Brazil

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  • The program ranges from giving direct financial aid to the poorest families; to many diverse areas, such as creating cisterns in Brazil's semi-arid, creating popular restaurants with low prices, educating about healthy eating habits, distributing vitamins and iron supplements, supporting family farming, giving access to credit by microcredit, and a few other programs.
    Bolsa Família provides financial aid to poor and indigent Brazilian families on condition that the children must attend school and be vaccinated.

  • Brazil

    1. 1. 1 The struggles of a modern, democratic society Brazil
    2. 2. 2 Imagine a country with a more representative, honest and accountable democratic government, one that could adequately house, feed, educate and protect its people.
    3. 3. 3 Urbanization - too much, too fast
    4. 4. 4 Natural Resource Depletion
    5. 5. 5 Poverty & Social Justice
    6. 6. 6 800,000 Street Children: City of God
    7. 7. 7 The Brazilian Government faces the task of enforcing public order and reducing a violent crime rate so high it has driven the rich to build higher fences, travel in helicopters, and contract private security; and the poor to
    8. 8. 8 A Blended Society: Race in Mixed Race 39% Black 6% Amerindia Asian n 1% Asia Amerindian n 0.4% Unknown 1% White 53%
    9. 9. 9 Religion Protestant 15% Atheist 7% Catholic 75% Spiritism 1% Candomblé 0% Other 2%
    10. 10. 10 The Beginning of Brazil: Treaty of Tordesillas
    11. 11. 11 Historical Periods
    12. 12. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves
    13. 13. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil
    14. 14. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic
    15. 15. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism
    16. 16. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian
    17. 17. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian arbertura política
    18. 18. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian arbertura política inflation and unemployment
    19. 19. 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian arbertura política inflation and unemployment loss of elite support
    20. 20. 12 Redemocratization: 1985 to Constitution 1988 - 3 years after civilian control of legislature 1990 - First democratically elected President, Fernando Collor de Mello
    21. 21. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative
    22. 22. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Central Government
    23. 23. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central Government
    24. 24. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Government
    25. 25. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government
    26. 26. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government
    27. 27. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- ation for 4-year term
    28. 28. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term
    29. 29. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Federal District (26)
    30. 30. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District (26)
    31. 31. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors (26)
    32. 32. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Elect state deputies by proportional representation for (26) 4-year terms
    33. 33. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms
    34. 34. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Municípios (5,513)
    35. 35. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios (5,513)
    36. 36. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios Mayors (5,513)
    37. 37. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios Mayors (5,513) Elect local councilors in proportional elections for 4-year terms
    38. 38. 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios Mayors Councils (5,513) Elect local councilors in proportional elections for 4-year terms
    39. 39. 14 Brazilian New Federalism Revenue Redistribution 21.5% to States 22.5% to Municípios Balanced Bicameralism Senate - 3 from each state Chamber of Deputies - 8 minimum, 70 maximum from each state Courts Supreme Court Labor Courts Electoral Courts Military Courts
    40. 40. 15 Electoral System
    41. 41. 15 Electoral System Majority Vote President, State Governors, and Mayors of cities over 200,000 voters Runo between top two candidates if no candidate captures 50% of vote.
    42. 42. 15 Electoral System Majority Vote President, State Governors, and Mayors of cities over 200,000 voters Runo between top two candidates if no candidate captures 50% of vote. First Past the Post Senators and Mayors of cities with less than 200,000 voters
    43. 43. 15 Electoral System Majority Vote President, State Governors, and Mayors of cities over 200,000 voters Runo between top two candidates if no candidate captures 50% of vote. First Past the Post Senators and Mayors of cities with less than 200,000 voters Open-List Proportional Representation Deputies Individual vote totals determine the order of deputies on the party list
    44. 44. 16 Presidential Elections Candidates Votes % 1st round Votes % 2nd round Luiz Inácio Lula 46,662,365 48.61 58,295,042 60.83 da Silva Geraldo Alckmin 39,968,369 41.64 37,543,178 39.17 (PSDB, PFL, PPS) Heloísa Helena 6,575,393 6.85 - - (P-SOL, PSTU, PCB) Cristovam 2,538,844 2.64 - - Buarque (PDT) Ana Maria Rangel 126,404 0.13 - - (PRP) José Maria 63,294 0.07 - - Eymael (PSDC) Luciano Bivar 62,064 0.06 - - (PSL) Total (turnout 95,996,733 100.00 95,838,220 100.00 83.2 and )
    45. 45. 17 Parties Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate Votes % Seats Votes % Seats 2006 Workers' Party (Partido dos 16,222,15 13,989,859 15.0 83 19.2 11 2 Trabalhadores) 9 Brazilian Democratic Movement Party 10,148,02 13,580,517 14.6 89 12.0 15 4 (PMDB) 4 10,547,77 Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) 12,691,043 13.6 65 12.5 15 5 8 Liberal Front Party (Partido da Frente 21,653,81 10,182,308 10.9 65 25.7 18 6 Liberal) 2 6,662,309 7.1 42 4,228,431 5.0 1 1 Progressive Party (Partido Progresista) Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido 5,732,464 6.2 27 2,143,355 2.5 3 1 Socialista Brasileiro) Democratic Labour Party (Partido 4,854,017 5.2 24 5,023,041 6.0 5 1 Democrático Trabalhista) Brazilian Labour Party (Partido 4,397,743 4.7 22 2,676,469 3.2 4 3 Trabalhista Brasileiro) 4,074,618 4.4 23 696,501 0.8 3 1 Liberal Party (Partido Liberal) Socialist People's Party (Partido Popular 3,630,462 3.9 21 1,232,571 1.5 1 1 Socialista) 3,368,561 3.6 13 1,425,765 1.7 0 0 Green Party (Partido Verde) Communist Party of Brazil (Partido 1,982,323 2.1 13 6,364,019 7.5 2 1 Comunista do Brasil)
    46. 46. 18 The Economy
    47. 47. 18 The Economy Mercantile System
    48. 48. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery
    49. 49. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization
    50. 50. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution
    51. 51. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization
    52. 52. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization
    53. 53. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service
    54. 54. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service Real Plan
    55. 55. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service Real Plan privatization of state industries
    56. 56. 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service Real Plan privatization of state industries Fiscal Responsibility Law
    57. 57. 19 Income Distribution Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Richest 47.44% 47.02% 46.19% 45.31% 45.31% 10% Poorest 12.58% 12.98% 13.22% 13.85% 14.07% 50% Gini 0.596 0.589 0.583 0.572 0.569 Coeficient
    58. 58. 20 Worldwide Income
    59. 59. 21 Poverty Policies Fome Zero (Zero Hunger) The program ranges from giving direct financial aid to the poorest families; to many diverse areas, such as creating cisterns in Brazil's semi-arid, creating popular restaurants with low prices, educating about healthy eating habits, distributing vitamins and iron supplements, supporting family farming, giving access to credit by microcredit, and a few other programs. Bolsa Família One positive eect of the program which is not immediately apparent is that it makes a significant impact on the ability of the poorest families to eat. Children in public school receive one free meal a day — two in the poorest areas — and so less of their family's limited income is needed to pay for food. In 2006, Bolsa Família is estimated to cost about 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and about 2.5% of total government expenditure. It will cover about 11.2 million families, or about 44 million Brazilians
    60. 60. 22 Violence and Disorder

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