Best French Revolution Power Point Presentation Made<br />Taken 15 Days to complete it!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!<br />
The French Revolution<br />1 7 8 9  -1 7 9 9<br />
Contents<br />Causes<br />The Social Cause/Society under the Old Regime<br />I’st Estate<br />II’nd Estate<br />III’rd Est...
The Estate General<br />Formation and Voting Procedure Under Old Regime<br />Outbreak Of Revolution<br />Economic Conditio...
Role Played by the Rulers of Austria and Prussia<br />Formation of the Jacobin’s Club<br />Leader of the Jacobin’s Club<br...
Causes<br /><ul><li>Social Cause
One of the main factors that led to the French Revolution was the unbalanced social structure of society during the Old Re...
Economic Cause
It was the main reason of the depletion of the treasury of the king.
Political Cause
King was a person of Mediocre Intelligence.
Immediate Cause
Formation of the Estate General.
Intellectual Cause
Influence from the writers.</li></li></ul><li>The Social Cause/Society under the Old Regime<br /><ul><li>In France, people...
First Estate
High-ranking members of the Church
Privileged class
Second Estate
Nobility
Privileged class
Third Estate
Everyone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the cities
Unprivileged class</li></li></ul><li>I Estate<br /><ul><li>The First Estate, which made up about one percent of the total ...
Due to the power of the Roman Catholic Church, these people were exempt from most taxes. These men of high status and priv...
Third Estate was dominated by the middle class
Blending of aristocratic and bourgeois classes by 1789
Middle class were Big Winners
Revolutionary goals of the middle class</li></li></ul><li>Estates Cont.<br />
Economic Cause<br /><ul><li>In 1774, Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of kings ascended the throne of France. He was 20 yea...
Added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.
Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain. T...
 Lenders who gave the state credit, now began to charge 10 per cent interest on loans. So the French government was oblige...
The Church too extracted its share of taxes called tithes from the peasants, and finally, all members of the third estate ...
Political Cause<br /><ul><li>Louis XVI, the king of France, was a person of mediocre intelligence.  He ruled with the help...
Louis XVI wanted to increase his territory.  And to do so, he had to be engaged in wars which meant that he needed a large...
Role of the Middle Class<br /><ul><li>The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle c...
In addition to merchants and manufacturers, the third estate included professions such as lawyers or administrative offici...
Middle Class believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth. Social position must depend on his merit.</l...
Jean Jacques Rousseau , in his ‘Two Treatises’ of Government, Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolu...
Montesquieu in ‘The Spirit of the Laws’, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legisl...
The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people through boo...
On 5 May 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes. A resplendent...
Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. Thi...
Economic Conditions under theOld Regime<br /><ul><li>France’s economy was based primarily on agriculture.
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Best French revolution Power Point Presentation made Ever!!!!!!!!!!

  1. 1. Best French Revolution Power Point Presentation Made<br />Taken 15 Days to complete it!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!<br />
  2. 2. The French Revolution<br />1 7 8 9 -1 7 9 9<br />
  3. 3. Contents<br />Causes<br />The Social Cause/Society under the Old Regime<br />I’st Estate<br />II’nd Estate<br />III’rd Estate<br />The Three Estates Cont.<br />Economic Cause<br />France Is Bankrupt<br />Political Cause<br />Role of the Middle Class<br />Immediate Cause<br />Intellectual Cause<br />
  4. 4. The Estate General<br />Formation and Voting Procedure Under Old Regime<br />Outbreak Of Revolution<br />Economic Conditions under theOld Regime<br />Formation of National Assembly<br />National Assembly (1789-1791)<br />The Tennis Court Oath<br />Storming the Bastille<br />France becomes a Constitutional Monarchy<br />End of Special Privileges<br />of the Rights of Man and Citizens <br />Declaration of the Rights of Man<br />Declaration of the Rights of Woman<br />End of Special Privileges<br />
  5. 5. Role Played by the Rulers of Austria and Prussia<br />Formation of the Jacobin’s Club<br />Leader of the Jacobin’s Club<br />Storming of the Palace of Tuilleries<br />France abolishes Monarchy and Becomes a Republic<br />Robespierre’s Reign of Terror, 1793-94<br />Fall of the Jacobin’s Government on 11 November 1794 and Establishment of a new Constitution<br />Role Of the Napoleon Bonaparte<br />Women as Revolutionaries<br />Abolition of Slavery <br />Death of Napoleon Bonaparte<br />Acknowledgement<br />
  6. 6. Causes<br /><ul><li>Social Cause
  7. 7. One of the main factors that led to the French Revolution was the unbalanced social structure of society during the Old Regime.
