Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                          ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)...
FROM THE DESK OF MANAGING EDITORIt is my pleasure to acknowledge you about the international journal of CommerceManagement...
TABLE OF CONTENTSS. No                                        Contents                                     Page           ...
Patron                                        Mrs. Geeta Misra                                    Managing Editor         ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                 ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)         ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                      ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)    ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                      ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)    ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                 ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)        D...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences             ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)             ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences              ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)        Extr...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                   ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)       ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                   ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)       ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                      ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)    ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                  ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)        ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                      ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)    ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                     ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)     ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                             ISSN- 2320-0626 (Onli...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                   ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)       ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                 ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)         ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                 ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)         ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                     ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)     ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                     ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)     ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                  ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)        ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                    ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)      ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                  ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)        ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                     ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)     ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                        ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)  ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                     ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)     ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                                  ISSN- 2320-0626 ...
Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences                     ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)     ...
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences
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Astitva international journal of commerce management and social sciences

  1. 1. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) A Journal of International Repute By: Astitva Consultancy Services Volume 1, No. 1, December 2012 Address: 5/869, Vikas Nagar, Lucknow E- mail: publications@astitvaonline.co.in, Website: www.astitvajournals.astitvaonline.co.in
  2. 2. FROM THE DESK OF MANAGING EDITORIt is my pleasure to acknowledge you about the international journal of CommerceManagement and Social Sciences, which is the platform for research & development practicesto all respected professors, lecturers, researchers & eminent scholars. Our journal focuses oncore competencies as well as some methodological and industrial practices adopted in themodern era.As I think about research, it is sure that I consider three distinguished formats:1. Research paper2. Research article3. Review paperWe will like to have a high impact papers with extensive research methods along with testing aswell as statistical analysis which is quite necessary for the sake of development in the industrialpractices adopted by the industrialists. Really these types of working will carry out a betterconclusion & findings for the upcoming global business scenario.We will also appreciate the case studies which include critical analysis by doing thoroughinvestigation of cases and come to know about proper findings & recommendations.In last, I on behalf of our journal will say welcome to all to our journal which is devoted &dedicated to the research in the field of Commerce Management and Social Sciences.Thank YouAnand BajpaiManaging Editor
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSS. No Contents Page No. 1 Editorial Board 4 2 Copyrights and Disclaimer 5 3 Company Overview 6 4 An Empirical Evaluation of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management for 7 Organizational Sustainability Dr. Anli Suresh 5 The Study of Reasons of Stress among Human Capital in Delhi 19 Mr. Vaibhav Misra 6 An Empirical Study on Attitudes of B. Tech Students towards E-Learning 29 Ms. Akansha Misra 7 The Theoretical Study of Lying and Micro Expressions 46 Abhijatya Dhar and Dr. Vandana Shriharsh 8 How to Solve Case Study 60 Jatin Tekriwal 9 Guidelines for the Author 62
  4. 4. Patron Mrs. Geeta Misra Managing Editor Mr. Anand Bajpai Editorial BoardDr. Vandana Shriharsh Dr. R VenkataramanExecutive Director- Astitva Consultancy ProfessorServices Department of Management Studies& Assistant Professor Presidency Business SchoolDepartment of Psychology Bangalore, IndiaAmity UniversityNoida, IndiaDr. Anli Suresh Dr. Suman PathakAssistant Professor Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Commerce School of Business ManagementMadras Christian College Sharda UniversityChennai, India Greater Noida, IndiaDistinguished Fellow Global StrategicManagement Inc.Michigan, USADr. Ratna Vadra Dr. Aaruni Saxena, MD, PhDAssistant Professor- Economics and Institute of PharmacologyInternational Business University of Duesseldorf Duesseldorf, GermanyInstitute of Management and TechnologyGhaziabad, India
  5. 5. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) COPYRIGHTS AND DISCLAIMER The entire contents of the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences are protected under international copyrights. The Journal, however, grants to all users a free right of access to and permission to copy, the published articles. Important notice on reuse, reproduction or commercial use: 1. Contents of this site, partial or as a whole, should not be included in a framed web page. 2. Contents of this site, partial or as a whole, should not be included in a password protected site or a site which requires registration, even if free. 3. Contents of this site, partial or as a whole, should not be included in a site which charges for other contents but provides the content from this site for free. 4. For purchase of reprints, printable PDF or commercial reuse please contact managing editor of the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences (publications@astitvaonline.co.in) Neither the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences nor its publishers nor anyone else involved in creating, producing or delivering the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences (in printed, web or CD format) or the materials contained therein, assumes any liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information provided in the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences (in printed, web or CD format), nor shall they be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, consequential or punitive damages arising out of the use of the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences. All material published in the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences undergo a peer review to ensure fair balance, objectivity, independence, and relevance to educational need. Neither the editors of the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences, nor its publishers, nor any other party involved in the preparation of material contained in the Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences represent or warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete, and they are not responsible for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from the use of such material.
