltaic panels that     use of the enclosed space.
12.Treescraper                                     convert sunlight into electricity.    All of the water in the building is
                   Growing of     Steel &          A combined heat-and-power            recycled.
Tower of           tree           glass            plant installed, to be fuelled by    All products, from building            Behaviour level
Tomorrow                                           natural gas, to supply the power     materials to furnishings, could be
                                                   that the solar panels cannot.        recycled or returned safely to the
                                                                                        earth


                                             Sun shades on the windows can be
                                             opened or closed to suit the prevailing
13. Ministry of                              temperature , mimicking the activity of    Temperature regulated.
                                  Steel &
Municipal and      Cactus plant
                                  glass
                                             the cactus which performs                  Absorption and loss of heat            Behaviour level
Agriculture                                  transpiration at night rather than         controlled.
                                             during the day in order to retain water.
•Buildinginspired by plants /flower:
                 Self-sustainable
                 Energy efficient
                 Recycling
                 Aesthetically appealing
                 Low maintenance
•Building inspired by organisms:
                 Resistant to imposed forces
                 Structural stability
                 Controlled entry of sunlight
                 Regulation of internal temperature
                 Aesthetics
                 Acoustics
•Buildings inspired by natural forms:
                  Effective channelling of wind
                  Increase thermal mass capacity
                  Dynamic form
                  Acoustics.
                  Energy efficiency

  15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                         VAISALI K
                                                  INFERENCE   B070225AR
                                                                           45
APPLICATION



15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                  VAISALI K
                                       APPLICATION   B070225AR
                                                                  46
INDUSTRIAL BUILDING DESIGN
 • Large & clear unobstructed areas               • Triangulated exoskeleton or
                                                      frame inspired from glass
                                                      sponge, thigh bone ,beehive
  • Proper lighting ( Natural and Artificial)    • Louvers, living skin which
                                                      etc. or
                                                  • can regulate entry of span
                                                      load distribution& long
                                                     daylight inspired from or
                                                      inspired by water lily
                                                     stomata fly leave or
                                                      dragon of wings
  • Ventilation                                  • • Cushion effect of Birds nest,
                                                 • Irissystem which utilises
                                                      A of eye
                                                     ventilation mechanism of
                                                      resources available locally
                                                     termite moulds, embedded
                                                      with minimum
  • Acoustical treatment                         • Curved walls recycles for
                                                      energy and ceilings to
                                                     channelling like growth of
                                                      maximum air.
                                                 • Cushion effect of Birds nest,
                                                      tree or
                                                     two layer skin( dermis and
                                                   • emulate natural forms like
  • Energy-efficiency                                epidermis) to act as passive
                                                      termite mound for sound
                                                     buffer or to reduce cost and
                                                      systems insulation
15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE
                                                      energy consumption. K
                                                                         VAISALI
                                         APPLICATOIN                    B070225AR
                                                                                     47
CONCLUSION
To echo, listen, steward and immerse in nature




   Biomimicry presents itself as a basis, a foundation of a new research methodology instead of
   mere serendipity. Biomimicry has to be approached in a multi-disciplinary order of thought in
   order to understand the principles of nature to achieve a holistic design solution.

  15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                              VAISALI K
                                                 CONCLUSION                        B070225AR
                                                                                                   48
CONCLUSION




              For nature has been field-tested for millions of years through evolution




 15-11-2011    BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                                                    VAISALI K
                                                   CONCLUSION                            B070225AR
                                                                                                      49

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BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE

  • 1. SEMINAR 2011-2012 Vaisali K B070225AR
  • 2. CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION o INTRODUCTION o BACKGROUND o APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY o PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY o STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMICRY o LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY o SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY o CASESTUDY o ANALYSIS o INFERENCE o APPLICATION o CONCLUSION 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONTENTS B070225AR 2
  • 3. WHAT IS BIOMIMETICS? Biomimetics is the term used to describe the substances, equipment, mechanism and systems by which humans imitate natural systems and designs. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K INTRODUCTION B070225AR 3
  • 4. • Biomimicry originates from two Greek words Bios = Life Mimesis= imitate • Biomimicry operates on the principle that in its 3.8 billion year history, nature has already found solutions to many problems we are trying to solve. • Biomimicry is multi-disciplinary subject involving wide diversity of other domains like architecture, electronics, medicines, biology, chemistry, mathematics etc. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K INTRODUCTION B070225AR 4
  • 5. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCEPT B070225AR 5
  • 6. FLIGHT OF BIRD LEONARDO DA VINCI’S FLYING MACHINE AEROPLANE TODAY WRIGHT BROTHER’S FIRST PROTOTYPE 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCEPT B070225AR 6
  • 7. GECKO TAPE Inspiration Precedence Product SHARKLET TECHNOLOGIES Inspiration Precedence Textiles Surfaces 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCEPT B070225AR 7
  • 8. HOW DID IT BEGIN? • American biophysicist and polymath. • Coined the term Biomimetics in 1950’s. • Developed Schmitt trigger by studying the nerves in squid. • Attempted to engineer a device that replicated the system of nerve propagation. Otto Schmitt (1913-1998) 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K BACKGROUND B070225AR 8
  • 9. HOW DID IT BEGIN? • American writer and scientific observer from Montana. • Wrote the book “Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature” in 1997 • The books gives an insight on how significant biomimicry is in shaping the future. • In 1998 she co-founded the Biomimicry Guild which helps inform , inspire and empower the bridging of nature’s wisdom Janine M. Benyus (b 1958) with human knowledge. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K BACKGROUND B070225AR 9
  • 10. APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY There are two approaches to Biomimetic design 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY B070225AR 10
  • 11. APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY DESIGN TO BIOLOGY • More fuel efficient due to aerodynamic body mimicking BOX FISH • More material efficient due The approach requires designers to identify problems to mimicking tree growth and biologists to match these to organismsform structure. patterns that have solved similar issues.The car not new approach to • transportation but improvement to existing technology DaimlerChrysler’s Bionic Car 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY B070225AR 11
  • 12. APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY BIOLOGY TO DESIGN • Lotus flower emerges clean from swampy waters. • Lotusan paint enables buildings to be self cleaning. The approach requires to have relevant biological or • Biology can influence humans in ways outside ecological knowledge and research rather than design predetermined design problem problem. • This will result in previously unthought-of technologies or systems or approach to design solutions. Lotus inspired’s Lotusan Paint 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY B070225AR 12
  • 13. PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 13
  • 14. PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY • Nature runs on sunlight. • Nature uses only the energy it needs. • Nature fits form to function. • Nature recycles everything. • Nature rewards cooperation. • Nature banks on diversity. • Nature demands local expertise. • Nature curbs excesses from within. • Nature taps the power of limits 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 14
  • 15. NATURE AS A MODEL NATURE AS A MEASURE NATURE AS A MENTOR 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 15
  • 16. STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMCRY Biologize the question: ask Develop a design from nature’s brief of human perspective. Find the needs ideas Develop repeating Look for and solutions Evaluate the based on and patterns the champions in design against processes within naturalwho solve nature model Life’s Principles nature that the challlenges achieve success 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K STEPS TO BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 16
  • 17. LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY ORGANISM LEVEL BEHAVIOUR LEVEL ECOSYSTEM LEVEL 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 17
  • 18.
  • 19. Form/ process mimicry at ORGANISM LEVEL Waterloo International Terminal , London 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 19
  • 20.
  • 21. Process/function mimicry at BEHAVIOUR LEVEL Eastgate Council Centre , House 2, Harare Melbourne 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 21
  • 22.
  • 23. Function mimicry at ECOSYSTEM LEVEL Mithūn Architects and GreenWorks Landscape Architecture Lloyd Crossing Project proposed for Portland, Oregon. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 23
  • 24. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 24
  • 25. CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 25
  • 26. In order to tackle the issue of global climate change two approaches can be adopted: MITIGATION ADAPTATION 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 26
