Common Wild Edibles

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Are you curious about “wild edibles,” and what you can do with them? Are you looking to diversify your diet and incorporate more greens? If the answer is “yes,” check out this presentation! This presentation gives a flavor of the workshop I can teach for your group. Contact me at vafoodscaper@gmail.com if you are interested in this or other classes. Check out my garden portfolio at www.foodscaper.com

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  • I am Linna the Locavore and I promote people to eat locally produced food and to produce their ownThere is another option – if you can’t buy it, or grow it, PICK IT from outside!Going to:*Educate greens and their value*What is foraging and what are wild edibles*most common wild edibles in this area*how find and identify*how harvest*how cook
  • Are wild, not cultivated, vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds and herbs that grow in our neighborhoods, backyards, parks, and forests. One of greatest natural resources! Also known as hunting and gathering, the production of food by collecting wild (undomesticated) animals and plants.www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415485395/glossary.aspforagers - The term 'foragers', reasonably describes people who 'collect' food from the wild rather than produce it from domesticated species. A basic lineament of foraging is that people move to where the resources are found and thus the environment in all its manifestations is important in their lives. ...www.eoearth.org/article/Context_for_environmental_historyhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3093/2876430345_993fd03b23.jpg
  • Wild Edibles can actually be right outside your doorstep.I am a FT working mother of two children and my time is VERY LIMITED, but I want to give my family the best most nutritious food I can. So for some foraging is done in pristine forests, or desolate fields, but I forage right outside my doorstep. When you open yourself up to this opportunity, it is amazing what you will find.
  • We already know I am busy, so why forage for these ‘wild edibles’? Let me count the ways…..Reasons:Free/Cost effective, grow everywhere on this planet, just need to know where to lookBetter than they are organic Longer roots, reach down farther and get more nutrientsMore food diversity Daniel Moerman, Native American Ethnobotany, found 31,000 average plants in North AmericaNative Americans ate 1,882, 2K plus for sauces etc.Michael Polan- current populas consumer on average 20-30 plants typesFresh Air, exercise
  • I have chosen six of the most ‘common’ , practical, and widespread wild edible plants. I will talk about how to identify them, collect them, use them, and appreciate them. There are guides that will bring you to the heard of a forest or a swamp looking for new shoots, roots and berries, but this is not my focus. My focus is to provide a holistic nutrition by using what is readily available to me.
  • I am providing you the ‘spark’ to get you interested in the ‘wild foods’ around you. The tips I provide are just a start for what you need to know to start collecting and eating wild foods. I am not an expert, I still consult guides. So follow these rules:Never eat any plants unless you are absolutely positive it is edible! It is a good idea to double check with a local wild edible expert or wild edible book.ITS BETTER TO BE SAFE THAN SORRY. If you don’t know, DON’T EAT IT.Use google to find most poisonous, and most edible(do it for MD and VA)Books- FRESH, by Sergei boutenkoJanis Schofield- good authorGo to YOUTUBETrained to think you shouldn’t eat things in wild, could be poisonous
  • First want to talk about Greens and their value. You can grow greens AND pick them in the wild. Their nutrition value is underestimated. Greens possess more valuable nutrients than any other food groupMore nutritious than you know– (show chart showing kale vs. lambsquarters)Rich in calcium, vitamins and minerals, Greens have a lot of protein (Professor T. Colin CampellA CHINA STUDY): protein is combo of 9 essential amino acids. We need them on a daily basis to build muscle, maintian brain function, these 9 amino acids exist in greens.EAT A VARIED DIET to ensure you get all that you need.Examples of greens , greens more nutritious than the roots: Carrot topsBeet tops (see chart)Greens also contain a lot of insoluable fiber, and acts as a sponge, absorbing many times more toxins than its own volume.