  6. 6. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) ASTITVA CONSULTANCY SERVICES- AN OVERVIEW Astitva Consultancy Services is a Human Capital Services and Research Oriented organization with a focus on providing Recruitment and Soft Skills Training and Research Consultancy to the client organization. Astitva Consultancy Services is one of the leading organizations based at Lucknow with the aim of providing overall human capital and research solutions to the institutes and organizations. The Astitva Consultancy Services provides recruitment in the domains such as- ITES/ BPO, FMCG, Telecommunication, Hospitality, Education and Software. Astitva Consultancy Services provides suitable candidates for specific permanent positions, according to the requirements communicated by the client. The client shall reserve the complete right and responsibility of establishing the eligibility of employment and subsequent employment of the prospected candidate/s. Astitva Consultancy Services provides suitable research consultancy concerning the different domains such as Marketing, Human Resource, Legal, and Financial consulting to the client organizations. The activities such as conducting the market research, data collection, report preparation and data analysis is conducted for the corporate. ABOUT ASTITVA INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMERCE MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences (AIJOCMSS), peer-reviewed and published bi-monthly, is committed to publishing scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles that have a high impact on the commerce, management and social sciences fields as a whole. Astitva International Journal of Commerce, Management and Social Sciences encourage new ideas or new perspectives on existing research. Manuscripts that are suitable for publication in Astitva International Journal of Commerce, Management and Social Sciences is not limited to any particular domains instead it covers domains such as commerce, marketing, information technology, financial management, psychology, sociology, business strategy and policy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational theory, and research methods. 6 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  7. 7. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) AN EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR ORGANIZATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY DR. ANLI SURESH Assistant Professor of Commerce Madras Christian College – Chennai anli.sgain@gmail.com ABSTRACT The rapidly changing business environment and the constant challenges it poses to organizations and businesses makes it imperative to continuously enhance knowledge and skill sets across the organization. Knowledge Management involves several strategies that an organization may use to educate, train, share experiences, document processes and procedures, distribute information, and keep that information up to date. However the success of knowledge management lies in the role played by the organization, the developers and the users themselves. A critical success factor is a performance area of critical importance in achieving consistently high productivity and sustainability. There are at least two broad categories of key success factors that are common to virtually all organizations: business processes and human processes. Both are crucial to building great companies. The focus of this paper is on the human process areas. Compared to the work on explicit knowledge, the management of tacit knowledge is relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how some factors are critical for the successful application of Knowledge Management (KM). This paper makes an exploratory study about Knowledge Management in practice at various organizations in Chennai and tries to identify the critical success factors. Based on various literatures review key factors for tacit knowledge management have been identified and the positive impact of tacit knowledge on organizational sustainability is analyzed. A survey was done among 160 stakeholders of various organizations in Chennai and based on their responses a factor analysis was carried out. The outcome of this empirical research provides indications on the leverages for the effective development and management of KM through Critical Success Factors (CSFs). The evaluation confirms the critical success factors, as dependent on both tacit and explicit knowledge sharing and interaction which play a significant role for Knowledge Management to thrive in an organization to enhance its sustainability. 7 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  8. 8. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Keywords: Critical Success Factors (CSFs), Knowledge Management (KM), Knowledge Transfer, Learning, Sharing, Sustainability. INTRODUCTION What is Knowledge? Knowledge is the basis for, and the driver of, our post-industrial economy. In todays economy, knowledge is people, money, leverage, learning, flexibility, power, and competitive advantage. Knowledge is the full utilization of information and data, coupled with the potential of peoples skills, competencies, ideas, intuitions, commitments and motivations. Knowledge is more relevant to sustained business than capital, labor or land. Nevertheless, it remains the most neglected asset. It is more than justified true belief and is essential for action, performance and adaption. Knowledge provides the ability to respond to novel situations. A holistic view considers knowledge to be present in ideas, judgments, talents, root causes, relationships, perspectives and concepts. Knowledge is stored in the individual brain or encoded in organizational processes, documents, products, services, facilities and systems. Knowledge is the result of learning which provides the only sustainable competitive advantage. Knowledge is action, focused innovation, pooled expertise, special relationships and alliances. Knowledge is value-added behavior and activities. For knowledge to be of value it must be focused, current, tested and shared. Knowledge has been recognized as a key corporate asset and the only source of sustainable competitive advantage. Organizations today can effectively create knowledge and also utilize, manage and share that knowledge to sustain in the race for the top position. This is made easier with the advancement in internet and e-commerce technologies that enable companies to share knowledge easily and evaluate their intangible assets more accurately. What is Knowledge Management? Knowledge management is an audit of "intellectual assets" that highlights unique sources, critical functions and potential bottlenecks which hinder knowledge flows to the point of use. It protects intellectual assets from decay, seeks opportunities to enhance decisions, services and products through adding intelligence, increasing value and providing flexibility. Knowledge 8 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  9. 9. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) management complements and enhances other organizational initiatives such as total quality management (TQM), business process re-engineering (BPR) and organizational learning, providing a new and urgent focus to sustain competitive position. To serve customers well and remain in business companies must: reduce their cycle times, operate with minimum fixed assets and overhead (people, inventory and facilities), shorten product development time, improve customer service, empower employees, innovate and deliver high quality products, enhance flexibility and adaption, capture information, create knowledge, share and learn. None of this is possible without a continual focus on the creation, updating, availability, quality and use of knowledge by all employees and teams, at work and in the marketplace. The concept of knowledge management is to ensure that reinvention of the wheel does not take place, to ensure that one can build on what he learn from others and in the organizational context to ensure that the response time to adapt to environmental changes is reduced. In a highly competitive world where every unit of time is crucial and where every decision is strategic, it becomes imperative that an organizational repository of knowledge is generated and stored in an accessible place. Knowledge management is an essential part of strategic management process hence; organizations should undertake knowledge management programs. In doing so, they would gain competitive advantage that comes with improved or faster learning and new knowledge creation. KM programs may lead to greater innovation, better customer experiences, consistency in good practices and knowledge access across a global organization, as well as many other benefits. In the knowledge economy, organizations are no longer driven by their physical assets but by the value of their knowledge. In this paper an attempt is made to identify the critical success factors for KM to thrive in an organization to capture tacit knowledge of different stakeholders of the organization and make it explicit so that other employees can take advantage of it and an organization can enhance its sustainability. REVIEW OF LITERATURE According to a case study made by Goswami (2004) large organizations suffer from a lack of cohesiveness and duplicates efforts because they have scattered or virtual units, flexi-hours and work from home options. Moreover the employees working in such organizations suffer from lack of self-esteem and do not show loyalty. In such cases although a large amount of knowledge 9 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  10. 10. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) will be generated, it will not be put to proper use due to lack of connectivity. Hence knowledge dissemination will not take place. Kim et al, (2004) suggest that: the decision-making oriented approach is a valid way of identifying knowledge requirements. Interaction with others, as opposed to isolation is important if knowledge conversion is to take place Stover (2004, p. 167). Spring (2003) argued that transfer of tacit knowledge strongly depends on the distinction between face-to-face and arm’s length relationships. According to Cavusgil et al (2003) the closeness of the two partners are key to the degree of tacit knowledge transfer. Kochikar (2001) in his case study suggest that Infosys has conceived, developed and deployed internally an elaborate architecture for KM, that aims to take the company to a ‘Learn Once, Use Anywhere’ paradigm. The challenge is to create direct people-to-people sharing mechanism. Knowledge which is new to an organization has to either be invented internally, or acquired from external sources. There are two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Nonaka et al. (2000) and other authors such as Hall and Andriani (2002) describe explicit knowledge as what can be embodied in a code or a language and as a consequence it can be communicated, processed, transmitted and stored relatively easily. It can be shared in the form of data, scientific formulae, manuals and such like. In contrast, tacit knowledge is personal and hard to formalize – it is rooted in action, procedures, commitment, values and emotions etc. Tacit knowledge is not codified, it is not communicated in a ‘language’, and it is acquired by sharing experiences, by observation and imitation Hall & Andriani (2002). Tacit and explicit knowledge are complementary, which means both types of knowledge are essential to knowledge creation. Explicit knowledge without tacit insight quickly looses its meaning. Knowledge is created through interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge and not from either tacit or explicit knowledge alone (Nonaka et al. 2000). Davenport and Marchand (1999) suggest that: “whilst knowledge management does involve information management, beyond that it has two distinctive tasks: to facilitate the creation of new knowledge and to manage the way people share and apply it”. Prahlad and Hamel (1990) suggest that intellect clearly resides inside the firm’s human brains. Elements of knowledge, skills and understanding can also exist in the organization’s systems, databases or operating technologies. If properly matched, intellect in each form is both highly leverage able and protectable. 10 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  11. 11. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Murphy & Verma (2008) stated that, “As globalization and shifting demographics reshape competitive ground rules, companies that fail to treat knowledge management (KM) as an initiative of the highest importance will lose intellectual assets, suffer from employee turnover, exacerbate security threats, and ultimately lower valuations. It’s time for enterprises to exert control over KM and treat it as an issue of the highest order.” Knowledge Management programs are typically claimed to be tied to specific organizational objectives and are intended to lead to the achievement of specific targeted results such as improved performance, competitive advantage, or higher levels of innovation. Tacit knowledge is only known by an individual. The complexity is in finding a way of communicating it to the rest of an organization. It is personal knowledge that is rooted in individual experience, and involving personal belief, perspective and values. Explicit knowledge is knowledge that can be articulated, codified, and stored in certain media. Considering the tacit knowledge of an organization as one key for the efficiency of it, knowledge becomes a vital and tangible asset. To facilitate the sharing of knowledge thus can highly improve the efficiency of the whole organization by leveraging the existing knowledge. The implementation of a knowledge management process that aims to target, transfer and organize this knowledge is obviously especially important for companies that have to face a high number of people leaving and joining. In general Knowledge management comprises three main factors - designing learning cycles into all activities of an organization; developing ways of systematic applying new knowledge in the activities of the organization; and in the process finding ways to help convert the personal knowledge of individuals into organizational knowledge, and vice versa. Although these elements have been discussed at length in the extant literature on the subject, there have been no broad-based analyses of critical success factors for KM to thrive in an organization to capture tacit knowledge make it explicit and its relationship to one another to enhance its sustainability, and this gap in the literature is a serious deficiency for both organizations and researchers alike. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY To identify the critical success factors for KM to thrive in an organization to capture tacit knowledge of different stakeholders of the organization as customers, shareholders, employees, 11 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  12. 12. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) suppliers etc. and make it explicit so that other employees can take advantage of it and an organization can enhance its sustainability. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The methodology adopted is exploratory and descriptive based on the figures from the Primary data questionnaire from the sample size which consists of 160 respondents of various organizations in and around Chennai through simple random sampling. This sampling technique is an economical method for collecting data from a large geographical area. This method is cheaper and also faster. However, there is a chance of sampling error. This constraint was overcome by increasing the required sample size. Sampling unit for this research are managers from various selected industries. Questionnaire consisted of 25 factors which directly or indirectly influenced Knowledge Management also consists of statements asking the respondents’ to state their agreement/disagreement on the issues of knowledge management. Each question was scored using a five-point Likert scale. Secondary data collected from various books, journals, reviews and websites. After the data had been collected, it was processed & tabulated directly in to SPSS 17.0 Software. SPSS version 17.0 statistical software was used and the results obtained thereby have been analyzed and interpreted. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability was done to find out the reliability of the data. Data Analysis & Interpretation As predicted KM awareness is higher in IT companies. More than 90% respondents from IT companies are aware about Knowledge Management. Compare to that, 60% respondents from Pharma & Chemical, 80% respondents from Banking and Insurance, and 75% respondents from other industry are aware about knowledge management. This suggests that IT company executives are more aware about knowledge management than other industry executives. Here it can be observed that 70% of the respondents from IT industry are not only aware but also using KM concepts, which is significantly higher than of others. KM has been more popularized in last decade and more famous as an IT enabled concepts. Because of high employee turnover and organizational knowledge losses, first implementers of KM are IT organizations. The critical success factors of KM to thrive in an organization are validated by the findings. 12 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  13. 13. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Data Reliability The data reliability score alpha is 79.84% i.e. is approximated to 80% which is at an acceptable level. Table 1 - Re l i a b i l i t y An a l y s i s - Sc a l e (A L P H A) Reliability Coefficients N of Cases = 160.0 N of Items = 25 Alpha = .7984 Source: Primary Data Factor Analysis - Critical Success Factors Factor Analysis was done on the 25 factors that are believed to influence and promote knowledge management. These factors were selected after doing an extensive literature review. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted and the initial results of tests of sampling adequacy showed the following results. Table 2- KMO and Bartletts Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .884 Bartletts Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 4384.284 Df 136 Sig. .000** **Significant at the 0.01 level. Source: Primary Data A KMO score of 0.9 is an acceptable score and therefore factors with low KMO statistic values were dropped till the overall KMO rose to near about 0.9. Nine factors were dropped and factor analysis was done on the remaining 16 factors. 13 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  14. 14. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Table 3- Communalities Table Initial Extraction Improving competitive advantage 1.000 .992 Innovation and knowledge creation 1.000 .847 Employee development 1.000 .861 Cost reduction 1.000 .992 Revenue growth 1.000 .956 Faster response to key business issues 1.000 .970 Improving quality 1.000 .949 Improving delivery 1.000 .981 Changing people’s behaviour from knowledge hoarding to knowledge 1.000 .998 sharing Determining what kind of knowledge to be managed & making it 1.000 .856 available Willingness of employees to co-operate 1.000 .992 Overcoming technological limitations 1.000 .885 Attracting & retaining talented people 1.000 .996 Improving work culture 1.000 .949 Personal responsibility for knowledge 1.000 .959 Total Quality Management 1.000 .991 14 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  15. 15. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Source: Primary Data Table 4- Final Critical success factors towards KM Factor Statements Factor Eigen Cumulative Loading Value % of Variance 29.206 29.206 I – Quality Improving quality .865 Output Improving delivery .970 Overcoming technological limitations .871 II – Innovation and knowledge creation .782 28.205 57.412 Organizational Employee development .782 Adjustments Cost reduction .536 Faster response to key business issues .897 Attracting & retaining talented .924 people Total Quality Management .621 III - Changing people’s behaviour from .954 20.156 77.568 Leadership knowledge hoarding to knowledge sharing Improving competitive advantage .692 Determining what kind of knowledge .863 to be managed & making it available Personal responsibility for knowledge .864 IV – Culture Improving work culture .954 22.432 100 Revenue growth .759 Willingness of employees to co- -.970 operate Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 7 iterations. Source: Primary Data Interpretation 15 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  16. 16. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)  Component 1 comprises of ‘Improving quality’, ‘improving delivery’, and ‘Overcoming technological limitations’. This group maybe labeled as “Quality Output” which is expected both from the system developers and the users.  Component 2 comprises of ‘Innovation and knowledge creation’, ‘Employee development’, ‘Cost reduction’, ‘Faster response to key business issues’, ‘Attracting & retaining talented people’ and ‘Total Quality Management’. This group maybe labeled as “Organizational Adjustments” which is expected from the Top level management.  Component 3 comprises of ‘Changing people’s behaviour from knowledge hoarding to knowledge sharing’, ‘Improving competitive advantage’, ‘Determining what kind of knowledge to be managed & making it available’ and ‘Personal responsibility for knowledge’ . This group maybe labeled as “Leadership” which is expected from the Team leader.  Component 4 comprises of ‘Improving work culture’, ‘Willingness of employees to co- operate’ and ‘Revenue growth’. It is observed that Willingness of employees to co-operate shows a negative correlation, indicating that Willingness of employees to co-operate is not a prominent factor. This group maybe labeled as “Culture” which is expected from the Organization culture. Thus it can be concluded that for KM to thrive, the above mentioned critical success factors i.e. Quality Output, Organizational Adjustments, Leadership and Culture have to play a prominent role in an organization. CONCLUSION From the above findings of factor analysis one can observe that everybody seems to agree and believe in sharing and application of knowledge. However they disagree that the entire knowledge base of an employee can be easily transferred to another person or database. In conclusion it can be said that emphasis is being given on the critical success factors of Quality Output, Organizational Adjustments, Leadership and Culture identified in this study while formulating strategies. The ambience within the organization is that of willingness to share one’s own experience and learn from other’s experience. Knowledge dissemination and sharing is believed to lead to rich dividends but a direct link with profits is still not yet clear cut. Knowledge management is not an unknown phenomenon to organizations in India. With 16 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  17. 17. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) increase in information technology usage, many organizations have started KM initiatives in India. The identified CSFs through this outcome of this research of Knowledge management is a conscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping people share and put information into actions in ways that strive to improve organizational sustainability. SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH This work may form a basis for further research in the areas of knowledge management. Several recommendations for additional research have emerged naturally from the present study. Study of knowledge management in other industries will help practitioners and researchers to understand the diversity of knowledge management in different business environments. One question that requires further investigation is whether the findings of critical success factors in this study are specific to the organizations studied or if this is a general phenomenon, which can be observed in other organizations as well. Finally, even though the results of this study can be generalized to other sectors or industry, it is necessary to expand the study into a wider range of various industries and various management levels to see whether are there any differences between the findings of the study. It is hoped that the findings proposed in this study would help Indian companies to better organize their knowledge management activities, as well as helping the country to create wealth and a knowledgeable society. It is also hoped that additional research will be undertaken to build upon this work, and to further develop and enhance our knowledge on differences in knowledge management understanding between various industries. Further research should go towards the direction of empirical approximation using quantitative and qualitative analysis methods to explore the relevant tacit knowledge in companies, to build- up and sustain their competitive advantage. Therefore, it will be challenging to do further empirical research especially on the field of the transfer of tacit knowledge, to include both the transfer of tacit knowledge within the organization, and to only the relevant locations and individuals within the organization and transfer of tacit knowledge to only appropriate locations and individuals outside the organization. 17 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  18. 18. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) REFERENCES:  Cavusgil, S.T., Calantone, R.J., Zhao, Y. (2003): Tacit knowledge transfer and firm innovation capability, in: Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 18 (1), 6-21.  Davenport, T. H., and Marchard, D. (1999): Is KM just good information management, in: Financial Times Mastering Information Management Supplement, Financial Times, and London March 8th, 2-3.  Goswami Chandana, (2004). “Managing the Technical, Professional Workforce: Can Knowledge Management is the answer?” In: Managing Trade, Technology and Environment (M. Mallikarjun and Pawan K. Chugan Ed.), pp 362-372, Excel Books, India.  Hall, R., and Andriani, P. (2002): Managing knowledge for innovation, in: Long Range Planning, 35, 29-48.  Kim, S. K., Lim, S., and Mitchell, R. B. (2004) Building a knowledge model: a decision- making approach, [Online], Available: http://www.tlainc.com/articl68.htm [25 October 2010].  Kochikar V.P. (2001). “Creating the KM Infrastructure at Infosys: The Technology Challenge”; Management Review, Vol 13, No.4, pp 104-110.  Murphy, J & Verma, K 2008, Gaining the Knowledge Management Edge, Part 1: The Master Key to Business Growth, AMR Research - AMR-R-21767, Boston.  Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., Konno, N. (2000): SECI, the concept of ‘Ba’ and Leadership: a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation, in: Long Range Planning, 33(4), 4-34.  Prahlad C.K. and Gary Hamel, (1990). “The core competence of the Corporation”; Harvard Business Review, May-June, pp79-91.  Spring, M. (2003): Knowledge management in extended operations networks, in: Journal of  Knowledge Management, 7 (4), 29-37.  Stover, M. (2004): Making Tacit Knowledge explicit, in: Reference Services Review, 32 (2), 164-173. 18 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  19. 19. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) THE STUDY OF REASONS OF STRESS AMONG HUMAN CAPITAL IN DELHI Vaibhav Misra Management Consultant & Ex- Lecturer Bora Institute of Management Sciences- Lucknow vaibhav.misra@aol.in E-mail: vaibhav.misra@aol.in ABSTRACT The author emphasized on Organizational Stress in this study. The author focused that what are the reason that causes stress and also studied about the relationship of the reason between the territories. The study is based on theoretical framework and data collection; therefore the author studied the literatures related to the topic extensively. After finding out the objectives or basis of study the author designed the methodology of working. The author found that the study is based on both primary and secondary data, the author collected the secondary data by means of internet, journals and books and primary data was collected from the employees from the multinational companies from Delhi. The author considered teachers lectures, author’s views, employees’ and managers’ opinion as primary data for the study. Keywords- Organizational Stress, Reasons of Stress, Employee Stress, Causes of Stress, Stressed Human Capital INTRODUCTION The human life today had become complex and knotty; living in this world today is full of pressures, strains and stress. As asked from the respondents about the stress, the answer that was given is tension, nervousness, headaches, workloads, deadlines to meet, family problems, and so on. The list could be endless that could eventually form the pressure jigsaw but these are actually a list of effects of stress or causes of stress, or stressors (Wan Hussin et. al, 2003). Stress is the 19 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  20. 20. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) result of our expectations, greed, desires and ambitions. Stress “an adoptive response, mediated by individual characteristic and psychological processes that is consequence of any external action, situation or event that places special physical, psychological demands upon a person” (Ivancevich and Matteson, 1980). Operationally defined, stress is the dysfunctional, psycho- physiological response to excessive emotional challenges or inordinate instinctual demands (Juniper, 2003). LITERATURE REVIEW Numerous studies found that fob stress influences the employees’ job satisfaction and their overall performance in their work. Because most of the organizations now are more demanding for the better job outcomes. In fact, modern times have been called as the “age of anxiety and stress” (Coleman, 1976).The stress itself will be affected by number of stressors. Nevertheless, Beehr and Newman (1978) had defined stress as a situation which will force a person to deviate from normal functioning due to the change (i.e. disrupt or enhance) in his/her psychological and/or physiological condition, such that the person is forced to deviate from normal functioning. From the definition that has been identified by researchers, we can conclude that it is truly important for an individual to recognize the stresses that are facing by them in their career. Management role of an organization is one of the aspects that affect work-related stress among workers (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).Workers in an organization can face occupational stress through the role stress that the management gave. Role stress means anything about an organizational role that produces adverse consequences for the individual (Kahn and Quinn, 1970). Management will have their own role that stands as their related. Role related are concerned with how individuals perceive the expectations other have of them and includes role ambiguity and role conflict (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003). Several studies have highlighted the deleterious consequences of high workloads or work overload. According to Wilkes et al. (1998) work overloads and time constraints were significant contributors to work stress among community nurses. Workload stress can be defined as reluctance to come to work and a feeling of constant pressure (i.e. no effort is enough) accompanied by the general physiological, psychological, and behavioral stress symptoms. Al-Aameri AS. (2003) has mentioned in his studies that one of the six factors of occupational stress is pressure originating 20 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  21. 21. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) from workload. Alexandros-Stamatios G.A. et al. (2003) also argued that “factors intrinsic to the job” means explore workload, variety of tasks and rates of pay. Rapidly changing global scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a requirement for workers to perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep abreast of changing technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick, 1999). A study in UK indicated that the majority of the workers were unhappy with the current culture where they were required to work extended hours and cope with large workloads while simultaneously meeting production targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000). Role ambiguity is another aspect that affects job stress in the workplace. According to Beehr et. al. (1976), Cordes & Dougherty (1993), Cooper (1991), Dyer & Quine (1998) and Ursprung (1986) role ambiguity exists when an individual lacks information about the requirements of his or her role, how those role requirements are to be met, and the evaluative procedures available to ensure that the role is being performed successfully. Jackson & Schuler (1985) and Muchinsky (1997) studies found role ambiguity to lead to such negative outcomes as reduces confidence, a sense of hopelessness, anxiety, and depression. OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY The Study is based on the following objectives  To identify the reasons of stress among the human capital in Multinational organizations in Delhi.  To identify the impact of stress variables on different age groups. HYPOTHESES H0 There are no feasible reasons of stress among the human capital in multinational organizations in Delhi. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Study Area The territories selected to conduct this study is Delhi. The employees of different multinational companies are the target respondents. 21 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  22. 22. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Sampling Method and Sample Size The random sampling technique is used to identify the organizations for the study. Whereas; convenience sampling is used to collect the data from the respondents. The sample determined for the study is 150 respondents from different selected multinational organizations. Data Collection As the research is based on primary data, therefore, the primary data was collected from the multinational companies from Delhi by interviewing the respondents personally. The structured questionnaire is used for interviewing the respondents and the questionnaire was distributed with proper instructions. Analytical Techniques Analytical Techniques are the statistical tools that were used to find the results from the collected data. The statistical tool that is used to test the hypothesis is one- sample t-test. Further, ANNOVA is used to identify the impact of stress variables on different age groups. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS The total respondents targeted for the study were 150, but out of 150 respondents only 131 respondents showed interest towards replying the questionnaire. That is, 12.67% of the respondents did not answer the questionnaire. Table 1: Stress Analysis Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Stressed 58 44.3 44.3 44.3 Not Stressed 73 55.7 55.7 100.0 Total 131 100.0 100.0 It was found that 58 (44.3%) respondents are stressed out of 131 respondents and rest 73 (55.7%) the majority of employees were not stressed while performing their assigned tasks as represented 22 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  23. 23. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) in Table 1. These 58 (44.3%) respondents were further asked the questions about their age and their reasons that caused them stress. Table 2: Age Group Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent 18-28 16 12.2 27.6 27.6 28-38 20 15.3 34.5 62.1 38-48 16 12.2 27.6 89.7 48-58 6 4.6 10.3 100.0 Total 58 44.3 100.0 As per the analysis of Table 2, the minimum age of the respondent is considered 18 years. Considering in mind the regulation passed by the government that the minimum age for working should be 18 years. The maximum age of the respondents considered is 58 years, as the employees in multinational organization retire at the age of 58 years. It is found that maximum number of respondents comes under the class interval of 28-38 with the frequency of 20 followed by 16 each in the class interval of 18-28 and 38-48 respectively. As per Table 3, 19 (14.5%) respondents consider target pressure as the major reason of stress which is the major part of the study population. It is followed by job insecurity and work overload with the frequency of 17 (13%) and 10 (7.6%) respectively. It can be determined that the employees in the multinational organizations are having much targets that they are not able to meet up, due to the failure of meeting the target they think about the future consequences and are stressed. 23 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  24. 24. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Table 3: Reasons of Stress Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Interpersonal Conflicts 5 3.8 8.6 8.6 Work Overload 10 7.6 17.2 25.9 Lack of Recognition or 2 1.5 3.4 29.3 Reward Job Insecurity 17 13.0 29.3 58.6 Lack of Support 3 2.3 5.2 63.8 Lack of Training 2 1.5 3.4 67.2 Target Pressure 19 14.5 32.8 100.0 Total 58 44.3 100.0 Table 4: One-Sample Test Test Value = 4 95% Confidence Mean Interval of the Sig. (2- Differenc Difference T df tailed) e Lower Upper Reasons of 1.671 57 .100 .47 -.09 1.02 Stress H0 There are no feasible reasons of stress among the human capital in multinational organizations in Delhi. 24 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  25. 25. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) H1 There are feasible reasons of stress among the human capital in multinational organizations in Delhi. After analyzing the results of one sample t-test it was found that H0 is rejected. As per the Table 4, the calculated value of t is 1.671 with the test value of 4. The value of significance level is .100 which is not significant at 5% level of significance. Therefore taking a look on Table 4 it can be said that null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis H1 can be accepted. Table 5 shows the details about the reasons of stress and the age group of the human capital. The table describes that at various age groups there are different employees who have different reasons of stress. In the age group of 18-28 the maximum stress is due to target pressure with 7 respondents. Whereas, in the age group of 28-38 there are mainly three reasons that causes stress among the employees. These reasons are work overload, job insecurity and target pressure with the frequency of 6 each. Similarly, in the age group of 38-48 and 48-58 the employees are stressed due to job insecurity with the frequency of 8 and 3 respectively. Table 5 Cross tabulation- Reasons of Stress & Age Group Age Group Total 18-28 28-38 38-48 48-58 Reasons of Interpersonal Conflicts 4 1 0 0 5 Stress Work Overload 2 6 2 0 10 Lack of Recognition or 2 0 0 0 2 Reward Job Insecurity 0 6 8 3 17 Lack of Support 1 1 1 0 3 Lack of Training 0 0 1 1 2 Target Pressure 7 6 4 2 19 Total 16 20 16 6 58 25 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  26. 26. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Table 6: ANOVA (Reasons of Stress) Age Mean Sum of Squar Squares Df e F Sig. Between 18.799 6 3.133 4.603 .001 Groups Within Groups 34.718 51 .681 Total 53.517 57 The Table 4 determines the impact of stress variables on different age groups. Here age group is considered as dependent variable whereas reason of stress is considered as Construct that affects the age group. There can be the impact of stress variables on different age groups. The value of significance level is .001 which is significant at .1% level of significance. CONCLUSION After reviewing the literatures on the study it is concluded that stress is one of the most important factors in increasing or decreasing human capacity of working. The reasons of stress such as Interpersonal Conflicts, Work Overload, Lack of Recognition or Reward, Job Insecurity, Lack of Support, Lack of Training and Targets were identified. It is also concluded that Targets are the major reason that causes stress among the human capital. It is concluded that the reasons of stress among the human capital are valid and they also have impact on different age groups. REFERENCES  Al-Aameri A.S., 2003. “Source of job stress for nurses in public hospitals”, Saudi Medical Journal, 24(11), pp.1183-1187. 26 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  27. 27. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)  Alexandros-Stamatios G. A., Matilyn J.D., and Cary L.C., 2003. “Occupational Stress, Job satisfaction, and health state in male and female junior hospital doctors in Greece”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(6), pp. 592-621.  Beehr, T.A. & Newman, J.E.,1978. “Job Stress, Employee Health and Organizational Effectiveness: A Facet Analysis, Model and Literature Review”, Personnel Psychology, 31, pp.665-669.  Beehr, T.A., Walsh, J.T., & Taber, T.D. 1976. “Perceived situational moderators of the relationship between subjective role ambiguity and role strain’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, pp.35-40.  Cascio, W.F., 1995. “Wither industrial and organizational psychology in a Changing world”? American Psychologist, 50, pp.928-939.  Coleman J.C. 1976. Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life (Indian reprint), Taraporewalla, Bombay.  Cooper, C.L., 1991. Stress in organizations. In M. Smith (Ed.). Analysing Organizational Behaviour. London: MacMillan.  Cordes, C.L., and Dougherty, T.W. 1993. “A review and integration of research on job burnout”, Academy of Management Review, 18, pp.621-656.  Dyer, S., & Quine, L. 1998. “Predictors of job satisfaction and burnout among the direct care staff of a community learning disability service”, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 11 (4), pp.320-332.  Ivancevich J. M. and Matteson M. T. 1980. stress and work: A Managerial Perspective (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman,), pp. 8-9.  Jackson, S.E., & Schuler, R.S. 1985. “A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36, pp.16-78.  Juniper, D., 2003, “Leisure counseling in stress management”, Work Study, Vol. 52, No.1, pp7-12  Kahn, R.L., & Quinn, R.P. 1970. Role stress: A framework for analysis, In A. McLean (Ed.), Occupational mental health, New York: Wiley. 27 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  28. 28. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)  Muchinsky, P. 1997. Psychology applied to work: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (5th Ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/Cole Publishers.  Quick, J.C. 1999. “Occupational health psychology: The convergence of health and clinical psychology with public health preventive medicine in an organizational context”, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(2), pp.123-128.  Townley, G. 2000. “Long hours culture causing economy to suffer”, Management Accounting, 78 (6), pp.3-5.  Ursprung, A.W. 1986. “Incidence and correlates of burnout in residential service settings”, Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 29, pp.225-239.  Wan Hussin, W. M. A., Shamshad, A. and Mohd Sanusi, S. A., (2003), Stress Management and Its Relevance to the Performance of Site Engineers and Land Surveyors: A Case Study in Malaysia, Third Global Conference on Flexible Systems Management, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi, India, 13-15 March 2003.  Wilkes, L., Beale, B., Hall, e., Rees, E., watts, B., Denne, C. 1998. “Community nurses’ descriptions of stress when caring in the home”, International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 4 (1). 28 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  29. 29. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON ATTITUDES OF B.TECH STUDENTS TOWARDS E- LEARNING Akansha Misra Faculty of Commerce, Navayuga Radiance School- Lucknow akanshamisra@gmail.com ABSTRACT The education today is getting modernized and the colleges are accepting the new trend of IT advancements. Therefore, the digitalization of education is taking place. The colleges are adopting the different technology to sustain in the competitive environment. Here the evolution of E- learning takes place. The methodology the colleges are adopting to make themselves digitalized is using e-libraries, computerization of their books that are available in their libraries, using LCD projectors to present the power point slides about the concern subject. All these activities are done to be present the college as technology friendly. But the question is what is the attitude of the student towards adopting these resources? Does their age or gender have any effect on their attitude towards adopting these resources? To answer these questions the study is done. The study was done on the B. Tech students from two different colleges. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 respondents and 327 respondents replied to the questions mentioned in the questionnaire. Random Sampling is used to choose the area of Lucknow from which colleges were selected and convenience sampling is used to collect the data from the students. Further, descriptive statistics is used to analyze the basic questions of the questionnaire. To test the hypothesis one- sample T- test is used and ANOVA is used to find out the effect of age and gender on attitude of the students. Keywords: E- Learning, Attitude, Positive Attitude, Negative Attitude INTRODUCTION The education in today’s era is moving towards the new level of advancement, education today is not only providing the in depth knowledge about any subject but it is now seems to be a game of 29 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  30. 30. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) learning. Various companies had prepared different educational software catering the requirements of the syllabus of educational different bodies. But E- learning is not limited to these softwares in fact it is beyond that. There are different online libraries that provides the guidance on various disciplines and also provides various hands on cases that gives the in depth knowledge about the discipline. Some of the libraries are- EBSCO, Ulrich Periodicals, Cabell’s Directory, Index Copernicus, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Docstoc, Scribd and many more. E-learning has become one of the powerful supporting tools which have diversified the traditional context of learning in colleges. On one hand, e-learning is not confined to geographical barriers. Students can engage in self-directed learning, and learning resources can be repeatedly used. On the other hand, e-learning provides flexible learning materials and consistent information. The learning content is easy to update. With the rapid development of technology, the Internet as a delivery platform has motivated colleges to invest their resources on developing online programs. Researchers from various fields have been trying to evaluate the effectiveness of e-learning. However, some of them are focused on technology-based components of e-learning system and some are focused on human factor of e-learning system. These individual assessment frameworks comply with the needs only partially. Students e- learning system consists of many subsystems, such as personal factors, technical environment, and social environment. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY In this study the main objective is to analyze the student’s attitudes towards e-learning in India. Also the effect of gender and age group was analyzed on the attitudes of students towards e- learning. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY The following null hypotheses were prepared for the study: H0a The Students has negative attitudes towards e-learning. H0b There is no effect of age group on the attitudes of students towards e- learning. H0c There is no effect of gender on the attitudes of students towards e- learning. LITERATURE REVIEW 30 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  31. 31. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) E-Learning is basically a web-based system that makes information or knowledge available to users or learners and disregards time restrictions or geographic proximity. Although online learning has advantages over traditional face-to-face education (Piccoli et al., 2001), concerns include time, labor intensiveness, and material resources involved in running e-Learning environments. The costly high failure rate of e-Learning implementations discussed by Arbaugh and Duray (2002) deserves attention from management and system designers. E-learning is the acquisition and use of knowledge distributed and facilitated primarily by electronic means. This form of learning currently depends on networks and computers, but will likely evolve into systems consisting of a variety of channels (e.g., wireless, satellite), and technologies (e.g., cellular phones, personal digital assistants) as they are developed and adopted. E-learning can take the form of courses as well as modules and smaller learning objects. E- learning may incorporate synchronous or asynchronous access and may be distributed geographically with varied limits of time (Wentling, Waight, Fleur, Wang, and Kanfer, 2000). Some of the definitions on e-learning are: E-Learning is instruction that is delivered electronically, in part or wholly – via a Web browser, through the Internet or an intranet, or through multimedia platforms such as CD-ROM or DVD (Hall, 1997). E-Learning is a structured, purposeful use of electronic system or computer in support of the learning process (Allen, 2003). E-learning is training delivered on a computer (including CD-ROM, Internet, or intranet) that is designed to support individual learning or organizational performance goals (Clark and Mayer, 2003). Web-based training [an alternate term for e-learning] is the integration of instructional practices and Internet capabilities to direct a learner toward a specified level of proficiency in a specified competency (Conrad, 2000). Evolution to E-Learning The E-learning models of today are analogous to the earlier distance learning approaches. The roots of E-learning can be, therefore, traced back to the correspondence course model of learning. One of the first correspondence programs in the U.S. was developed at Pennsylvania State University in 1892, where the main mission was to provide higher education access to 31 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  32. 32. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) remote and rural areas (Banas & Emory, 1998). In later years, the correspondence model was further developed into a more robust distance education program with the integration of technology. During its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, school such as Penn State experimented with the use of radio to broadcast their correspondence course lessons nationally. To keep pace with the demand generated by the GI Bill in the 1950s, prestigious universities such as Columbia, Chicago, and Penn State launched several distance education programs. In recent years, the knowledge based economy has exhibited a pervasive and ever increasing demand for innovative ways of providing education and this has led to dramatic changes in learning technology as well as organizations. As the new economy requires more and more people to acquire new knowledge and skills in an appropriate and effective manner, the advancement of computer and networking technologies are providing a diverse means to support learning in a more personalized, flexible, portable and on-demand manner. These radical and sweeping changes in learning needs and technology have catapulted a revolutionary transition in modern learning tools in the backdrop of the internet, commonly referred to as e-learning. In the midst of this transition, corporations, government organizations, and educational institutions have to keep pace with the e-learning phenomenon and make strategic decisions on how to adopt e-learning techniques in their unique environments (Zhang et al., 2004). Practitioners (Berry, 2000; Coné and Robinson, 2001; Rossett, 2002) and researchers (Brown and Ford, 2002; Salas et al., 2002; Steele-Johnson and Hyde, 1997) agree that technological advances are dramatically altering the training and development landscape. In particular, the increased use of Internet technologies to deliver training has been heralded as the ‘e-Learning Revolution’ (Galagan, 2000). Although precise estimates for growth in e-learning vary, published estimates indicate that organizations have increased and will continue to increase the use of technology to deliver training (Rossett, 2002). History Timeline of E-Learning E-learning evolved gradually through the phase of time. Computers and Internet are major roles in bring e-learning to what it is today. Education has various standards in many countries and regions. Software’s are designed to meet various these standards and academic curriculum. Below we shall discuss a brief timeline on the evolution of e-learning. Instructor Led Training (Pre 1983) 32 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  33. 33. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Prior to the availability of computers everywhere and with everyone, Instructor Led Training (ILD) was the primary training method. ILT allowed students to focus on their studies and to come in direct contact and interaction with their instructors and classmates. Drawbacks of ILT were high costs and time. Students had to ensure to take time off from all other activities and be enrolled into academic institutions and spend most of their time there. These also hiked and educational expenses whereby it was not easy for everyone to afford these standards. Multimedia Era (1984 to 1993) The mid 1980’s and early 1990’s saw a much changing computer era. Most of the people started to understand the importance of computers and it started to become a need rather than a luxury product. Various operating systems like Windows, Macintosh for Apple Computers with their easy to use Graphical User interface made it easy for the users to take a much more liking towards computers. Applications also evolved with higher standards focusing on the ease of use by the end-users. Microsoft’s Office package that included standards day-to-day applications like MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS-PowerPoint, MS-Access and such added software’s made using programs easier. Out of this applications such as PowerPoint became handier tool for e-learning. CD-ROM’s made it easier for these programs to be carried and stored easily rather than carrying multiple numbers of Floppy Disks. All this led to the advancement of the multimedia era. With the use of multimedia applications and in an attempt to make training more transportable and visually engaging, Computer Based Training (CBT) courses were delivered via CD-ROM. This availability of anytime, anywhere via CD-ROM’s provide time and cost savings compared to the ILT’s and gradually reshaped the training industry. These too had its disadvantages. Despite these benefits and saving of time and cost, these courses lacked the personal student-instructor interaction and dynamic presentations making the experience somewhat less satisfying. Students started to find it slower and less engaging. Introduction of Web - (1994 - 1999) Introduction of the internet and the World Wide Web, gave insights into training providers to explore its potentiality and find ways to improve training. The introduction of email, Web browsers, HTML, media players, low fidelity streamed audio/video and simple Java began to change the face of multimedia training. 33 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  34. 34. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) CBT’s improved with text and graphics, but the graphics provided were of low quality. E-mails provided standards whereby CBT’s and similar contents could be reached to students with ease, but care had to be taken for these files to be of small file size due to the Internet bandwidth capacity. The Next Generation Web (2000 to now) Various technology advancements have enhanced the way e-learning has shaped today. Application like Java and other IP (Internet Protocol) applications help streamlining rich media. Internet has evolved with high bandwidth lines enabling users to access large files easily and with speed. This has led to a combination of ILT along with electronic highway. Today, live instructor led training (ILT) via the Web can be combined with real-time mentoring, improved learner services and up-to-date. This growth in Internet, Web enables instructors to deliver high quality content directly to the users. With the evolution of PDA (Personal Desktop Assistants) and Smartphone and wireless technologies such as WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) web based contents and emails can be accessed from anywhere, anytime. These enhanced training solutions provide greater cost savings, higher quality of learning experience and are the educational standards are being revolutionize and changing to adopt e-learning as the basis for many educations levels. (Al-Khashab H M, 2007) Uses of E-Learning E-Learning is used in everywhere and across all types of areas. Businesses – private or public sectors, non-profit organizations, NGO’s (Non-governmental organizations) and educational institutions. E-learning is deployed with the objective of enhancing the students knowledge and cost saving. E-learning also helps to reach geographically dispersed groups, to provide “anywhere-anytime” learning, to provide consistency, to ensure compliance with regulations, and to improve productivity, to name just a few. Businesses used e-learning for introduction or orientation learning of the organizations and their products and services in addition to remedial training, to provide certifications, to promote products and services, to support organizational initiatives and to keep up to date with the latest software’s. Educational institutions used it for broadening the academic scope. E-learning can provide much more references and learning scopes than the ones provided in the usual text 34 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  35. 35. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) books. Class assignments can become assigned to the students and also submitted back using e- learning portals. (Al-Khashab H M, 2007) Attitudes Previous researches found by and large a favorable attitude towards e-learning. For example, Peters (1993) explored the possible benefits provided by e-learning. Results show great conformity to deriving benefits of e-learning in both teaching and research. However, faculty members in this study expressed certain reservations regarding the future implementation of e- learning at the university; for example: “One day the university will receive all its learning provision through e-learning”, “e-learning will help faculty members develop better teamwork and inter-personal skills” and “Implementing e-learning at the university will make faculty members flock to sophisticated technologies in teaching”. These attitudes reflect faculty members’ lack of trust in one another’s ability in using advanced technologies in teaching as well as in building up teamwork spirit in the workplace. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Description of the Study Area The area selected for the study is Lucknow. The colleges were selected to conduct the research. Sampling Technique Random Sampling is used to choose the area of Lucknow from which colleges were selected; the area of Lucknow selected for the sampling is Gomti Nagar and Alambagh. The selection of these areas was made because most of the colleges are in these areas only. Further, Convenience sampling is used to collect data from the students. The total Sample size for the study was determined 400 respondents and the time frame to conduct this study was four months. Data Collection The data is collected on the basis of structured questionnaire. The questionnaire is prepared considering the demographic profile such as educational level and gender of the students with some basic questions related to the objectives of the study. Analytical Tools and Techniques Employed The analytical tools and techniques that will be employed in the research are:  One sample T- test was used to test the hypothesis. 35 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  36. 36. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)  One- Way ANOVA is used to measure the effect of gender and educational level on the attitudes of the students.  Nominal Scale was used for few questions in the research. The SPSS for windows will be used for calculating the collected data. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS The total of 327 questionnaires out of 400 questionnaires was received. The data was classified on the basis of demographic variables such as age, education level and gender of the students. The students were classified into the age groups of 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40. Table 1: Age Group Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent 10-20 138 42.2 42.2 42.2 20-30 143 43.7 43.7 85.9 30-40 46 14.1 14.1 100.0 Total 327 100.0 100.0 As shown in Table 1, it is found that maximum students falls in the age group of 20-30. The strength of the students in this age group is 143 (43.7%) followed by the students in the age group of 10-20 with the strength of 138 (42.2%). Table 2: Gender Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Male 175 53.5 53.5 53.5 Female 152 46.5 46.5 100.0 Total 327 100.0 100.0 In Table 2 it is found that the number of male students is 175 which contribute to the 53.5% of the total population. It is also found that female students’ strength is 152 which contribute to the rest of the 46.5% of the total population of the study. 36 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  37. 37. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Table 3: Education Level Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent B. Tech 1 Year 110 33.6 33.6 33.6 B. Tech 2 Year 80 24.5 24.5 58.1 B. Tech 3 Year 81 24.8 24.8 82.9 B. Tech 4 Year 56 17.1 17.1 100.0 Total 327 100.0 100.0 Further Table 3 determines the analysis is done on the educational level of the students, that is, in which year the students are, it is found that maximum students in the study was in B. Tech First Year with the strength of 110 (33.6%) students which is one third of the total study population. The number of students in B. Tech Second Year is 80 (24.5%), the number of students in B. Tech Third Year is 81 (24.8%) and the lowest strength of the students is found in B. Tech Fourth Year with the strength of 56 (17.1%) students. Table 4: Attitude of First Year Students towards E- Learning Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Positive 69 21.1 62.7 62.7 Negative 41 12.5 37.3 100.0 Total 110 33.6 100.0 Missing System 217 66.4 Total 327 100.0 Now, the students are further classified on the basis of their attitude. As shown in Table 4, it is found that maximum number of students from First Year falls under the classification of positive attitude towards the e- learning the strength of the students under this class is 69 which is 62.7% of the total students of First Year. The number of students under negative category is 41 which is 37.3% of the total population of B. Tech First Year. 37 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  38. 38. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Table 5: Attitude of Second Year Students towards E- Learning Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Positive 47 14.4 58.8 58.8 Negative 33 10.1 41.2 100.0 Total 80 24.5 100.0 Missing System 247 75.5 Total 327 100.0 As shown in Table 5, it is found that maximum number of students from Second Year falls under the classification of positive attitude towards the e- learning the strength of the students under this classification is 47 which is 58.8% of the total students of Second Year. The number of students under negative category is 33 which are 41.3% of the total population of B. Tech Second Year. Table 6: Attitude of Third Year Students towards E- Learning Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Positive 53 16.2 65.4 65.4 Negative 28 8.6 34.6 100.0 Total 81 24.8 100.0 Missing System 246 75.2 Total 327 100.0 As shown in Table 6, it is found that maximum number of students from Third Year falls under the classification of positive attitude towards the e- learning the strength of the students under this classification is 53 which is 65.4% of the total students of Third Year. The number of 38 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  39. 39. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) students under negative category is 28 which are 34.8% of the total population of B. Tech Third Year. Table 7: Attitude of Fourth Year Students towards E- Learning Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Positive 38 11.6 67.9 67.9 Negative 18 5.5 32.1 100.0 Total 56 17.1 100.0 Missing System 271 82.9 Total 327 100.0 As shown in Table 7, it is found that maximum number of students from Fourth Year falls under the classification of positive attitude towards the e- learning the strength of the students under this classification is 38 which is 67.9% of the total students of Third Year. The number of students under negative category is 18 which are 32.1% of the total population of B. Tech Fourth Year. HYPOTHESES TESTING Table 8: One-Sample Test Test Value = 1 Sig. (2- Mean 95% Confidence Interval t df tailed) Difference of the Difference Lower Upper First Year 13.544 109 .000 .63 .54 .72 Second Year 10.607 79 .000 .59 .48 .70 Third Year 12.306 80 .000 .65 .55 .76 Fourth Year 10.775 55 .000 .68 .55 .80 39 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012
  40. 40. Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online) Null Hypothesis- The Students has negative attitudes towards e-learning. Alternate Hypothesis- The Students has positive attitudes towards e-learning. E- Learning is a new system; therefore we predict that there would be the negative attitude of the students towards E- Learning. Therefore, null hypothesis was framed for the study. To test the hypothesis the statistical tool One- Sample T-test is done. The test does not support to the null hypothesis that is students have negative attitude towards e- learning. As per Table 8, it is found that the value of significance is .000 which is significant at the level of 5% of significance. Therefore, null hypothesis that is the B. Tech students have negative attitude towards e-learning can be rejected and alternate hypothesis students have positive attitude towards the e- learning can be accepted. Table 9: ANOVA (Effect of Gender on Attitude) Sum of Mean Squares df Square F Sig. First Year Between Groups .620 1 .620 2.666 .105 Within Groups 25.099 108 .232 Total 25.718 109 Second Year Between Groups 2.989 1 2.989 14.218 .000 Within Groups 16.398 78 .210 Total 19.387 79 Third Year Between Groups .068 1 .068 .294 .589 Within Groups 18.253 79 .231 Total 18.321 80 Fourth Year Between Groups 4.032 1 4.032 26.614 .000 Within Groups 8.182 54 .152 Total 12.214 55 40 VOL 1, NO.1, DECEMBER 2012

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