  • 27. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK 1. SITE & CLIMATE ANALYSIS: analysing site, orientation, exposure, climate, topographical factors, local constraints and natural resources 2. FLEXIBLE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: investigating structural characters, permanence/temporariness, integration with building components, etc 3. RENEWABLE BUILDING MATERIALS: analysing efficiency of a material or a product, size, standardization, structural adequacy, complexity, appropriateness, cost, labour involved, plantation origin, method of growth, embodied energy, recycled and reused content, toxicity, etc. 4. BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: control of energy flows that enter (or leave) an enclosed volume, including consideration of orientation, seasonal variations, surrounding environment, function, and typology. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 27
  • 28. 5. MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEMS: construction and assembling methods to facilitate substitution, repair, maintenance, diversified lifetime, etc. 6. RENEWABLE & NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS: integrating sources of energy that do not reduce or exhaust their point of origin; 7. INNOVATIVE HVAC SYSTEMS: implementing strategies to provide thermo- hygrometric and air quality comfort, exploiting mechanically regulated, hybrid, or, preferably, totally passive techniques; 8. WATER COLLECTION & STORAGE SYSTEMS: adopting methods, system and strategies to collect, store, distribute, use, recycle and re-use water. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 28
  • 29. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 29
  • 30. EXAMPLE- COUNCIL HOUSE 2 Architecture (CH2), Mick Pearce with DesignInc., 2005 Maximum Six Green Star rating 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 30
  • 31. “DIVERSIFY AND COOPERATE TO FULLY USE THE HABITAT” Same amount of foliage on the building as original Harvests site state of sunlight, cool night air, water, wind of natural Use and rain convection, thermal mass, ventilation stacks and water for cooling 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 31
  • 32. “USE WASTE AS RESOURCES” Sustainable timber selection Recycled structural concrete PVC minimisation Recycled structural steel 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 32
  • 33. “USE WASTE AS RESOURCES” Use waste as amenities Recycled Untreated from old housing frames 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 33
  • 34. “GATHER AND USE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY” Gas-fired micro-turbine (co-generation) Electricity micro- turbine lifts  generate power in breaking Waste heat Used in A/C mode plant Heating hot solar hot water produced by 48 water; square metres of solar hot water panels on roof, supplemented by gas cooling via boiler absorption chiller solar power (PV cells) : 3.5kW energy  used to power Western timber shutters 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 34
  • 35. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 35
  • 36. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 36
  • 37. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 37
  • 38. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 38
  • 39. “DON’T DRAW DOWN RESOURCES” Water • 72% reduction in mains water consumption compared to the existing Council House of similar size • Multi-Water Reuse (MWR) sewer mining plant • Sprinkler water reclaim and rainwater collection Waste • building waste during construction was recycled (87%) • recycling carried through within building after operations  waste separation 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 39
  • 40. ANALYSIS 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K ANALYSIS B070225AR 40
  • 41. Materials Level of Name of building Inspiration Application in design Problem solved used Biomimicry The outward flares at base resemble Can withstand bending the upper curved portion of femur. and shearing effects Exposed The internal wrought iron braces 1.Eiffel Tower Thigh bone iron closely follow design of original due to wind Ventilation problem Organism level trabeculae within femur. solved Controls the amount of sunlight entering the Steel, glass 2.L’institute Du Cladded with screens with automated lens to building, keeping it cool and Iris of eye & Organism level Monte Arabe control light flooding room with natural Aluminium light. 3.Waterloo The glass panel fixing that makes up the Ability to move in response Steel & structure mimic the flexible scale to the imposed air pressure International Pangolin glass arrangement of Pangolin. forces when trains enter and Organism level Terminal depart. The building is designed with a unique ventilation system, which draws outside air and cools or warms it Temperature remains depending on temperature. regulated all year around 4. Eastgate Centre, Termite The central open space draws more air Concrete without using conventional Behaviour level Harare mound with help of fans and is pushed up air-conditioning or heating through ducts located in the central systems. spine of the buildings,
  • 42. Inspiratio Materials Level of Name of building Application in design Problem solved n used Biomimicry Protects spectators from elements Provides acoustic “Cushion system” adopted where façade is insulation, 5.Beijing Steel, in-filled with translucent ETFE panels just Bird’s nest Reduces maintenance Behaviour Level National Stadium ETFE like a nest is insulated by small pieces of cost material. Reduces dead load, Filters sun rays The epidermis provides CH2 uses ventilation strategy similar primary sun and glare to termite mould using natural control while creating convention, ventilation stacks, a semi-closed micro- thermal mass, phase change material environment. and water for cooling The wavy design helps The façade is composed of dermis it efficient collection and epidermis, which provides and channelling out of microclimate Concrete, heated air. 6. Council House Termite Ventilation stacks are implemented recycled The vaulted ceiling also Behaviour level 2, Melbourne mound on the north and south facades of the timber allow more filtration of building natural light to the The ceilings are wavy shaped to deeper parts of the optimise surface area to increase space. thermal mass capacity Shower towers provide The west façade is covered with a reduction of 4-13 system of timber louvers to optimize degrees C from the top the penetration of natural light and of the tower to the views. bottom.
