Cogeneration Of Power


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Cogeneration Scenario in Cement Industry: A case study

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Cogeneration Of Power

  1. 1. COGENERATION OF POWER<br />A Case Study of Cement Industry<br />
  2. 2. Cement Industry: An Introduction<br />An energy intensive industry consuming about 4GJ per tonne of cement produced.<br />In dry process cement plants, nearly 40 percent of the total heat input is rejected as waste heat from exist gases of pre-heater and grate cooler.<br />In India, the industry accounts for 10.3% of total fuel consumption in the manufacturing sector.<br />
  3. 3. Process Description<br />Procurement of Raw Materials<br />Raw Milling – Preparation of raw materials for the pyro-processing system<br />Pyroprocessing – pyroprocessing raw materials to form portland cement clinker<br />Cooling of portland cement clinker<br />Storage of portland cement clinker<br />Finish milling<br />Packing and Loading<br />
  4. 4. Wet Process Raw Material Grinding<br />Limestone<br />Water<br />Kiln<br />Crusher<br />Raw Mill<br />Slurry Basin<br />Storage Yard<br />Slurry Tank<br />Additives<br />Clay basin<br />Water<br />Clay<br />Wash Mill<br />
  5. 5. Dry Process Raw Material Grinding<br />EP<br />Dryer<br />Preheater and Kiln<br />BT<br />ST<br />Storage<br />Raw Mill<br />Dryer<br />Heat generated<br />BT – Blending Tank<br />ST – Storage Tank<br />EP – Electrostatic Precipitator<br />
  6. 6. Average Energy Consumption in a 1 MTPA Cement Plant<br />Thermal Energy: 0.80 Million Kcal/Tonne Clinker<br />Electrical Energy: 100 KWH/Tonne cement<br />Coal Requirement: 2,00,000 Tonnes/Year<br />Power Requirement: 20 MW (At 70% Load Factor)<br />
  7. 7. Total Power & Captive Power Requirement for Various Plant Capacities<br />* Taking Captive Power Requirement @ 30% of Total Power for Maintaining Continuous Production from Kiln<br />
  8. 8. PREHEATER EXIT GAS, 300 – 400OC, 180-250 KCAL/KG<br />COOLER EXIT GAS, 200 – 300OC, 80-130 KCAL/KG<br />SOURCES OF WASTE HEAT<br />
  9. 9. COGENERATION POTENTIAL IN INDIA<br />Plants that are amenable for Cogeneration : 40<br />Total Cogeneration Capacity, MW : 160<br />Expected Power Savings : Upto 25 – 30% of Total Power Requirement can be achieved in a cement plant<br />
  10. 10. CO2 Reduction Possibilities<br />CO2 Reduction Potential : 1.50<br /> (Million Tonnes per Year)<br />Percentage Reduction as compared to emissions due to electricity consumption : 18<br />
  11. 11. Power Generation through Waste Heat Recovery<br />Utilization of waste heat from the Pre-Heater gases for power generation.<br />Utilization of waste heat from AQC.<br />Utilizing 40% Thermal Energy discharging into the atmosphere.<br />Producing about 30% of Total Power Requirement for the Plant itself.<br />Reducing CO2 amount in the atmosphere.<br />
  12. 12. Technical Consideration For Cogeneration Schemes <br />Availability of waste heat for cogeneration<br />Location of Waste Heat Boiler<br />Suitability of Waste Heat Recovery Boiler<br />Maximum Flue Gas Temperature<br />Quantity of Heat Recovery<br />Type of Boilers, Turbines and Condensers<br />De-dusting Arrangement<br />Availability of Water<br />
  13. 13. Recent Developments<br />Improved Waste Heat Recovery Boiler (THERMOWIR)<br />Removing 60% (48-60 gm/Nm3) dust from the gases reducing load on existing ESP<br />Higher efficiency compared to conventional Heat Exchangers<br />
  14. 14. Recent Developments<br />Modified Rankine Cycle System “KALINA Cycle”<br />Uses Binary fluid of Ammonia and Water<br />Efficiency gains of upto 50% for low temperature (200-280oC) and upto 20% for higher temperature heat sources compared to rankine cycle<br />
  15. 15. Recent Developments<br />Organic Rankine Cycle (ORMAT Energy Convertor (OEC))<br />Uses organic fluid as working medium instead of steam<br />Suitable for much lower temperature heat sources as organic fluid has a much lower boiling point as compared to water.<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Case Study: 1.2MTPA, 4-Stage Preheater Cement Plant<br />
  18. 18. Estimated Cogeneration Potential<br />
  19. 19. Barriers in Adoption of Cogeneration Technology<br />Technical Barriers<br />Financial Barriers<br />Institutional Barriers<br />
  20. 20. Technical/Technological Barriers<br />Non Availability of Proven technology indigenously.<br />Design of waste heat recovery boiler suitable to withstand high dust load in the waste gases.<br />High performance risk due to demonstration.<br />
  21. 21. Financial Barriers<br />Large Capital Requirement and financial constraints.<br />Viability remains to be established.<br />High cost of technology and access to funds.<br />Depressed cement marketing scenario.<br />
  22. 22. Institutional Barriers<br />Lack of incentives for adoption of technology.<br />Lack of capacity building efforts resulting in lack of operating experience and confidence level.<br />
  23. 23. THANK YOU!<br />