Lexical borrowing in Kurdish language


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Lexical borrowing in Kurdish language

  1. 1. College of language English department Lexical borrowing
  2. 2. What is lexical borrowing? It is a words borrowed from a donor language and incorporated in to a recipient language. Lexical borrowing is one of the process of linguistic change , this process visible especially in phonetic ,morphological , syntactic . In our language we borrowed some words from other language but with a little bit change in pronunciation.
  3. 3. Lexical borrowing in English language Lexical borrowing in English started in period of { middle English} roughly 1100-1500 and the French language contributed many loanword in English and also English has adopted from more than300 language For example the word of joy comes from joie which it is old French The word of rich comes from reich which it is a Germany word
  4. 4. Lexical borrowing vs Code switching Code-switching occurs when a speaker of two distinct languages switches between the two in conversing with another person who also understands both languages. Lexical borrowing is process of adopting words from one or more languages
  5. 5. There are kinds of loan words according to David Crystal like:- 1) Loan words: “where both form and meaning are borrowed or assimilated with some adaptation to the phonological of the new language” 2) Loan blends: It is another kind “where the meaning is borrowed, but only part of the form” 3) Loan shifts: This is another sort of “loan words where the meaning is borrowed, but the structure is indigenous”. 4) Loan translation: points out that it refers to loans, “where the morphemes in the borrowed word are translated item by item”.
  6. 6. Circumstances or situations of lexical borrowing 1) History:A great war between Turks and Iranian, (Chaldiran in 23 August 1514) Division of Great Kurdistan into four different countries (Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq) Lexical borrowing occurs between Kurdish dialects Kurmanci, Sorani, Hawrami Lexical borrowing appeared in some great poet’s poem of Kurdistan Mawlawe, Malaye Ciziri, Haci Qadri koye… etc
  7. 7. Examples of borrowings in some poems:- (Ashq)e bajna (latef)m (Xasta) (hal)m pr (za’if)m Kas b (hal)m nazan (Malaye Ciziri) Ashq=lover, latef=cute, hal=situation, xasta=sick, za’if=wea k
  8. 8. Kteb u daftar u tarix u kaxaz Ba kurdi gar bnusraya zuban e Mala u shex u mir u padshaman Hata (mah'shar) dama nav u nishane (Haji Qadri Koyee)
  9. 9. 2)Culture Cultural borrowing is when one country or culture borrows or copies elements of another country or culture. Contact between cultures leads to borrowing between languages, when cultural borrowings happening within this ''lexical (word) borrowings'' also appear… For example:( kfta
  10. 10. 3)Religion In Islam, Kurdish language influenced with Arabic language. Some of the most important words had been borrowed from Arabic because as we know it is the main language of Holy Quran For instance :Alhamdulillah (Supas w stayesh bo Xudai Gawra) (praise to God) In Christianity borrowing word ‘Ameen’ between European countries.
  11. 11. Indo-European language Family
  12. 12. Kurdish language is in Indo-European group of languages:Kurdish English German French Persian Greek
  13. 13. Borrowings marked in Wahby and Edmonds' (1966) dictionary (calculations are of author): Native Words Loan Words Arabic European Persian Turkish 5,896 945 716 100 73 56 %86.1 %13.8 %10.4 % 1.4 % 1.0 % 0.8 Native words Arabic European Persian
  14. 14. Less used native words qellem shi'r kelime xet Kitéb pen poem word line book pénús honrawe, hellbest wishe héll perrtúk, perraw
  15. 15. Language death:- A linguistic term for the end or extinction of a language. A language dies when it no longer has any speakers. It's normal for languages to borrow words from other languages, but in some circumstances, this can get out of control. 6,500 languages in the world, more than half are expected to die within the next century, and many more are declining. It's estimated that two languages die out every month.
  16. 16. References:Crystal D. (2003). A dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. (5th ed.). UK: Blackwell (Jhiyan, December 9, 1926, pp. 1-2) Kurdish-English dictionary by Tawfeq wahby & C. J. Edmonds Oxford Clarendon Press, 1966 http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/443 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loanword http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/yourvoice/language/ecology2.shtml http://www.daplatform.com/images/kurdceyitaniyalim http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%BCrt%C3%A7e