LEARNING MAMTA MOHAN
Consumer learning <ul><li>A  process  by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption  knowledge  and  experienc...
Elements of Learning Theories <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Reinf...
Learning Theories <ul><li>Behavioral Theories :  based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observabl...
<ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>According to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus ( pavlovian...
Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Classical conditioning process   in which a person learns an association b/w 2 stimuli due ...
<ul><li>Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error p...
Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Repetition - increases strength of associations b/t CS and UCS an...
Substantive Variations <ul><li>Are changes in advertisement contents across different versions of the same adds  </li></ul>
Stimulus Generalization (SG) <ul><li>Making the same response to slightly different stimuli.The inability to perceive diff...
Product Line Extension
Manufacturer Licenses  Its Name
Stimulus Discrimination <ul><li>The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived ...
Instrumental Conditioning <ul><li>-Behaviour occurs because it is rewarding . </li></ul><ul><li>-Behaviour can be Shaped b...
Observational Learning / Modelling <ul><li>A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences...
Consumers Learn by Modeling
II  Cognitive Learning Theory <ul><li>Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solvi...
Involvement Theory <ul><li>A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information ...
Split Brain theory : Encouraging Right and Left Brain Processing
Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance <ul><li>Involvement Theory and Media Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Central and Peri...
Measures of Consumer Learning <ul><li>Recognition and Recall Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aided and Unaided Recall </li>...
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  • Listerine, dettol, boroline, nirma bath, tomco, gorgia…. Context, training, reinforcement, and cue are the four steps to behavioural marketing, says Neale Martin in Habit: The 95% Behavior Marketers Ignore ( www.ftpress.com ). Context holds the key to the why and where of behaviour. For instance, users can access music in many different ways, including listening to a radio, playing a CD, and using Internet radio, satellite, and MP3 players, the author explains. The wireless carrier and handset manufacturer have to, therefore, create a new context or replace habitual use in an existing context to get you to listen to music on a cell phone! Talking about training, the author advises that the lure of sexy new applications should be tempered with the knowledge that companies are looking for relationships with their customers, not one-night stands. Reinforcement is the feedback mechanism that alters the firing patterns of neurons in the part of your brain that is learning unconsciously, Martin
  • Motivation spurs learning. based on needs and goals. Cues: stimuli. (Ads) give direction to motivation. serve to direct consumer drives when they are consistent with consumer expectations. each action of marketing mix must reinforce the others if cues are to serve as stimuli. Response : how individual may react to cue. Rein enforcement: increases the likelihood that a response will occur in future as a result of particular cues or stimuli.
  • e.g pen slide superstore Body shop Line extentions
  • Pavolian bell, conditioned response to similar objects like jingling sound of the keys. maggie soups, noodles , pickles , sauce etc. Calvien klien , Christan Doir- licence to sheets to shoes , perfumes
  • It is difficult to unseat the brand leader.once the stimulition dis’n has occurred.leader has first mover adv to teach the target mkt Longer te period of learning the more likely the cr will discriminate.
  • Q why we frequent the same barber?perfect hair cut Q Why we eat green veg? even when they are not to our tases? Good for us. B. F Skinner1953 harvard univ -A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior. Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement : Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo Negative Reinforcement : Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior Example: Ad showing wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream Free test drive and gifts.
  • Livon hair softner / disentangler
  • Learning Edited

    1. 1. LEARNING MAMTA MOHAN
    2. 2. Consumer learning <ul><li>A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>. Marketers must teach consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where to buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to dispose of products </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Elements of Learning Theories <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>
    4. 4. Learning Theories <ul><li>Behavioral Theories : based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory . </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling or Observational Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theory : of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving . </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>According to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus ( pavlovian Exp’t) </li></ul><ul><li>- unconditional stimulus (UCS: meat) -towards which customer already has a pre existing response, so the response to which does not have to be conditioned. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus (CS: bell ringing)- stimulus to which Customer either does not have a response or a preexisting response needs modification, so a new response needs to be conditioned. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Classical conditioning process in which a person learns an association b/w 2 stimuli due to their constant appearance as a pair. Due to this continuous pairing C’r tend to attribute to the previously unknown stimuli ( pdt/ service) whatever they feel about the paired stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Is not reflexive action, but rather the acquisition of new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Works in Advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g identical slides of 2 similar pens paired with diff music . </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Repetition - increases strength of associations b/t CS and UCS and slows forgetting but over time may result in advertising wear out. </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetic variations reduce satiation- diff back grounds, spokespersons. </li></ul><ul><li>Substantive Variations- </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Discrimination </li></ul>
    9. 9. Substantive Variations <ul><li>Are changes in advertisement contents across different versions of the same adds </li></ul>
    10. 10. Stimulus Generalization (SG) <ul><li>Making the same response to slightly different stimuli.The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>SG and Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Me- To products. </li></ul><ul><li>Product Line, Form and Category Extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Family Branding </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul>
    11. 11. Product Line Extension
    12. 12. Manufacturer Licenses Its Name
    13. 13. Stimulus Discrimination <ul><li>The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul>
    14. 14. Instrumental Conditioning <ul><li>-Behaviour occurs because it is rewarding . </li></ul><ul><li>-Behaviour can be Shaped by rewarding that behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing applications </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)- pdt as its own intrinsic reward. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g casinos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotteries , sweep stakes. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Observational Learning / Modelling <ul><li>A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Consumers Learn by Modeling
    17. 17. II Cognitive Learning Theory <ul><li>Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing </li></ul><ul><li>A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Retention -Information is stored in long-term </li></ul><ul><li>memory. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Involvement Theory <ul><li>A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase. </li></ul><ul><li>Split Brain Theory </li></ul>
    19. 19. Split Brain theory : Encouraging Right and Left Brain Processing
    20. 20. Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance <ul><li>Involvement Theory and Media Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>A theory that proposes that highly involved consumers are best reached through ads that focus on the specific attributes of the product (the central route) while uninvolved consumers can be attracted through peripheral advertising cues such as the model or the setting (the peripheral route </li></ul>
    21. 21. Measures of Consumer Learning <ul><li>Recognition and Recall Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aided and Unaided Recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy testing Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty </li></ul>

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