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Byzantine Architecture
Eastern Empire
1. Introduction
•Geographical Influence
•Climatic influence
•Regional influence
2. Architectural Character
3. Planning
•Fo...
• Introduction
Byzantine was renamed after
its imperial founder
‘Byzantine Constantinople’
and was inaugurated as the
capi...
Constantinople had no good building stone there
fore local material such as clay for bricks and
rubble for concrete had to...
2. Architectural Character
It represents fusion of oriental and roman
classical Architecture.
The massive decoration had...
Forms
 The form of eastern churches was mainly
characterized faithful correspondence between
internal and external roof p...
•Byzantine Dome
A primitive form of dome and the barrel vault is
of great quality.
In some districts vaults were compell...
In Eastern Christianity the dome became the
dominant factor in church design. (e.g. single dome
at St. Sophia Constantino...
Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
 It has a spacious nave covered by lofty cultural
dome carried on pendentive.
 A succession of smaller dome...
Plan: Hagia Sophia
Section: Hagia Sophia
Saint Mark-Venice
St. Marks Basilica majestically symbolize the logan
and enriches the cities History.
The possession of s...
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
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Byzantine architecture

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Byzantine architecture

  1. 1. Byzantine Architecture Eastern Empire
  2. 2. 1. Introduction •Geographical Influence •Climatic influence •Regional influence 2. Architectural Character 3. Planning •Forms •Byzantine Dome 4. Examples • Saint Mark-Venice • Sanit. Sophia, Constantinople
  3. 3. • Introduction Byzantine was renamed after its imperial founder ‘Byzantine Constantinople’ and was inaugurated as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD. This is situated at the junction of Europe ad Asia, in addition it was a big centre of trade and commerce. • Geographical Influence Byzantine stood on seven hills. It is at the junction of Europe and Asia, which are divided by a narrow strip of water. This gives the commanding and central position for government to expand the Roman empire. It was also at the intersection of two great highways of commerce- the water highway between black sea and Mediterranean sea and the trade route between Europe and Asia.
  4. 4. Constantinople had no good building stone there fore local material such as clay for bricks and rubble for concrete had to be imported. Marble was brought from quarries in the island and along the shores of eastern Mediterranean sea to Constantinople. •Climatic influence The climate was rather Hot, therefore small windows at high level and few openings were used. Flat roof in combination with domes and the open courtyards surrounded by sheltering arcades features are predominant. •Regional influence Constantine established Christianity as the state religion of Roman Empire and it followed that the chief erected in byzantine is new capital were churches for new region.
  5. 5. 2. Architectural Character It represents fusion of oriental and roman classical Architecture. The massive decoration had its origin in the ‘Babylonian Style’ while dome construction was incorporated from Rome. Horizontal lands were introduced the domical roof created an impression of vast enclosed space. Interiors were decorated with massive glass work. 3. Planning Use of centrals square plans. On square divisions to accommodate domes for roofing system is the measure characteristic feature. Modifications in Basilican plan consisted of a. Deletion of atrium court b. Incorporation of Nartex or vestibule as on Basilica of Constantinople c. Deletion of Belfry towers.  Square plan of the eastern churches were termed as ‘Greek Cross Plans’.
  6. 6. Forms  The form of eastern churches was mainly characterized faithful correspondence between internal and external roof profiles.  A smooth profile due to absence of belfry towers, just a position of dome on the sky line gives the style a distinct character in strong contrast of the spiky profile of early Christian churches.  Externally Byzantine churches were characterized by brick work in courses and marble bands on the brick walls.  Practice of horizontal bands of marble called striations was introduced.  The structural use of marginal columns made them massive.
  7. 7. •Byzantine Dome A primitive form of dome and the barrel vault is of great quality. In some districts vaults were compelled to built in stone, brick or mud, because there was no wood and tools to work. In all such cases some form of dome or tunnel vault had to devised for shelter. In tracing the growth of the dome in horizontal times, it has been regarded as an out come of the eastern empire, because it was at Constantinople and in the byzantine province that it was employed in ecclesiastical structure. But it was the Romans who in reality developed the use of dome as of all other applications of the semicircular arch from Rome, gets carried to Constantinople and from the same source different parts of western empire.
  8. 8. In Eastern Christianity the dome became the dominant factor in church design. (e.g. single dome at St. Sophia Constantinople (built 532-537 AD) or a central dome encircled by other domes as at St. Marks, Venice or a row of domes at Angouleme. The primitive Eastern dome seems to have been on a very small scale to have used for subordinate purpose only,
  9. 9. Hagia Sophia
  10. 10. Hagia Sophia  It has a spacious nave covered by lofty cultural dome carried on pendentive.  A succession of smaller domes carries interior of size 102ft x 265ft and built up to a main dome of size 102’ in dia and 184’ in height  A dome carries a corona of 40 arched windows shedding light in interior. At east end of nave, is vaulted sanctuary apse and at west end a great narthex which opens into a atrium.  On the north and south sides, side aisles carrying massive vaults supported on green and white marble columns.  The interior surfaces are cladded with polycomarbles and gold mosaic. Encrusted upon the brick core of structure.
  11. 11. Plan: Hagia Sophia
  12. 12. Section: Hagia Sophia
  13. 13. Saint Mark-Venice St. Marks Basilica majestically symbolize the logan and enriches the cities History. The possession of saints

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