Ring 2: The Interlopers
o Search Engine Algorithms
o Individual Search History
o Browser and OS Influences
o Device (phone vs laptop)
o Increasing Dominance of
(Things that influence what you see in
your search results – and that we are
often completely unaware of).
Interloper Problems – Search Results
o Not always fair and balanced
o Reinforce filter bubbles
o Reflect programmer biases
o Can be ephemeral and elusive
o Dominance of advertising (esp. on phones)
o Dominance of a few companies
No One Is Immune
Bias is universal and ubiquitous
o Difficult to overcome
o Requires conscious effort
o Requires listening
o Requires questioning
o Requires admitting
o Requires discomfort
Strategy 1: Build In Metacognition
o You have to think about your thinking.
o Learning is a consequence of thinking
(not doing). - David Perkins
How Might We Do This?
o Think before you do (pre-reflection)
o Problem based learning
o Present a scenario
o Plan a strategy
o Execute the strategy
o Reflect and report
o Make students accountable
In Fifty Minutes? Srsly?
o Idea: Develop modules for courses
o Align with syllabus
o Do not require your presence
o Can accommodate longer
engagement than a one shot
o Requires Faculty Buy-In
o Just Do It
Other Ideas for Metacognition?
(Ideas from the Audience)
Strategy 2: Look for Ways to Blur the Lines
o Avoid yes/no debates or questions
o Encourage multiple perspectives
o Also perspective taking
o Identify commonalities
o In their study, these researchers found that the
subjects who engaged in a task that required them
to list characteristics that were common to both the
ingroup and outgroup, manifested less implicit bias
against the outgroup than their control group
counterparts. (Hall 2009)
o Adversarial collaboration
o Daniel Kahneman
o Requires compromise, trade offs
o Listening with respect and empathy
In Practice? How?
o Well crafted activities and assignments
o Multiple sources, varying perspectives
o Intentional gaps, students have to read
between the lines
o Question prompts
o Open ended
o Higher order
o Thinking, discussing, sharing
Other Ideas for Identifying and Reducing Implicit Bias?
(Ideas from the Audience)
Bare Minimum Takeaways…
o Use Carefully Designed Examples
o Build In Time for Students to Think
o Keep Things Blurry and Puzzling
o Encourage Listening and Speaking
o Ideas Can be Used at Any Level
o The goal may seem beyond our scope…
o But even SMALL efforts can make a difference
Bizup, Joseph. “BEAM: A Rhetorical Vocabulary for Teaching Research-Based Writing.” Rhetoric Review 27.1 (2008): 72-86. Communication & Mass
Media Complete. Web. 4 February 2014.
Otero, Vanessa. (2018). Media bias chart. Available at: https://www.adfontesmedia.com/
Noble, S. (2018). Algorithms of oppression : how search engines reinforce racism . New York: New York University Press.
Hao, Karen. (2018) Google is finally admitting it has a filter bubble problem. Quartz. https://qz.com/1194566/google-is-finally-admitting-it-has-
Costa, Ben and Kallick, Bena. (2014). Habits of Mind chart. The Institute for Habits of Mind. http://www.habitsofmindinstitute.org/wp-
Ritchhart, R., & Perkins, D. (n.d.). Making Thinking Visible. Educational Leadership, 65(5), 57–61.
Hartman H.J. (2015) Engaging Adolescent Students’ Metacognition Through WebQuests: A Case Study of Embedded Metacognition. In: Peña-
Ayala A. (eds) Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends. Intelligent Systems Reference Library, vol 76.
Hall, N. R., Crisp, R. J., & Suen, M. (2009). Reducing implicit prejudice by blurring intergroup boundaries. Basic and Applied Social Psychology,
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow (1st ed.). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Slamet Wahyudi Yulianto. (2015). Critical Pedagogy Principles in Teaching EFL Reading. English Review: Journal of English Education, 4(1), 25–38.
Additional Interesting Things to Read
Manufactured illiteracy and Miseducation
Salon on Manufactured illiteracyhttp://www.salon.com/2017/06/24/manufactured-illiteracy-and-miseducation-a-long-process-of-decline-led-to-president-donald-trump/
Neil Strauss of Rolling Stone on Why We are Living in the Age of Fear http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/features/why-were-living-in-the-age-of-fear-w443554
Motivated Ignorance / Willful Ignorance
Vox article on Motivated Ignorance https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/5/15/15585176/motivated-ignorance-politics-debate
Daniel Levitin on The Butchering of The Age of Reason http://www.thedailybeast.com/the-butchering-of-the-age-of-reason
Short video on Why Facts Won’t Convince People and What You Can Do About it https://www.facebook.com/saved/?cref=28
Denialism: What drives people to reject facts? https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/aug/03/denialism-what-drives-people-to-reject-the-
Eli Pariser on the Filter Bubble phenomenon https://www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_beware_online_filter_bubbles#t-515511
Unconscious Bias https://www.brainpickings.org/2014/04/09/the-hidden-brain-shankar-vedantam/
Confirmation Bias https://youarenotsosmart.com/2010/06/23/confirmation-bias/
The Backfire Effect http://theoatmeal.com/comics/believe
MRI study on neural effects of conflicting political beliefs https://www.nature.com/articles/srep39589
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