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This is a resentation from a serial work on the concept of library automation and softwares , a training course for MLIS students

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  1. 1. SOFTWARE (2) Vahideh Z. Gavgani Department Library and Information Science Osmania University Hyderabad
  2. 2. Hypertext <ul><li>Hyper = Over; beyond, something more than usual for example : </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper active : a term that is used to describe a person or a character very much active , more active Hypertension : a term to describe high blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Text = That is a letter or combination of some letters to carry /transfer a meaning. Human being uses text to express Idea and concepts, it is also used for recording and preserving scientific facts, theories, literatures and cultural inherent , to enjoyment of present community and next generation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Simply that is some thing beyond text, more than a simple/plain/ordinary text. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “a little prin c e” written by Exuperi </li></ul><ul><li>Written by – </li></ul><ul><li>Characters: ros e , fo x , </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul>Hyper +Text = Hypertext
  4. 4. Definition of Hypertext <ul><li>Hypertext most often refers to text on a computer that will lead the user to other, related information on demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext represents a relatively recent innovation to user interface , which overcomes some of the limitations of written text. Rather than remaining static like traditional text, hypertext makes possible a dynamic organization of information through links and connections (called hyperlink ). </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext can be designed to perform various tasks; for instance when a user &quot;clicks&quot; on it or &quot;hovers&quot; over it, a bubble with a word definition may appear, or a web page on a related subject may load, or a video clip may run, or an application may open. </li></ul>
  5. 5. History of Hypertext <ul><li>In 1965 the terms hepertext and hypermedia coined by Ted Nelson. In his article titled “ Complex information processing: a file structure for the complex, the changing and the indeterminate “ </li></ul><ul><li>In 1992 he wrote:  </li></ul><ul><li>By now the word &quot;hypertext&quot; has become generally accepted for branching and responding text, but the corresponding word &quot;hypermedia,&quot; meaning complexes of branching and responding graphics , movies and sound - as well as text - is much less used. Instead they use the strange term &quot;interactive multimedia&quot; - four syllables longer, and not expressing the idea that it extends hypertext. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Writings career <ul><li>Papyrus scrolls </li></ul><ul><li>Codex </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>  Liner text book </li></ul><ul><li>Index (Encyclopedia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why hypertexts? Characteristic <ul><li>In a hypertext system, the reader is free to navigate information by exploring the connections provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext is very different way of presenting information than the usual linear form. </li></ul><ul><li>Text no longer flows in a straight line through a book. Instead, it is broken down into many smaller units (lexias, to borrow a term from literary criticism), each addressing a few issues </li></ul><ul><li>It acts as a bridge between two basic, opposite, and complementing elements that may be called gender of knowledge representation: tree and shortcut </li></ul>
  8. 8. Advantages of Hypertext <ul><li>Simultaneous : It's easier to have multiple windows available Simultaneously. As o ne of the most fundamental problems in writing is simultaneity . </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness : Another possibility for hypertext is the expansion of the timeline . In a hypertext timeline, the points indicated on the timeline don't have to stand by themselves, and the reader doesn't even have to search a chapter or search through the index to find supporting information </li></ul>
  9. 9. Advantages …2 <ul><li>3. Multiple Paths of Inquiry /exploration: Hypertext is very different way of presenting information than the usual linear form. Reading hypertext is just like exploration . Readers have the opportunity to read in great depth, and will hopefully find well-written hypertext more interesting than even the most enthusiastic notes . </li></ul><ul><li>4. Individual learning opportunities :These multiple paths of inquiry can be customized for particular learners or groups of learners according to ability </li></ul>
  10. 10. Advantages …3 <ul><li>5. Reader control: A hypertext environment gives the learner control over paths of learning. Reader control allows the learner to make choices in navigating and manipulating the content on sites.  As well, hypertext allows for a non-linear movement within a document with the option of quickly returning to the point of origin  (Conklin, 1987). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Non-Linear information Structure :Hypertext allows for a non-linear movement within a document with the option of quickly returning to where learners started  (Conklin, 1987). 6. Supports the connection of ideas </li></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages …4 <ul><li>6. Some Text Is Suited to Hypertext : Some textual information is not easily presented in a linear form.  Arguments and counter arguments are easier to present in hypertext. Some linear texts are unwieldy, and their indices are inadequate(Foltz, 1996). Searching for a specific information is easier with hypertext (Foltz, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Updating Information  : Writers of hypertext can easily access their work and update information, links, and references, to ensure an active and functional site . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Advantages …5 <ul><li>8. Critical Thinking: Hypertext allows readers to analyze information from multiple perspectives.  Information gathered from different sources engages users in critical thinking as they make choices, discover, and problem solve their own route through the topic being studied </li></ul><ul><li>9. Centering and de-centering : As the learner uses hypertext, they determine the focus or center of investigation by choosing to move outside the limits setup by the author's navigational structure. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Advantages …6 <ul><li>10. Embedded text : Text in a document can be directly linked to references and other documents for quick access.  Embedded text, if moved to a new document, will take its linked properties with it. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Asynchronous communication   : Not only, does hypertext support synchronous communication, giving it a similar functionality as a book, hypertext enables direct communication with an author or expert, (asynchronous communication) thus, providing an enriched learning environment. (Brown 1999). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Disadvantages…1 <ul><li>I just found one disadvantages for this tool, e.g. the possibility of getting lost through the ocean of information and misinformation. Although it is not really disadvantages because reader is free/autonomous and s/he has control on the text and links. </li></ul><ul><li>From learning /education aspect paper-based information are more comfortable to read, learn, handle than hypertext but for exploring information and navigation on information hypertext is more striking. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer required, </li></ul>
  15. 15. Disadvantages…2 <ul><li>1. Reader Disorientation: Critics of hypertext say that learners may lose their sense of direction or location as they move and select links in hypertext.  There may well be a problem with concentration as the learner moves through hypertext.  Each link may redirect the learner's attention and require a shift in attention. Readers in hypertext may find it difficult to stay on track given the option to diverge down another path.  Some readers prefer to follow the author's intended path with a more structured hypertext environment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Disadvantages ... <ul><li>2. Cognitive Overhead Cognitive overhead is the effort and concentration required to maintain several tasks at one time. Critics of hypertext believe that learners can experience cognitive overload as they try to keep track of multiple paths of inquiry. A well-designed hypertext environment will minimize cognitive overhead (Keep, McLaughlin & Palmer, 1993 -2001 ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Disadvantages ... <ul><li>3.Computer Required In order to use hypertext, the learner requires a computer and the ability to know how to access the information.  Icons and other graphic images commonly found in hypertext usually represent a function to perform that may be unfamiliar to a new user. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reading from the Screen Reading from the screen is very different from reading in a linear text. The interactive style of reading may be altering the form of reading (Hypertext Barriers, n.d.) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>5. Too much control readers who have very little knowledge of a subject may be overwhelmed by the information and lack the skills to succeed when using hypertext.  These students don't know where to start to engage in productive learning </li></ul>
  19. 22. User interface <ul><li>The user interface (or Human Machine Interface ) is the aggregate of means by which people ( the users ) interact with a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool ( the system ). The user interface provides means of: </li></ul><ul><li>Input , allowing the users to manipulate a system </li></ul><ul><li>Output , allowing the system to produce the effects of the users' manipulation </li></ul>
  20. 23. Reference <ul><li>http://www.accesswave.ca/~hgunn/special/papers/hypertxt/advantag.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.Wikipedia.org </li></ul>