  8. 8. Economic Cause
  9. 9. It was the main reason of the depletion of the treasury of the king.
  10. 10. Political Cause
  11. 11. King was a person of Mediocre Intelligence.
  12. 12. Immediate Cause
  13. 13. Formation of the Estate General.
  14. 14. Intellectual Cause
  15. 15. Influence from the writers.</li></li></ul><li>The Social Cause/Society under the Old Regime<br /><ul><li>In France, people were divided into three estates
  16. 16. First Estate
  17. 17. High-ranking members of the Church
  18. 18. Privileged class
  19. 19. Second Estate
  20. 20. Nobility
  21. 21. Privileged class
  22. 22. Third Estate
  23. 23. Everyone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the cities
  24. 24. Unprivileged class</li></li></ul><li>I Estate<br /><ul><li>The First Estate, which made up about one percent of the total population, was divided into two groups: upper and lower.The upper clergy included archbishops, bishops, and abbots.
  25. 25. Due to the power of the Roman Catholic Church, these people were exempt from most taxes. These men of high status and privilege enjoyed luxurious lives in their large palaces. Meanwhile, the lower clergy, whichincluded poorly-paid village priests, had to suffer along with the third class peasants. </li></li></ul><li>II Estate<br /><ul><li>The Second Estate was composed of about 30,000 families who belonged to the nobility ㅡ Duke and Duchess, count and countess, and marquis and marquess. Like the clergy, the nobility represented another privileged Estate.They held the highest position in the Church, the army, and the government. As well, they were exempt from paying taxes of any kind. They collected rent from the peasant population who lived on their lands. They also collected an extreme amount of customary dues, as well as dues on salt, cloth, bread, and wine. Most of the nobility was descendants from the warriors, who helped the King conquer Francein the early days. They lived a life of lordly ease and luxury and enjoyed great privileges.</li></li></ul><li>III Estate<br /><ul><li>About 26 million citizens, the Third Estate consisted the bourgeoisie, the peasantry, and the urban artisans. The bourgeoisie,which included merchants, manufacturers, bankers, doctors, lawyers, and intellectuals, were generally prosperous and often as wealthy as nobles
  26. 26. Third Estate was dominated by the middle class
  27. 27. Blending of aristocratic and bourgeois classes by 1789
  28. 28. Middle class were Big Winners
  29. 29. Revolutionary goals of the middle class</li></li></ul><li>Estates Cont.<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Economic Cause<br /><ul><li>In 1774, Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of kings ascended the throne of France. He was 20 years old and married to the Austrian princess Marie Antoinette. Upon his accession the new king found an empty treasury. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.
  32. 32. Added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.
  33. 33. Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain. The war added more than a billion livres to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 billion livres.
  34. 34. Lenders who gave the state credit, now began to charge 10 per cent interest on loans. So the French government was obliged to spend an increasing percentage of its budget on interest payments alone. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes. Yet even this measure would not have sufficed.
  35. 35. The Church too extracted its share of taxes called tithes from the peasants, and finally, all members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the state. These included a direct tax, called taille, and a number of indirect taxes which were levied on articles of everyday consumption like salt or tobacco. The burden of financing activities of the state through taxes was borne by the third estate alone ,which angered the common People</li></li></ul><li>France Is Bankrupt<br /><ul><li>The king (Louis XVI) lavished money </li></ul> on himself and residences like <br /> Versailles<br /><ul><li>Queen Marie Antoinette</li></ul> was seen as a <br /> wasteful spender<br /><ul><li>Government found its funds </li></ul> depleted<br /><ul><li> As a result of wars</li></ul> including the funding of the<br /> government spending <br /> more money than it takes<br /> in from tax revenues<br /><ul><li>Privileged classes would not submit to being taxed </li></li></ul><li>Louis XVI attempted to tax the nobles.<br />The nobles forced the king to call a meeting of the Estates-General an assembly of delegates from each of the three estates.<br />
  36. 36. Political Cause<br /><ul><li>Louis XVI, the king of France, was a person of mediocre intelligence. He ruled with the help of his empty headed wife ‘Marie Antoinnette’, who appointed a number of her friends and relatives at high posts and kept some of them at pension. These people neither did any work nor they contribute to the National treasury. Instead they took salary from the Royal treasury.