  • A molecule of chlorophyll closely resembles a molecule of human blood. According to teachings of Dr. Ann Wigmore, consuming chlorophyll is like receiving a healthy blood transfusion. Many people do not consume enough greens, even those who stay on a raw food diet. By drinking two or three cups of green smoothies daily you will consume enough greens for the day to nourish your body, and all of the beneficial nutrients will be well assimilated. Read article.
  • Greens are not vegetables, greens are not starchy.Greens are the only food group that helps digest other foods through stimulating the secretion of digestive enzymes.Greens are the primary food group that match human nutritional needs most completely.
  • A molecule of chlorophyll closely resembles a molecule of human blood. According to teachings of Dr. Ann Wigmore, consuming chlorophyll is like receiving a healthy blood transfusion. Many people do not consume enough greens, even those who stay on a raw food diet. By drinking two or three cups of green smoothies daily you will consume enough greens for the day to nourish your body, and all of the beneficial nutrients will be well assimilated. Read article.
  • Blending greens is a way to release valuable nutrients from within the cell walls you must rupture them.Cut chlorophyll taste by adding fruit.Smoothies vs. JuicesSmoothies give you the fiberGreens: Chard SpinachArugula
  • Blending greens is a way to release valuable nutrients from within the cell walls you must rupture them.Cut chlorophyll taste by adding fruit.Smoothies vs. JuicesSmoothies give you the fiberGreens: Chard SpinachArugula
  • Trained to think you shouldn’t eat things in wild, could be poisonousDaniel Moerman- 31, 000 plants in N. America, National Poison Control they designate 150 poisonous, odds in your favor. 100 of these are mildly poisonous, only 50 can cause real major problems.ITS BETTER TO BE SAFE THAN SORRY.Use google to find most poisonous, and most edible(do it for MD and VA)Books- FRESH, by Sergei boutenkoJanis Schofield- good authorGo to YOUTUBE
  • All grass edibleOver 400 varietiesMake sure not covered with pesticidesWheat grass is not most nutritious grass, it is mass produced because it grows the quickest and creates most juice and grows quickly. Can pay a lot for it .Will sustain and nourish you – not most delicious- best to put in a smoothieGives you: chlorophyll, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, enzymes
  • Dandelion300 varietiesAll edibleWhite sap is fine (misnomer)Bitterness, not used to it, but cleans our organs, cleans liver, pancreas, gall bladderHas:Vitamins: A, B, C, DMinerals: Copper, Phosphorus, potassium, iron, calcium, and magnesiumFlower concentrates Vitamin DSoak flowers in honey- use mixture and spread on toast, wild edible infused jamSmaller the greens, less bitterTrick to identify: run finger along main vein, should be smoothSmaller the green, the more nutrition.
  • Health Benefits of The DandelionDiuretic DetoxifierDandelion is used for treatment of:constipation acne eczema psoriasis arthritis edema (swollen ankles) osteoarthritis gout gallstones high blood pressure digestion problems
  • Purslane- rich in Omega 3 fatty acids (and doesn’t taste like fish!)Vitamins: A, B6, and CMinerals: Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Copper, and ManganeseArchaeologists have found purslane seeds dating back thousands of years… and for 2 thousand year it was a well-known cultivated garden vegetable in EuropeIn 20th century it was forgotten, but is making a comebackCan cover your lawn in a doilylike matNO POISONOUS LOOK ALIKESHowever, SPURGE often grows with purslane, so always to make sure that you only grab purslane. One thing to know is that Spurge has a white milky sap, and purslane has no colored sap.Grows in sunny, sandy soils, vacant lots, disturbed soil, and lawnsHas effective survival skills, it produces seeds when the plant is a few weeks old. If picked, the stems have enough water to ripen the seeds. So if you are a gardener and pick purslane and leave it in the garden, you are helping it reproduce.Flavor is sweet-sour flavor and is great raw in salads or in smoothies. It can be used in soups as a thickener, and can also be breaded and put in casseroles
  • It is succulent, creeping with branches 4-10 inches longPaddle shaped leavesHas tiny pale yellow flowers that bloom from mid-summer to fallSmooth, reclining annualCan cover an area like a doily matHas branches 4-10 inches longFleshy, toothless, paddle shaped leavesTiny pale yellow flowers with five petals and two sepals.Flowers are 1/5 inch wide and hide between the branches and only open in the morning sun
  • Lamb’s Quarters-branching annual that grows 3-10 feet tallHas alternate simple leaves and are mealy white underneath, white powder is a protective waxy bloomOlder leaves are diamond shapedVirtually no odorHas white dust on itGreat source of fiberStocky stem, woodyMild like spinachLeaves in blenderOne of MOST NUTRITIOUS foods, leaves great source of beta carotene, calcium, potassium, and iron- superior to spinach. Has trace minerals: B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, and fiberSeeds are edible and nutritious: provide protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and niacin. Napoleon used seeds to make bread for his army when other food was scarce.