  • 43. Name of Materials Level of Inspiration Application in design Problem solved building used Biomimicry Minimum possible energy used in the 7. Sinosteel form of conventional Concrete, The windows are designed in five different energy. International Bee hive steel and sizes of hexagon, placed in an energy- The skin removes the Organism level Plaza glass efficient configuration. need for internal structures The exterior designs as living skin which serves connection between Electricity not exterior and interior, like stomata on required during day leaf surface. Air and wind filtered Stomata of Designed as The surface automatically positions to provide clean air 8. Habitat 2020 leaves living skin itself according to the sunlight and let and natural air Organism level it in conditioned Surface absorbs water and converts Recycling of water air waste to biogas energy and waste The building sits on 12 columns to Tensile allow other species to develop around Effective air conditioning at 9. Rafflesia Rafflesia environment it, trying to change traditional independent zones Behaviour level House flower ally friendly definitions of its characteristics. fabric Concave and convex internal walls to regulate flow of air inside. 10. National The bubbles collect solar The surface is covered with membrane of lit Water Steel, energy to heat swimming Organism Aquatics Centre, bubbles ETFE blue bubbles or pneumatic cushions made of pools. level Beijing EFTE creating bubble effect Temperature regulation
  • 44. Material Level of Name of building Inspiration Application in design Problem solved s used Biomimicry Its aerodynamic, Glazed shape Using a series of triangulations minimizes wind loads and on the exterior similar to those maximizes natural light and of a glass sponge ventilation, reducing the building's 11. Swiss Re The building ventilates air in a energy consumption Steel & similar fashion just like glass Headquarters, Glass sponge glass sponge filters nutrients from the Triangulations on the exterior Organism level London similar to those of a glass sponge water by sucking water from its makes the structure stiff enough to base and expelling it through the resist lateral structural loads holes at its top without extra reinforcements. It uses minimal construction The southern façade would be materials, while making maximum made of photovoltaic panels that use of the enclosed space. 12.Treescraper convert sunlight into electricity. All of the water in the building is Growing of Steel & A combined heat-and-power recycled. Tower of tree glass plant installed, to be fuelled by All products, from building Behaviour level Tomorrow natural gas, to supply the power materials to furnishings, could be that the solar panels cannot. recycled or returned safely to the earth Sun shades on the windows can be opened or closed to suit the prevailing 13. Ministry of temperature , mimicking the activity of Temperature regulated. Steel & Municipal and Cactus plant glass the cactus which performs Absorption and loss of heat Behaviour level Agriculture transpiration at night rather than controlled. during the day in order to retain water.
  • 45. •Buildinginspired by plants /flower: Self-sustainable Energy efficient Recycling Aesthetically appealing Low maintenance •Building inspired by organisms: Resistant to imposed forces Structural stability Controlled entry of sunlight Regulation of internal temperature Aesthetics Acoustics •Buildings inspired by natural forms:  Effective channelling of wind  Increase thermal mass capacity  Dynamic form  Acoustics.  Energy efficiency 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K INFERENCE B070225AR 45
  • 46. APPLICATION 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPLICATION B070225AR 46
  • 47. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING DESIGN • Large & clear unobstructed areas • Triangulated exoskeleton or frame inspired from glass sponge, thigh bone ,beehive • Proper lighting ( Natural and Artificial) • Louvers, living skin which etc. or • can regulate entry of span load distribution& long daylight inspired from or inspired by water lily stomata fly leave or dragon of wings • Ventilation • • Cushion effect of Birds nest, • Irissystem which utilises A of eye ventilation mechanism of resources available locally termite moulds, embedded with minimum • Acoustical treatment • Curved walls recycles for energy and ceilings to channelling like growth of maximum air. • Cushion effect of Birds nest, tree or two layer skin( dermis and • emulate natural forms like • Energy-efficiency epidermis) to act as passive termite mound for sound buffer or to reduce cost and systems insulation 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE energy consumption. K VAISALI APPLICATOIN B070225AR 47
  • 48. CONCLUSION To echo, listen, steward and immerse in nature Biomimicry presents itself as a basis, a foundation of a new research methodology instead of mere serendipity. Biomimicry has to be approached in a multi-disciplinary order of thought in order to understand the principles of nature to achieve a holistic design solution. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCLUSION B070225AR 48
  • 49. CONCLUSION For nature has been field-tested for millions of years through evolution 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCLUSION B070225AR 49