  37. 37. Louis XVI wanted to increase his territory. And to do so, he had to be engaged in wars which meant that he needed a large army for that purpose. Appointing so many soldiers, required money to pay salaries to them. It depleted the Royal treasury. </li></ul> As a result, the king was forced to raise the taxes with the consent of the three estates . As the common people had to pay taxes, they became agitated against their monarch – Louis XVI.<br />
  38. 38. Role of the Middle Class<br /><ul><li>The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle class, who earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods such as woollen and silk textiles that were either exported or bought by the richer members of society.
  39. 39. In addition to merchants and manufacturers, the third estate included professions such as lawyers or administrative officials which were educated.
  40. 40. Middle Class believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth. Social position must depend on his merit.</li></li></ul><li>Immediate Cause<br /><ul><li>Compelled by Financial bankruptcy, the French Emperor Louis XVI called a meeting of Estate General in 1789. It generated much heat as the members of the 3rd Estate were determined to put forth their demand. However, the first two Estates i.e. ‘the Clergy’ and ‘ The Nobility’ refused to have a joint meeting with the Third Estate. The members of the Third Estate walked of the Assembly.</li></li></ul><li>Intellectual Cause<br /><ul><li>The Middle class favoured a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all
  41. 41. Jean Jacques Rousseau , in his ‘Two Treatises’ of Government, Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch. Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives.
  42. 42. Montesquieu in ‘The Spirit of the Laws’, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. This model of government was put into force in the USA, after the thirteen colonies declared their independence from Britain. The American constitution and its guarantee of individual rights was an important example for political thinkers in France.
  43. 43. The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people through books and newspapers. These were frequently read aloud in groups for the benefit of those who could not read and write. The news that Louis XVI planned to impose further taxes to be able to meet the expenses of the state generated anger and protest against the system of privileges.</li></li></ul><li>The Estate General<br /><ul><li>Louis XVI had to call a meeting of the Estates General which would then pass his proposals for new taxes. The Estates General was a political body to which the three estates sent their representatives. However, the monarch alone could decide when to call a meeting of this body. The last time it was done was in 1614.
  44. 44. On 5 May 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes. A resplendent hall in Versailles was prepared to host the delegates. The first and second estates sent 300 representatives each, who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides, while the 600 members of the third estate had to stand at the back. The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members. Peasants, artisans and women were denied entry to the assembly. However, their grievances and demands were listed in some 40,000 letters which the representatives had brought with them.
  45. 45. Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. This time too Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice. But members of the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote. When the king rejected this proposal, members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest. </li></li></ul><li>Formation and Voting Procedure Under Old Regime<br />Estate General<br />The first and second estates sent 300 representatives each, who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides, while the 600 members of the third estate had to stand at the back. The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members. Peasants, artisans and women were denied entry to the assembly. However, their grievances and demands were listed in some 40,000 letters which the representatives had brought with them.<br />
  46. 46. Economic Conditions under theOld Regime<br /><ul><li>France’s economy was based primarily on agriculture.
  47. 47. Peasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxation.
  48. 48. Poor harvests meant that peasants had trouble paying their regular taxes.
  49. 49. Certainly could not afford to have their taxes raised.
  50. 50. Bourgeoisie often managed to gather wealth.