  • Where does it get it’s name? 1) mature leaf is supposed to look like a cut of lamb meat, the quarterThe other names are obvious, pigweed since pig’s love it, and goosefoot since it also looks like a goose’s foot.Use the tender young shoots under 10 inchesVery common in backyards, vacant lots, urban parks, roadsides, Does well in poor or disturbed soilIs delicious anyway you cook it. Taste like spinach, only better- never bitter.Include in salads, steam it, toss in soups, stews, or casseroles, saute it, or dry it. Tastes better than spinach in quichesShrinks about 2/3 when you cook it
  • Plantain- provides beta carotene and calcium, Has mucilage, a carbohydrate fiber. The fiber reduces both LDL and triglycerides. Also contains monoterpene alkaloids, glycosides, sugars, triterpenes, fixed oil, linoleic acid, and tanninsLeaves are rounded to oval- 1-6 inches long, with smooth, wavy or toothed edges. Is an astringent and soothing, creating a cooling effectAnd infusion of the leaves of mashed seeds treats sore throats, gastritis, diarrhea, bronchitis, fevers, inflammations, kidney, and bladder disorders, and cystitisThe astringent qualities make it a remedy for insect bites and skin irritations – even poison ivy!The seeds act as gentle laxative- and a European species is the main ingredient of the laxative Metamucil!Also a great breath freshener due to chlorophyllHeal wounds, pull out poisonsHas well defined veins, unique pod that goes up
  • They are terrestrial, grow in open sunny meadows, lawns, waste places, and nooks and crannies of concreteThey are so common, you might take them for granted!Several species thrive in N. America WITHOUT POISONOUS LOOK ALIKESThey can survive in harsh conditions because of their fibrous root system can find the smallest traces of moisture and nutrients in poor soil –ALSO, their short stature thwart lawn mowers!Each leaf has long, fibrous leafstalks – BEST IN SPRINGThe best way to use mature plantain is vegetable stock- to get the minerals and avoid the tough fibers.
  • Trifolium and Melilotus species- means three leavesClovers have compact flower heads of tiny, peal like flowersNO POISONOUS LOOK ALIKESMost common is red and white cloverFind on lawns, fields, and disturbed areas.Bloom from spring to fall, best time to collect flowers is in late spring when most flowers bloomFlowers are the sweetest and most enriching – only pick best flowers and brown ones taste awfulFresh or dried make one of best tasting herb teas, or use chopped flowers in salads, or grind dry flower heads into flowerLeaves are edible, but their ‘digestibility’ is questionable.Clovers are legumes, so they provide protein that complements whole grains. Combining the two has a complete array of essential amino acids to make proteinClovers contain: beta carotene, vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, biotin, choline, inositol, and bioflavonoidsMinerals: magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and selenium.Tea is anti-inflammatory, calming, expectorant, and antispasmodic. Used to reduce severity of bronchial coughs, and whooping cough.Red clover flower tea have been used for cancer – a compound called genistein, may inhibit breast cancer growth by blocking estrogen receptors.
