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Gget 30 webscience

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Gget 30 webscience

  1. 1. ¶ § ∏ ƒ √ º √ ƒ π ∫ ∏ ªÈ· Ó¤· ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›· ·fi ÙÔÓ ÂÊ¢ڤÙË ÙÔ˘ WWW Tim Berners-Lee 15 Î·È ϤÔÓ ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ·fi ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÔ˘ ΔÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙÔ˘ Web ÙˆÓ ªÈ¯¿ÏË μ·ÊfiÔ˘ÏÔ˘1 Î·È °ÈÒÚÁÔ˘ ªËٷΛ‰Ë2 Δ· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Ù˘ ¶ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋˜ ¤¯ÂÈ Î·ÙÔÚıÒÛÂÈ Ó· Û˘ÓÂÈÛʤÚÂÈ Ì ¿ÌÂÛÔ ‹ ¤ÌÌÂÛÔ ÙÚfiÔ Û fiÏÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÏ¿‰Ô˘˜ Ù˘ ·Î·‰ËÌ·˚΋˜ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ù˘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ. ∏ ‰È¿‰ÔÛË ÙˆÓ „ËÊÈ·ÎÒÓ ·Á·ıÒÓ Î·È ÙÔ ÚˆÙÔÊ·Ó¤˜ ¯·ÚÙÔÊ˘Ï¿ÎÈÔ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈÒÓ Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ó·Ù˘¯ı› ·fi ÙËÓ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋ ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙ· ÂÚÁ·Ï›· ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ·ÙÈ- ÎÒÓ, ÙˆÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÈ· Â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓË ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·. ÁÓÒÛË Ì·˜ ÁÈ· ÔχÏÔη, ·ÏÏ¿ ÓÙÚˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ·ÎÒÓ Û˘ÛÙËÌ¿- ∏ Î·È ÁÈ· ·Ï¿, ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ¿ ı¤Ì·Ù· ·˘Í¿ÓÂÙ·È Ì¤Ú· Ì ÙËÓ Ì¤Ú· Û ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ‚·ıÌfi, ÂÍ·ÈÙ›·˜, ΢ڛˆ˜, Ù˘ ÙˆÓ. ⁄ÛÙÂÚ· ·fi ‰Âη¤ÓÙÂ Î·È ϤÔÓ ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ·fi ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÔ˘, Î·È ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ ÂÓfi˜ ÂÓÈ·›Ô˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎÔ‡ Û¯ËÌ·Ù›ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· –fi¯È È· ·Ï¿ ÎÚ›ÛÈÌË, ˘fi‚·ıÚÔ˘ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Î·È ·Ó··Ú¿- ·ÏÏ¿– ÂÎÚËÎÙÈ΋ Ì¿˙· 1,3 ‰ÈÛÂηÙÔÌÌ˘- ÛÙ·Û˘, ÙÔ˘ Wo rld Wide W eb (WWW ‹ Ú›ˆÓ ¯ÚËÛÙÒÓ, ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ì›· ·fi ÙȘ ·ÏÒ˜ Web). √ ¯ÒÚÔ˜, Ô ¯ÚfiÓÔ˜ Î·È ÙÔ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÈÒÓ·. ◊ÚıÂ, ÏÔÈfiÓ, Ë Ο κ. Γιώργος ÎfiÛÙÔ˜ Û˘ÚÚÈÎÓÒÓÔÓÙ·È Î·È (‰˘ÓËÙÈο) ÒÚ· Ó· ÌÂÏÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÈÔ Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο Μητακίδης. ·ÂÏ¢ıÂÚÒÓÔ˘Ó ÏÂÔÓ¿˙Ô˘Û· ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ· ÙËÓ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·, ÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜, ÙȘ ÔÈÎÔ- ÁÈ· Ӥ˜ Î·È ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÂÓ·Û¯ÔÏ‹ÛÂȘ ÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ Î·È ÙË ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË Û fiÏÔ Î·È ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜. ÙÔ˘ Ù¯ÓÔ˘ÚÁ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ Web. ¡· √ ·ÛÙ›Ú¢ÙÔ˜ ÂÓıÔ˘ÛÈ·ÛÌfi˜ Ì·˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÂÈÛ¯ˆÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ‚·ı‡ÙÂÚ· ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ï‹ ηÈÓÔÊ·Ó¤˜ ̤ÛÔ Î·È ÔÈ Ó¤ÔÈ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·- ÂÎÌ¿ıËÛË Î·È ÌÂϤÙË ÙˆÓ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈÒÓ ÙÈÛÌÔ› Ô˘ ·Ó¤Î˘„·Ó ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ó·Á¤ÓÓË- ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Î·È ÊÈÏÔÍÂÓ›·˜ ÈÛÙÔÛÂÏ›- ÛË Ù˘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Ì·˜ ‰ˆÓ. ¡· Û˘Ó‰˘¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÙË ÁÓÒÛË Î·È ÙËÓ Ô‰‹ÁËÛ·Ó ÛÙÔ Ó· ÌËÓ ÂÓÙÚ˘Ê‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÂÌÂÈÚ›· Ì·˜ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· Î·È ÙËÓ Â·ÚÎÒ˜ ÛÙ· Û˘ÛÙ·ÙÈο ÛÙÔȯ›· Î·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·, ¤ÙÛÈ ÒÛÙ ӷ ·ÍÈÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘ÌÂ Ο κ. Μιχάλης ÛÙȘ –Û ·ÚÎÂÙ¤˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ·ÚÓËÙÈΤ˜– ÙȘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÔÎÂÓÙÚˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ Βαφόπουλος. ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ Web. ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ·ÎÒÓ Û˘ÛÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ™‹ÌÂÚ·, Ô ·ÚÈıÌfi˜ ÙˆÓ ¯ÚËÛÙÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ÚÔÛˆÈ΋ Î·È ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Web ÍÂÂÚÓ¿ÂÈ ÙÔ ¤Ó· ‰ÈÛÂηÙÔÌ̇ÚÈÔ, fiÏˆÓ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘. ÂÓÒ Ë ¿ÌÂÛË Î·È Ë ¤ÌÌÂÛË ·Í›· Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ ·fi ÙË ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ Â›Ó·È ·‰‡- √È Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ ÙÔ˘ Web Ó·ÙÔÓ Ó· ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛı›, fiÛÔ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ Ó· ∞ÏÏ¿ ·˜ ¿ÚÔ˘Ì ٷ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛı›. ∏ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ Web ηÏ›- Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· ·fi ÙËÓ Ù·È Ó· ÌÂÏÂÙ‹ÛÂÈ, Û ÚÒÙË Ê¿ÛË, ÙȘ ·Ú¯‹. ΔÔ 1989 o Δim Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜, ÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Î·È ÙȘ ÔÈÎÔ- Berners-Lee ÚfiÙÂÈÓ ÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘ ¤Ó· ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ÎÏ›- ·˘Ù‹˜ Î·È Ó· ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÂÈ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈΤ˜ ̷η˜ ¤ÚÁÔ Ì ‚¿ÛË ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·ÚÔÊfiÚ· ·ÍÈÔÔ›Ë- ÙÔ ˘ÂÚ-ΛÌÂÓÔ, ÁÓˆ- ÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È·Û˘Ó‰Â‰ÂÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È ·ÔÎÂ- ο Sir Tim Berners-Lee. ÛÙfi ˆ˜ World Wide32 π∞¡√À∞ƒπ√™ - º∂μƒ√À∞ƒπ√™ 2008
  2. 2. Web. ∏ ÚfiÙ·ÛË ·˘Ù‹ ‚·Û›ÛıËΠÛÙËÓ ∂ÈÚÔÛı¤Ùˆ˜, ÙÔ 1994, o Δim Berners-ÚÔÁÂÓ¤ÛÙÂÚË ÂÚÁ·Û›· ÁÈ· ÙÔ «Enquire»3 Lee ¤ÁÈÓÂ Ô ÚÒÙÔ˜ ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ÓÂÔ˚-Î·È Â›¯Â ۯ‰ȷÛÙ› Ì ÛÎÔfi Ó· ÂÈÙÚ¤- ‰Ú˘ı¤ÓÙÔ˜ World Wide WebÂÈ ÙËÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓË Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›· Ì ÙÔ Consortium (W3C) 6 ÛÙÔ ∂ÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔÛ˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi ÁÓÒÛ˘ Û ¤Ó·Ó ÈÛÙfi ·fi ¶ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘ ªπΔ (LCS). ŒÎÙÔÙ·گ›· ˘ÂÚÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ. ∫·Ù·Û··Û ÙÔÓ Î·È Ì¤¯ÚÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ· ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÂÈ ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹˜ÚÒÙÔ Â͢ËÚÂÙËÙ‹ (server) World ÙÔ˘ W3C, ÂÓfi˜ ÊÔÚ¤· Ô˘ Û˘ÓÙÔÓ›˙ÂÈWide Web ("httpd") Î·È ÙÔÓ ÚÒÙÔ ÙËÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ‰È¿‰ÔÛË ÙÔ˘ Web ηÈÂÏ¿ÙË (client) Ì