  51. 51. But were upset that they paid taxes while nobles did not.</li></li></ul><li>Formation of National Assembly<br /><ul><li>Representative government did not mean democracy or “mob rule”
  52. 52. Estates-General became the National Assembly in June of 1789 with the power to frame a constitution
  53. 53. Tennis Court Oath was formed due to the disagreement of the 3’rd Estate and the Monarch.</li></li></ul><li>National Assembly (1789-1791)<br /><ul><li>Louis XVI did not actually want a written constitution
  54. 54. When news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14, 1789, people stormed the Bastille</li></li></ul><li>The Tennis Court Oath<br />“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly;<br />“Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”<br />
  55. 55. Outbreak Of Revolution<br />The Revolution started with the Estate-General convention in Versailles on May 5, 1789. While the three Estates were supposed to discuss and vote on taxes, they ended up debating about their own structure, the Third Estate demanding double representation. The Third Estate eventually separated itself from the First and Second Estates, forming the National Assembly. The King Louis XVI disagreed and shut down the Salle des États where the Assembly met. The Assembly moved to the Salle du Jeu de Paume were they proceeded to swear the Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789), under which they agreed not to separate until they had given France a constitution. The King pretended to accept the situation, but in the same time brought 20,000 soldiers to Paris. The people in paris started being very agitated, worried by the price of commodities and the political situation. The King fired all of his ministers, in particular Necker who was his financial advisor (and a strong supporter of the National Assembly). That is what led the people to start <br /> protesting in the streets. When they realized how many soldiers<br /> the King had brought, they got in a Frenzyof fear,<br /> they took up weapons and started fires in the city, the anger <br /> in the streets reached its maximum,<br /> and on July 14, the people <br /> stormed the Bastille. <br />
  56. 56. Storming the Bastille<br /><ul><li>Events of the night of July 13, 1789
  57. 57. Reasons for the attack on the Bastille the next morning
  58. 58. The stubbornness of the governor of the fortress
  59. 59. Celebrations on the night of July 14th
  60. 60. Sparks tremendous popular revolution all over France</li></li></ul><li>France becomes a Constitutional Monarchy<br /><ul><li>Faced with the power of his revolting subjects, Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would from now on be checked by a constitution. On the night of 4 August 1789, the Assembly passed a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes. Members of the clergy too were forced to give up their privileges. Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the Church were confiscated. As a result, the government acquired assets worth at least 2 billion livres.
  61. 61. The National Assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791. Its main object was to limit the powers of the monarch. These powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of one person, were now separated and assigned to different institutions – the legislature, executive and judiciary. This made France a constitutional monarchy.</li></li></ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens <br />
  62. 62.
  63. 63. End of Special Privileges<br /><ul><li>After National Assembly completed the draft of the Constitution in 1791, Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasants.
  64. 64. 2/3 of Church officials fled the country rather than swear allegiance to this.
  65. 65. All feudal dues and tithes were eradicated.
  66. 66. All special privileges of the First and Second Estates were abolished.
  67. 67. Tithes were abolished.</li></li></ul><li>Role Played by the Rulers of Austria and Prussia<br /> Although Louis XVI had signed the Constitution, he entered into secret negotiations with the King of Prussia. Rulers of other neighbouring countries too were worried by the developments in France and made plans to send troops to put down the events that had been taking place there since the summer of 1789. Before this could happen, the National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war against Prussia and Austria. Thousands of volunteers thronged from the provinces to join the army. They saw this as a war of the people against kings and aristocracies all over Europe. The king of Austria and Prussia were scared because of the people revolting in <br /> France. They thought that people <br /> might be encouraged and they <br /> would attack the king in the same way<br /> so they attacked France in order to<br /> displace their mind from the<br /> alarm.<br />
  68. 68. Formation of the Jacobin’s Club<br /><ul><li>The revolutionary wars brought losses and economic difficulties to the people. While the men were away fighting at the front, women were left to cope with the tasks of earning a living and looking after their families. Large sections of the population were convinced that the revolution had to be carried further, as the Constitution of 1791 gave political rights only to the richer sections of society. Political clubs became an important rallying point for people who wished to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action. The Jacobin Club was the most famous political club of the French Revolution. So called from the Dominican convent where they originally met in the Rue St. Jacques (Latin: Jacobus), Paris. It originated as the Club Benthorn, formed at Versailles as a group of Breton deputies to the Estates General of 1789