  • Hop Clover- is 15 inches tall, yellow flower headsUser flowers the same way as red and white flowersWhite and Yellow sweet Clover- 2-6 feet tall, long narrow toothed leaflets
  • To make an infusion involves steeping the herb.Use this approach for delicate herbs like leaves and flowers Add one a small handful of herbs (dry or fresh) to a cup- use glass, no metalCover herbs with freshly boiled water and let stand 15-20 minutes (you can do for hours) Strain out herb and drink. You can store infusion in refrigerator for days.A decoction is for thicker things like roots …..
  • Take the guess work out, and plant them!
  • Pristine Forest- yesGolf course- pesticidesApt complex- dogs, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizerRoadside- metals, salt, 70-80 feet from the roadFrom yard or park- don’t spray, wait minimum 2 years, for park check with park officials to see if sprayHarvest off of beaten path – not in high traffic areas.
  • Pristine Forest- yesGolf course- pesticidesApt complex- dogs, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizerRoadside- metals, salt, 70-80 feet from the roadFrom yard or park- don’t spray, wait minimum 2 years, for park check with park officials to see if sprayHarvest off of beaten path – not in high traffic areas.
  • Pristine Forest- yesGolf course- pesticidesApt complex- dogs, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizerRoadside- metals, salt, 70-80 feet from the roadFrom yard or park- don’t spray, wait minimum 2 years, for park check with park officials to see if sprayHarvest off of beaten path – not in high traffic areas.
  • Pristine Forest- yesGolf course- pesticidesApt complex- dogs, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizerRoadside- metals, salt, 70-80 feet from the roadFrom yard or park- don’t spray, wait minimum 2 years, for park check with park officials to see if sprayHarvest off of beaten path – not in high traffic areas.
  • Fresh by Sergei BoutenkoJanis SchofieldYou Tube- wild edibles, Boutenko
  • Which edible is rich in Omega 3 fatty acids? PURSLANEWhich did Napoleon use to feed his troops? LAMBSQUARTERESWhich can be used to make vegetable stock? PLANTAIN
  • Common Wild Edibles

    1. 1. Wild Edibles>>Linna ‘The Locavore’ Ferguson www.foodscaper.comvafoodscaper@gmail.com<br />
    2. 2. If you don’t buy it, or grow it, then PICK IT!<br />
    3. 3. Foraging … What exactly is it? <br />http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3093/2876430345_993fd03b23.jpg<br />
    4. 4. Wild is what you make it –<br />Foraging can happen closer than you think<br />
    5. 5. Why I Eat I Wild:<br /><ul><li>Free – grow everywhere
    6. 6. Wild, better than organic
    7. 7. Long roots
    8. 8. Provide food diversity
    9. 9. Exercise/fresh air</li></li></ul><li>Most Common Wild Edibles<br />Plantain<br />Dandelion<br />Lamb’s Quarters<br />Grass<br />Purslane<br />Clover<br />
    10. 10. My Disclaimer ….<br />
    11. 11. Today’s Approach:<br /><ul><li>How to Find/Identify
    12. 12. Why is its Nutrient Value
    13. 13. Ways to Cook and Prepare</li></li></ul><li>Greens 101<br />• Greens contain more beta-carotene than carrot<br />• Greens contain more vitamin C then oranges<br />• Greens contain more Vitamin E than whole grain wheat<br />• Greens contain more vitamin B2 than dairy milk<br />• Greens contain a complete amino acid profile (protein)<br />
    14. 14. For full listing see Greens for Life, Victoria Boutenko,2005<br />Nutritional Comparison of Roots and Greens<br />