ÙËÓ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙÔ ERCIM7 ÛÙËÓ ∂˘ÚÒ-"WorldWideWeb", Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Û ¤Ó· Ë Î·È Ì ÙÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ÙÔ˘ KeioÊ˘ÏÏÔÌÂÙÚËÙ‹/Û˘ÓÙ¿ÎÙË WYSIWYG 4 ÛÙËÓ π·ˆÓ›·. ∞ÔÛÙÔÏ‹ ÙÔ˘ W3C Â›Ó·È˘ÂÚÎÂÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ Û ¤Ó· ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ Ó· Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ Web ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÁÈÛÙÔ ÙˆÓNeXTStep. H ÂÚÁ·Û›· ·˘Ù‹ ÍÂΛÓËÛ ÙÔÓ ‰˘Ó·ÙÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘, ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔÓÙ·˜ Úˆ-√ÎÙÒ‚ÚÈÔ ÙÔ˘ 1990 Î·È ÙÔ ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ÙfiÎÔÏÏ· Î·È Ô‰ËÁ›Â˜ Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›˙Ô˘Ó"WorldWideWeb" ÂÓÂÚÁÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÁÈ· ÙË Ì·ÎÚÔÚfiıÂÛÌË ·Ó¿Ù˘Í‹ ÙÔ˘.ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ̤۷ ÛÙÔ CERN5 ÙÔ ¢ÂΤÌ- ∞fi ÙÔ 2006 Û˘Ó-‰È¢ı‡ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ∂Ú¢ÓË-‚ÚÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ›‰ÈÔ˘ ¤ÙÔ˘˜. ™ÙÔ Â˘Ú‡ Ê¿ÛÌ· ÙÈ΋ ¶ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ÙÔ˘ ‰È·‰ÈÎÙ‡Ô˘ ÂÊ·ÚÌfiÛıËΠ·fi ÙÔ Web (WSRI)8. ΔÔ WSRI Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÎÔÈӋηÏÔη›ÚÈ ÙÔ˘ 1991. ∞fi ÙÔ 1991 ¤ˆ˜ ÙÔ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘ Computer1993 Ô Tim Û˘Ó¤¯ÈÛ ӷ ÂÚÁ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙË Science and Artificial Intelligenceۯ‰›·ÛË ÙÔ˘ Web, ·ÍÈÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ Laboratory (CSAIL) ÛÙÔ MIT Î·È ÙÔ˘·Ú·ÙËÚ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È Ù· Û¯fiÏÈ· ÙˆÓ ¯ÚË- ΔÌ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ∂ÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙˆÓ ÀÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÒÓÛÙÒÓ ·fi fiÏÔ ÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô. √È ·Ú¯ÈÎÔ› ÛÙÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ÙÔ˘ Southampton.ÔÚÈÛÌÔ› ÙˆÓ URIs ÙÔ˘ HTTP Î·È Ù˘ ™Ùfi¯Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ WSRI Â›Ó·È Ó· ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÂÈ Î·ÈHTML ÙÚÔÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó Î·È ¤ÁÈÓ·Ó ·ÓÙÈ- Ó· Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ ÙȘ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈΤ˜Î›ÌÂÓÔ Â˘Ú›·˜ Û˘˙‹ÙËÛ˘ Ì ÙËÓ ÂÍ¿- ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎfi ۯ‰ȷÛÌfiψÛË Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ Web. Î·È ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ Wo rld Wide W eb .ΔÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙÔ˘ WebΔÈ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ Â›Ó·È fï˜ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹- Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË Î·È Ë ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ·ÌË ÙÔ˘ Web; ™˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ ÌÈ· ηÈ- ÁÈ· ÙÔ Web ı· Ú¤ÂÈ ÔˆÛ‰‹ÔÙ ӷÓÔ‡ÚÈ· ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ‹ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ¤Ó· Ó¤Ô ÂÈÎÂÓÙÚˆı› Û ‰‡Ô ηÙËÁÔڛ˜ ıÂÌ¿-fiÓÔÌ· ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘Ó¤ÓˆÛË ˘ÊÈÛÙ¿ÌÂÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ: (·) ÙÈ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ú·Ì›ÓÂÈ ÛÙ·ıÂ-ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈÎÒÓ ‰›ˆÓ; ∞Í›˙ÂÈ Ó· ·Ó·ÁÔ- Úfi Î·È (‚) ÙÈ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·ÏÏ¿ÍÂÈ. ™Ùfi¯Ô˜,Ú¢Ù› ˆ˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË; ¶ÔÈ· ı· Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙÔ˘ Web ›ӷÈ,ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙÔ˘ Web; ·ÊÂÓfi˜, Ó· Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚfi-¶ÔÈ· Â›Ó·È Ë ‚·ÛÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË Ô˘ ÌÔÈÚ¿- Ô˘˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ ÔÈ ·ÔÎÂÓÙڈ̤-˙ÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ÙÔ˘ Web; ¶Ò˜ ı· ÓÔÈ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ·ÎÔ› Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÔ› (fiˆ˜ ÙÔÌÔÈ¿˙ÂÈ ¿Ú·Á ÌÈ· ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ Web) ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· Â͢ËÚÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ Web; ·Ó¿ÁΘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆ-™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ Tim Berners-Lee9, Ë Ó›·˜ ηÈ, ·ÊÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘, Ó· ‰ÈÂÚ¢ӋÛÂÈ ÙȘ3 ΔÔ ÚÒÙÔ ÏÔÁÈÛÌÈÎfi ·Ôı‹Î¢Û˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·˜ Ô˘ ÂÚÈÏ¿Ì‚·ÓÂ Ù˘¯·›Â˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›ÛÂȘ Î·È ‰ÂÓ ‰ËÌÔÛÈÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÔÙ¤.4 What You See Is What You Get. ªÈ· ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ WYSIWYG ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÔıfiÓË ÙÔ˘ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙ‹ ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ Î·È Ù· ÁÚ·ÊÈο ÛÙËÓ ·ÎÚÈ‚‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÌÔÚÊ‹, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÛÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ Ô˘ ı· ¤¯Ô˘Ó fiÙ·Ó Ù˘ˆıÔ‡Ó, ‹, ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁÒÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹˜ ÈÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰ˆÓ, ÛÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ Ô˘ ı· ¤¯Ô˘Ó fiÙ·Ó ‰ËÌÔÛÈ¢ıÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ Web.5 πÓÛÙÈÙÔ‡ÙÔ ŒÚ¢ӷ˜ ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ Ì ¤‰Ú· ÛÙËÓ ∂˘ÚÒË.6 www.w3c.org7 European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, www.ercim.org.8 Web Science Research Initiative, www.webscience.org.9 Berners-Lee (2007), ΔÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙÔ˘ Web (ÌÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË ªÈ¯¿ÏË μ·ÊfiÔ˘ÏÔ˘), ÂΉfiÛÂȘ hyperconsult, ISBN 978-960-930361-3. π∞¡√À∞ƒπ√™ - º∂μƒ√À∞ƒπ√™ 2008 33
  3. 3. ¶ § ∏ ƒ √ º √ ƒ π ∫ ∏ ÔÈ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈΤ˜ Û˘Ó·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ Î·È Ë ËÏÂ- ÎÙÚÔÓÈ΋ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË (e-science). ŒÓ· ·fi Ù· ‚·ÛÈο ÂÚˆÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙÔ˘ Web ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙȘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ ̤۷ ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ¤Ó·˜ ·ÔÎÂÓÙڈ̤ÓÔ˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ·Îfi˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌfi˜ Â›Ó·È ·Ô- ‰ÔÙÈÎfi˜. ¶¤Ú· ·fi Ù· ·ÌÈÁÒ˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈο ÂÚˆÙ‹- Ì·Ù· Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ٷ ÚˆÙfiÎÔÏÏ· Î·È ÙȘ ÁÏÒÛÛ˜ ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙÔ Web, ·Ó·Î‡ÙÔ˘Ó Î·È ÂÚˆÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜, ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜, „˘¯ÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ʇÛ˘. °È· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÙÈ ÂÈ˙ËÙÔ‡Ó ÔÈ ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ Î·È ÔÈ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ˜ ·fi ÙÔ Web Î·È ÔÈ· Â›Ó·È Ë online Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚ¿, Û ·ÙÔÌÈÎfi Î·È Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÎfi Â›‰Ô, Ô˘ ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È ÁÈ· Ó· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ Â‡Ú˘ıÌ·; ◊, ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔȯ·, ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ fiÚÈÔ Ì¤ÁÈÛÙ˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌfiÙËÙ·˜ Ù˘ ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›·˜ Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ Ë ·ÔÎÂÓÙڈ̤ÓË Ê‡ÛË ·Ú¯¤˜ Î·È ÙȘ ‰Ô̤˜ Ô˘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯Ô‡Ó ‹ ÙÔ˘ Web; ∫·ıÒ˜ Ô ·ÚÈıÌfi˜ ÙˆÓ ¯ÚË- ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È Ó· ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯‹ÛÔ˘Ó Û ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ ÛÙÒÓ ·˘Í¿ÓÂÙ·È, ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ÔÈ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜. ÀÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜ ÂÓfi˜ ¯Ú‹ÛÙË Ó· ηٷ·ÙÔ‡Ó Î·È ÌÂϤÙË Û ‚¿ıÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÔÎÂÓÙÚˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ó· ÂÚÈÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ‰È·ı¤ÛÈ̘ ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ·ÎÒÓ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÒÓ ı· ‰È·- ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ˘ÔÏÔ›Ô˘˜; ◊ Ì‹ˆ˜ Ô Êfi‚Ô˜ ‰Ú·Ì·Ù›ÛÂÈ ˙ˆÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiË- ·˘Ùfi˜ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ·ÏÒ˜ ÌÈ· ·‚¿ÛÈÌË Î·È ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÙÚfiÔ˘ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ¿Ù˘ÔÈ Î·È ·ÔÙ˘¯Ë̤ÓË ÚÔ¤ÎÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈ- Ù˘¯·›ÔÈ Û‡Ó‰ÂÛÌÔÈ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û ·ÓıÚÒ- ÎÔ‡ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Ô˘˜, ‰ËÌfiÛÈÔ˘˜ Î·È È‰ÈˆÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÊÔÚ›˜, ·fi ·ÌÂÙ¿‚ÏËÙ˜ ¯ˆÚÈΤ˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜; ‚¿ÛÂȘ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È ÏÔÈÔ‡˜ fiÚÔ˘˜ ∂ÈϤÔÓ, Û ¤Ó· ·ÔÎÂÓÙڈ̤ÓÔ Î·È ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ηχ„Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ·- Û˘Ó¯Ҙ ÂÍÂÏÈÛÛfiÌÂÓÔ Web, fiÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ Î¤˜ ·Ó¿ÁΘ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÒÓ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈÔÙ‹- ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó «È‰ÈÔÎً٘», Ò˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÙˆÓ, fiˆ˜ Ë ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈ΋ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË, ›̷ÛÙ ‚¤‚·ÈÔÈ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ Û 1 √ ªÈ¯¿Ï˘ μ·ÊfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÔÏfiÁÔ˜ Î·È ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÎfi˜. ¢È‰¿ÛÎÂÈ ÛÙÔ ΔÌ‹Ì· ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ Δ¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Î·È ∂ÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌ›Ô˘ ∞ÈÁ·›Ô˘ Î·È ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÂÙ·ÊÚ¿ÛÂÈ ÛÙ· ÂÏÏËÓÈο ÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô ÙÔ˘ Tim Berners-Lee ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ Web. ∂›Ó·È ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁfi˜ ÙÔ˘ «ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜» Î·È ÂÈÛ‹Á·Á ÚÒÙÔ˜ ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ Web ÛÙÔ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ. O ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈÎfi˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˜ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ¤Ó· ÔÏÔÎÏËڈ̤ÓÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘ Ù˘ Â¤ÎÙ·Û˘ ÙÔ˘ Ê˘ÛÈÎÔ‡ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ οı ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘, Ì ÛÎÔfi ÙËÓ ·ÙÔÌÈ΋ Î·È ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË. Œ¯ÂÈ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂÈ ‰Âο‰Â˜ ¿ÚıÚ· Û ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ ÂÚÈÔ‰Èο, Û˘Ó¤‰ÚÈ· Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ‚È‚Ï›·, ÂÓÒ ÛÙ· ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓÙ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·È Ë ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË Î·È ÔÈ ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ Ù˘ „ËÊȷ΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜, Ë ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÂÙÚ›·, Ë ÂÚÈÊÂÚÂȷ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË, Ë ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· Î·È Ë ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜. 2 √ °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ªËٷΛ‰Ë˜ Û˘Ó¤‚·Ï ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÛÙËÓ Â›ÛÔ‰Ô Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· ÙÔ˘ ‰È·‰ÈÎÙ‡Ô˘ Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏ› ˙ˆÓÙ·Ófi ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜ ÙÔ˘. ¢È·Ù¤ÏÂÛ ηıËÁËÙ‹˜ ÛÙÔ MIT, ÛÙȘ ∏¶∞, ÛÙ· ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ∫ÔÚÓ¤Ï Î·È ÙÔ˘ ƒfiÙÛÂÛÙÂÚ, ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÎÏÂÁ› ηÙfiÈÓ ˆ˜ Ù·ÎÙÈÎfi˜ ηıËÁËÙ‹˜ ÛÙÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ Ù˘ ¶¿ÙÚ·˜. Œ¯ÂÈ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÛÂÈ ÛÂÈÚ¿ ¿ÚıÚˆÓ Î·È ‚È‚Ï›ˆÓ ÁÈ· ÙË ª·ıËÌ·ÙÈ΋ §ÔÁÈ΋, ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙˆÓ ˘ÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÒÓ Î·È ÙËÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ∂ÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ∂›Ó·È Â›ÙÈÌÔ˜ ‰È‰¿ÎÙÔÚ·˜ ÛÙÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ¡ÈԇηÛÙÏ, ÛÙÔ Δ¯ÓÈÎfi ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ μÔ˘ÎÔ˘ÚÂÛÙ›Ô˘ Î·È ÛÙÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ Ù˘ £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔӛ΢ Î·È Â›ÙÈÌÔ˜ ηıËÁËÙ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌ›Ô˘ Ù˘ ªfiÛ¯·˜. ∂›Ó·È Â›Û˘ ̤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ƒˆÛÈ΋˜ ∞η‰ËÌ›·˜ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ, Â›ÙÈÌÔ Ì¤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ƒÔ˘Ì·ÓÈ΋˜ ∞η‰ËÌ›·˜ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ Î·È Û‡Ì‚Ô˘ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ΢‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ Ù˘ ƒÔ˘Ì·Ó›·˜ Û ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Î·È ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘. Œ¯ÂÈ Ï¿‚ÂÈ Ï‹ıÔ˜ ‚Ú·‚›ˆÓ Î·È ÙÈÌÒÓ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÊÔÚ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜, ÂÓÒ ¤¯ÂÈ Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÂÈ, Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔÓ ªÈ¯¿ÏË ¢ÂÚÙÔ‡˙Ô, ÛÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÔ˘ W3C. ™‹ÌÂÚ·, Â›Ó·È Î·ıËÁËÙ‹˜ ÛÙÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ¶·ÙÚÒÓ Î·È Úfi‰ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Û˘Ì‚Ô˘Ï›Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ πΔÀ, Û‡Ì‚Ô˘ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ∂˘Úˆ·˚΋˜ ∂ÈÙÚÔ‹˜ Î·È Ù˘ ΢‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ Ù˘ ƒÔ˘Ì·Ó›·˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋˜.34 π∞¡√À∞ƒπ√™ - º∂μƒ√À∞ƒπ√™ 2008
  4. 4. ¤Ó· ¯Ú‹ÛÙË Ê·›ÓÔÓÙ·È Â‡ÏÔÁ˜, ‰ÂÓ ‚Ï¿- ‚ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜, Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜, Ù˘ ÎÔÈ-ÙÔ˘Ó Ù· Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ· ÙˆÓ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ˆ˜ ÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ·ÓıÚˆÔÏÔÁ›·˜, Ù˘ „˘¯ÔÏÔÁ›-Û‡ÓÔÏÔ; ·˜, Ù˘ ÌÂϤÙ˘ ÙˆÓ ª¤ÛˆÓ ª·˙È΋˜°È· ÙËÓ ·¿ÓÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÚˆÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ∂ÓË̤ڈÛ˘, Ù˘ ÓÔÌÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ-·˘ÙÒÓ (·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÌÈ·˜ ÌÂÁ¿Ï˘ ÛÂÈÚ¿˜ ÓÔÌ›·˜ Ì Ì˯·ÓÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÒÓ Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ ·fi Ù˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋˜, ¤ÙÛÈ ÒÛÙ ӷ ‰È¢ÎÔ-ÙËÓ ÔχÏ¢ÚË ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ Web) ·Ó·- Ï˘Óı› Ë Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙÈԢ·ÙÂÈ Ë ·Ó¿ÁÎË Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ÂÚ¢ÓË- ·˘ÙÔ‡ ·ÔÎÂÓÙڈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ·-ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ, Ù˘ Ê˘ÛÈ΋˜, Ù˘ ÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ (‰È¿ÁÚ·ÌÌ·).Διάγραμμα: Η διεπιστημονική φύση της επιστήμης του Web. 10ΔÔ ÚfiÏÔ Ù˘ Û˘ÁÎÔÏÏËÙÈ΋˜ Ô˘Û›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔ- ÓfiÙËÙ·˜ Ì ÚˆÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙ‹ ÙÔÓ ÂÊ¢ڤÙË ÙÔ˘ WebÓÈÎÒÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ ‰›ˆÓ ÊÈÏÔ‰ÔÍ› Ó· ‰È·‰Ú·Ì·Ù›ÛÂÈ Î·È ÚÔÛ‰Ôο Ó· ·ÂÏ¢ıÂÚÒÛÂÈ Î·È Ó· ·ÍÈÔÔÈ‹-ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ Web, Û˘Óı¤ÙÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÂÈ ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ Web ÚÔ˜ Ӥ˜ ÂˆÊÂÏ›˜Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈο ¤Ó· ‰ÈÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ‰›Ô ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘. ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÚÔÛˆÈ΋ Î·È ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆ-ªÈ· Ó¤· ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· Ù›ıÂÙ·È ÛÙË ÓÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÙÔ˘ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘.‰È¿ıÂÛË Ù˘ ·Î·‰ËÌ·˚΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔÈ- {vaf@aegean.gr}10 ¶ÚÔ¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ ∂Ú¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ¶ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ Web (WSRI), www.webscience.org. π∞¡√À∞ƒπ√™ - º∂μƒ√À∞ƒπ√™ 2008 35

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