  69. 69. After The Estates-General of 1789 was convened at Versailles, the club was first composed exclusively of deputies from Brittany, but they were soon joined by other deputies from regions throughout France. Among its early members were the dominating Mirabeau, Parisian deputy Abbé Sieyès, Dauphiné deputy Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion, the Abbé Grégoire, Charles Lameth, Alexandre Lameth, Robespierre, the duc d'Aiguillon, and La Revellière-Lépeaux. It also counted Indian ruler Tipu Sultan among its ranks. At this time its meetings occurred in secret and few traces remain of what took place at them, or where they were convened.</li></li></ul><li>Leader of the Jacobin’s Club<br />Maximillian Robespierre<br /><ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre (Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre) was born on May 6th, 1758, in Arras where his father was based as an advocate. Robespierre and his three younger siblings were brought up by diverse relatives after their father dramatically lost his way in life after the death of his wife in childbirth in 1767. Robespierre was educated for a short time at a College in Arras and then in Paris initially at the very prestigious College of Louis-le-Grand and later at the College of Law.   Robespierre qualified as an advocate in 1781 and sought to establish a legal practice at his home town of Arras. He became known both as a successful advocate and as a participant in local literary and philosophic circles.</li></li></ul><li>Storming of the Palace of Tuilleries<br /><ul><li>Around 10:00am on August 10, 1792 a mob of nearly 30,000 French citizens advanced toward the Tuileries Palace to capture King Louis XVI. Louis had been given information that told him an angry mob was headed for the palace, so he decided to move himself and his family to the Legislative Assembly building. Before the king fled along with his 300 volunteer soldiers, he left no orders for the Swiss Guard who defended the palace. The guards saw the crowds coming and counted upon an order from the king to surrender the palace as he had in an earlier attack, but the order never came. When the mob approached the palace, the guards scampered to the top walls and tried to fight off the attack with single-shot muskets. After firing a few rounds into the crowd the guards realized their efforts were worthless and quickly chose to surrender the palace in the hopes of saving their lives. The mob searched the palace with vengeance in their hearts, leaving only 300 of the 900 Swiss guards alive. The people found no king inside the palace, but murdered anyone within the walls that might have been associated with the king: cooks, servants, maids, etc., no one was spared.
  70. 70. Many events occurred in the months prior to the Storming of the Tuileries Palace that led up to this violent episode. As early as June 20, 1792 several crowds of French citizens traveled to the Tuileries Palace in an attempt to convince the king that the government, economy, and society of France needed to change. At this original meeting the king met with the people and assured them that he was on their side. Luckily for the king, the crowd retreated without hurting anyone, having gotten the impression that things would change. By late July however, the people of Paris began to panic as the war with Austria and Prussia drew nearer to home. Both Austrian and Prussian troops were moving ever closer to the city of Paris. Believing that the king or his wife was giving information to these foreign powers, the Paris Commune, a group of local representatives, decided to lead an attack on the Tuileries Palace once again. This decision was made on August 9, 1792 and overnight nearly 30,000 French citizens came together and hosted the attack the very next day. After killing numerous Swiss guards and other staff present at the Tuileries Palace, the Paris mob moved to the Legislative Assembly building and claimed their prize. King Louis XVI and his family, who had been hiding, were found and arrested. This event signified the end of the monarchy in France and started the official trial of the king.</li></li></ul><li>France abolishes Monarchy and Becomes a Republic<br /><ul><li>In Revolutionary France, the Legislative Assembly votes to abolish the monarchy and establish the First Republic. The measure came one year after King Louis XVI reluctantly approved a new constitution that stripped him of much of his power.
  71. 71. Louis ascended to the French throne in 1774 and from the start was unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems that he inherited from his predecessors. In 1789, food shortages and economic crises led to the outbreak of the French Revolution. King Louis and his queen, Mary-Antoinette, were imprisoned in August 1792, and in September the monarchy was abolished. Soon after, evidence of Louis' counterrevolutionary intrigues with foreign nations was discovered, and he was put on trial for treason. In January 1793, Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. On January 21, he walked steadfastly to the guillotine and was executed. Marie-Antoinette followed him to the guillotine nine months later.</li></li></ul><li>Louis XVI was beheaded on 21’st January 1793 in Paris at the Place de la Concorde along with his wife Marie Antoinette. This was the beginning of the Jacobins.<br />
  72. 72. Robespierre’s Reign of Terror, 1793-94<br /><ul><li>The Committee of Public Safety
  73. 73. The Concept of “Total War”
  74. 74. Maximum price ceilings on certain goods
  75. 75. Nationalization of Small Workshops</li></li></ul><li>The Reign of Terror cont.<br /><ul><li>Execution of 40,000 “Enemies of the Nation”