    15. 15. Greens 101<br />That's not all.....Greens provide the best source of the alkaline minerals: <br /><ul><li>calcium,
    16. 16. magnesium, and
    17. 17. iron </li></ul>These alkaline minerals create the perfect environment for health by cleansing your body of bad bacteria, parasites, yeast, etc.<br />
    18. 18. For full listing see Greens for Life, Victoria Boutenko,2005<br />Greens Amino Acid Content<br />
    19. 19. Give it a Try !<br />Linna’s Kale Smoothie: <br />(use any green in the place of Kale)<br />(3) Big bunches of greens<br />Cup of juice (optional)<br />Handful sof fruit<br />Small handful of almonds or nuts (optional)<br />Squirt of Agave Nectar<br />2 cups of water<br />3 cups of ice<br />*blend them all together. A vitamix or other high power blender is recommended. Run for at least 2 minutes to ensure a good consistency.<br />
    20. 20. www.greensmoothiequeen.com<br />www.greensmoothiequeen.com<br />
    21. 21. Dispelling Myths:<br /><ul><li>Fear
    22. 22. Unknown
    23. 23. Not the norm</li></li></ul><li>Grass:<br /><ul><li>All varieties edible
    24. 24. Over 400 varieties</li></li></ul><li>Recipes – Wheat Grass Cocktail:<br />½ cup water<br />1 cup grapes<br />½ cup pineapple<br />½ cup wheat grass<br />1 cup ice cubes<br />Place all ingredients in the blender container<br />Blend for 1 minute or until desired consistency is reached<br />http://www.gardenews.co.nz/wheat.jpg<br />
    25. 25. Dandelion (no poisonous look alikes)<br /><ul><li>Identify: leaves are not spiny, but smooth
    26. 26. Where to Find: lawns, fields, and disturbed areas
    27. 27. Nutrients: Vitamins: A, B, C, D</li></ul>Minerals: Copper, Phosphorus, potassium, iron, calcium, and magnesium<br />Flower concentrates Vitamin D<br />http://blog.sustainablog.org/forage-for-food/<br />
    28. 28. Health Benefits of The Dandelion:<br /><ul><li>Diuretic
    29. 29. Detoxifier</li></ul>Dandelion is used for treatment of:<br /><ul><li>constipation
    30. 30. acne
    31. 31. eczema
    32. 32. psoriasis
    33. 33. arthritis
    34. 34. edema (swollen ankles)
    35. 35. osteoarthritis
    36. 36. gout
    37. 37. gallstones
    38. 38. high blood pressure
    39. 39. digestion problems </li></ul>http://blog.sustainablog.org/forage-for-food/<br />
    40. 40. More Mainstream than you may have thought!<br />
    41. 41. Dandelion Sauté:<br />One of the best ways to learn how to appreciate the flavor of dandelions.<br />3 cups chopped onions 3 tbsp olive oil<br /> 2 cups chopped dandelion leaves<br />2 cups grated carrot<br />Several cloves of garlic<br />1 tbsp wine<br />1 tbsp tamari soy sauce<br />Black pepper and salt to taste<br />Saute the onions in olive oil. When soft, add the dandelions, carrot, garlic, wine, and soy sauce. Cook for 10-20 minutes until all flavors blend.<br />http://www.wayfaringwanderer.com/2010/04/10-things-you-can-do-with-dandelions.html<br />http://myverygaywedding.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/dandelion6.jpg<br />
    42. 42. Purslane (no poisonous look alikes)<br /><ul><li>Identify: Paddle shaped leaves, branches 4-10 inches long
    43. 43. Where to Find: sunny, sandy soils, disturbed soil, vacant lots</li></ul>Nutrients: Vitamins: A, B6, and C<br />Minerals: Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Copper, and Manganese<br />
    44. 44. Purslane<br />
    45. 45. Recipes – try it , you might like it!<br />Potato-Purslane Patties<br />Ingredients:<br />8 cups potatoes cut into 1-2 inch chunks<br />1 ½ cups water<br />3 cups chopped purslane stems and leaves<br />3 cups sautéed mushrooms<br />1 cup finely chopped onion<br />5 to 6 eggs<br />2 teaspoons rosemary<br />1 teaspoon black pepper<br />Directions:<br />Cook the potatoes in the water until soft. Mash and add the rest of the ingredients. Mix and form patties. Bake on an oiled cookie sheet for 15-20 minutes in a preheated oven. Cool on racks.<br />
    46. 46. Lambsquarters, aka Pigweed, Aka Goosefoot<br /><ul><li>Identify: Branching annual, 3-5 ft tall, alternate simple leaves, mealy white powder
    47. 47. Where to Find: sunny, sandy soils, disturbed soil, vacant lots</li></ul>Nutrients: One of MOST NUTRITIOUS foods, leaves great source of beta carotene, calcium, potassium, and iron- superior to spinach. <br />Has trace minerals: B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, and fiber<br />
    48. 48. Lamb’s Quarters, aka Goosefoot, aka Pigweed<br />
    49. 49. Recipe: <br />Lambsquarters Scramble<br />2 cups grated zucchini<br />1 cup sliced mushrooms<br />1 cup grated tart apple<br />1 tbsp vegetable oil<br />1 cups lambsquarters<br />½ cup tamari soy sauce<br />3 tbsp sherry<br />3 tbsp lemon juice<br />3-6 cloves garlic<br />½ tsp nutmeg<br />Sauté zucchini, mushroom, and apple in the oil. When soft, cover and add the remaining ingredients. Cook 10 minutes more on low heat.<br />
    50. 50. Plantain (no poisonous look alikes)<br /><ul><li>Identify: rosettes, leaves hairless or slightly hair, parallel veins
    51. 51. Where to Find: sunny meadows, walkways, waste places</li></ul>Nutrients: provides beta carotene and calcium. Has mucilage, a carbohydrate fiber. The fiber reduces both LDL and triglycerides. Also contains monoterpene alkaloids, glycosides, sugars, triterpenes, fixed oil, linoleic acid, and tannins<br />
    52. 52. Plantain<br />
    53. 53. Clovers: (no poisonous look alikes)<br /><ul><li>Identify: three leaves
    54. 54. Where to Find: lawns, fields, and disturbed areas
    55. 55. How Use: flower heads in salads, and tea</li></li></ul><li>Other Types of Clovers:<br /><ul><li>Hop Clover
    56. 56. White and Yellow Sweet Clover</li></li></ul><li>Recipes:<br /><ul><li>Tea
    57. 57. Flowers in Salads</li></li></ul><li>The Foraging Calendar<br />January - Hairy BittercressFebruary - SorrelMarch - NettleApril - Wild GarlicMay - Sea BeetJune - Wild RoseJuly - ElderflowerAugust - Rowan BerriesSeptember - BlackberriesOctober - RosehipNovember - Gorse FlowersDecember - Sea Purslane <br />http://www.howies.co.uk/content.php?xId=633&xPg=1<br />
    58. 58. Spring<br />Summer<br />Fall<br />
    59. 59. Did you know?<br />
    60. 60. All Wild Things are Not Created Equal<br />
    61. 61. Golf Course – Good, Bad?<br />
    62. 62. Pristine Forest – Good or Bad?<br />
    63. 63. Apartment Complex- Good or Bad?<br />
    64. 64. Edible Flowers:<br />Edible Flowers, did you know?!<br />
    65. 65. Edible Flowers:<br />Edible Flowers:<br />http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2009/06/13/lifestyle/country-gentleman-gardening/edible-flowers.html<br />
    66. 66. Edible Flowers:<br />http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2009/06/13/lifestyle/country-gentleman-gardening/edible-flowers.html<br />
    67. 67. Resources:<br />www.RawFamily.com<br />www.GreenSmoothieQueen.com<br />Search for Sergei Boutenko on YouTube<br />Search on Google for Poisonous plants in your area<br />http://www.wildernesscollege.com/wild-edible-plants.html<br />http://wildedibles.wordpress.com/<br />
    68. 68. This is who I am, this is what I do. Be vocal, eat, think, and buy LOCAL.<br />

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