  76. 76. Stress on radical definition of equality
  77. 77. Wanted a legal maximum on personal wealth
  78. 78. Wanted a regulation of commercial profits
  79. 79. End of Robespierre’s dictatorship on July 28, 1794</li></li></ul><li>A conspiracy overthrew Robespierre.<br />On July 27, 1794, he was barred <br />from speaking in public<br /> and was placed <br />Under arrest.<br />An uprising <br />by his supporters <br />was thwarted, and <br />on July 28 Robespierre<br />died on the guillotine with<br />his other supporters. Eighty more followers of Robespierre were executed the next day.<br />
  80. 80. Fall of the Jacobin’s Government on 11 November 1794 and Establishment of a new Constitution<br /><ul><li>The fall of Jacobin’s government , headed by Robespierre allowed the wealthier middle class to capture power
  81. 81. An attempt was made to re-open the Jacobin Club, which was joined by many of the enemies of the There midorians, but on 21 Brumaire, year III (11 November 1794), it was definitively closed. Its members and their sympathizers were scattered among the cafés, where a ruthless war of sticks and chairs was waged against them by the young "aristocrats" known as the jeunesse dorée. Nevertheless the Jacobins survived, in a somewhat subterranean fashion, emerging again in the club of the Panthéon, founded on 25 November 1795
  82. 82. Louis XVI was sentenced to death by a court on the charge of </li></ul> treason. On 21 January 1793 he was executed publicly at the Place de la Concorde. The queen Marie Antoinette met with the same fate shortly after. <br /><ul><li>A new Constitution called Directory was introduced which denied the right to vote to the non-propertied sections of the society.</li></li></ul><li>Role Of the Napoleon Bonaparte<br /><ul><li>The Directory (1794-1799)
  83. 83. Napoleon’s Rise to Power
  84. 84. Establishment of the Bank of France
  85. 85. Reconciliation with the Catholic Church
  86. 86. --Concordat of 1801
  87. 87. Heavy Censorship
  88. 88. Napoleon’s “Art of War”</li></li></ul><li>Women as Revolutionaries<br /><ul><li>When National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. A severe winter had meant a bad harvest; the price of bread rose, often bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies. After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops.
  89. 89. From the very beginning women were active participants in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society. They hoped that their involvement would pressurise the revolutionary government to introduce measures to improve their lives. Most women of the third estate had to work for a living. Most women did not have access to education or job training. Only daughters of nobles or wealthier members of the third estate could study at a convent, after which their families arranged a marriage for them. Working women had also to care for their families, that is, cook, fetch water, queue up for bread and look after the children. Their wages were lower than those of men. In order to discuss and voice their interests women started their own political clubs and newspapers. About sixty women’s clubs came up in different French cities. The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women was the most famous of them. One of their main demands was that women enjoy the same political rights as men. Women were disappointed that the Constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens. They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. Only then, they felt, would their interests be represented in the new government.</li></li></ul><li>Abolition of Slavery <br /><ul><li>One of the most revolutionary social reforms of the Jacobin regime was the abolition of slavery in the French colonies. The colonies in the Caribbean – Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo – were important suppliers of commodities such as tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee. But the reluctance of Europeans to go and work in distant and unfamiliar lands meant a shortage of labour on the plantations. So this was met by a triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas. The slave trade began in the seventeenth century. French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes to the African coast, where they bought slaves from local chieftains. Branded and shackled, the slaves were packed tightly into ships for the three-month long voyage across the Atlantic to the Caribbean. There they were sold to plantation owners. The exploitation of slave labour made it possible to meet the growing demand in European markets for sugar, coffee, and indigo.
  90. 90. Throughout the eighteenth century there was little criticism of slavery in France. The National Assembly held long debates about whether the rights of man should be extended to all French subjects including those in the coloniesIt was finally the Convention which in 1794 legislated to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions. This, however, turned out to be a short-term measure: ten years later, Napoleon reintroduced slavery. Plantation owners understood their freedom as including the right to enslave African Negroes in pursuit of their economic interests. Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848. </li></li></ul><li>Death of Napoleon Bonaparte<br /> Napoleon was martyred in the battle<br /> of Waterloo <br /> in 1815.<br />
  91. 91. Acknowledgement<br /><ul><li>We would like to pay our heartful regards to our Social Studies Teacher, _________who helped us in making the project.
  92. 92. Thank you Ma’am for helping us at each and every step where we were stuck in a problem.</li>

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