Stimulants Silong Y.

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Stimulants Silong Y.

  1. 1. STIMULANTS the drugs that get you going  Ben Weissman Alex Casler Silong Yang
  2. 2. WHAT ARE STIMULANTS? <ul><li>Similar to monoamine neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar chemical structure to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul></ul></ul>SEROTONIN
  3. 3. MONOAMINES <ul><li>Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain </li></ul>
  4. 4. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Norepinephrine
  5. 5. SOME STIMULANTS <ul><li>Amphetamine </li></ul><ul><li>Methamphetamine </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Ephedra </li></ul><ul><li>Ibogaine </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul>
  6. 6. http://www.canpages.ca/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/image-of-cocaine.jpg http://www.clivir.com/pictures/smoking/cigarettes1.jpg  COCAINE CIGARRETES (NICOTINE) 
  7. 7. HISTORY OF STIMULANTS <ul><li>Chinese physicians used the ephedra plant (Ephedra vulgaris) over 5000 years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ephedrine isolated in 1880s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Americans chewed leaves of Coca plant (Erythroxylon coca) 2000 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocaine isolated in 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaves of the Khat shrub (Catha edulis) have been chewed in East Africa and Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathinone isolated in 1970s </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. HISTORY OF STIMULANTS <ul><li>Native North and South Americans have been chewing and smoking tobacco for at least 500 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine isolated in 1828 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amphetamine synthesized in Germany in 1887 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting in the 1920s, it was used to treat various diseases and conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>epilepsy, schizophrenia, alcoholism, opiate addiction, migraine, head injuries, irradiation sickness, ADHD, narcolepsy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used heavily by US soldiers in Vietnam War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystal Methamphetamine synthesized in Japan in 1919 </li></ul>
  9. 9. BANNING STIMULANTS <ul><li>Cocaine outlawed by USA (without prescription) in 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>All amphetamines (including meth) followed in 1965 </li></ul>
  10. 10. CLINICAL USES - COCAINE <ul><li>Sigmund Freud suggested it was a “miracle drug” in 1880s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anasthesia, depression, indigestion, asthma, neurosis, syphilis, drug addiction, alcohol addiction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in Coca-Cola </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now the leaves are used with the cocaine removed beforehand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only approved use now is as local anasthetic </li></ul>
  11. 11. CLINICAL USES - AMPHETAMINES <ul><li>First used to treat narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not curative but quelled symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since then, has been used widely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of Parkinson’s disease, depression, epilepsy, psychopathic states, ADHD, obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used by soldiers to increase both long- and short-term wakefullness </li></ul>
  12. 12. HOW STIMULANTS WORK <ul><li>Increase synaptic activity of monoamine neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulants are indirect agonists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ability ability of neurotransmitters to act without directly affecting the receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each drug in this group works differently, but has the same final outcome </li></ul>
  13. 13. HOW COCAINE WORKS <ul><li>Blocks destruction of monoamines in brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This increases time that the monoamines can bind to receptors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. HOW AMPHETAMINES WORK <ul><li>Stimulate release of dopamine and norepinephrine from terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits reuptake, increasing ability to activate receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits monoamine oxidase, which destroys monoamines </li></ul><ul><li>Can directly activate catecholamine receptors, increasing monoamine activity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Benefits of Cocaine <ul><li>Increases wakefulness/alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates mood </li></ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>Increased athletic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Clearer thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Increased concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Increased energy </li></ul>
  16. 16. Negatives of Cocaine <ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Confused/disorganized behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Antisocial </li></ul><ul><li>Agressive </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dangers of Cocaine <ul><li>Increased blood pressure/heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased body temperature and sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Faster breathing rate </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased sleep/appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul>
  18. 18. Benefits of Meth <ul><li>Increased energy/alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased need for sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>euphoria </li></ul>
  19. 19. Negatives of Meth <ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Grinding teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased labido </li></ul><ul><li>Itching </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions of grandeur </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dangers of Meth <ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea/vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Moodiness </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety/nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Panic/paranoia </li></ul>
  21. 21. Dangers of Meth Cont. <ul><li>Uncontrollable movements and twitching </li></ul><ul><li>Violent behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Severe depression/ suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Fatal kidney and lung diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Liver damage </li></ul>
  22. 22. Benefits of Amphetamines <ul><li>Increased alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Increased motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Increased talkativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of well-being </li></ul>
  23. 23. Negatives of Amphetamines <ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Flushing </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness </li></ul><ul><li>Itchy skin </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dangers of Amphetamines <ul><li>Agressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heartbeat </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular heartbeat </li></ul><ul><li>Increased breathing rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul>
  25. 25. Dangers of Amphetamines Cont. <ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired speech </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable movements </li></ul><ul><li>Impotence </li></ul><ul><li>Convulsions </li></ul><ul><li>Acne/sores </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotic episodes </li></ul>
  26. 26. Benefits of Nicotine <ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpness </li></ul><ul><li>Calmness </li></ul><ul><li>Alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced appetite resulting in weight loss </li></ul>
  27. 27. Dangers of Nicotine <ul><li>Increased blood pressure/heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely addictive </li></ul>
  28. 28. Caffeine <ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><li>Alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Increased physical stamina </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>insomnia </li></ul>
  29. 29. Benefits of Ephedrine <ul><li>Induces perspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Warms body </li></ul><ul><li>Relieves wheezing </li></ul><ul><li>Moves fluids </li></ul>
  30. 30. Negatives of Ephedrine <ul><li>Overuse causes amphetamine-like effects </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Dry mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Heart palpitations </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Heart failure </li></ul>
  31. 31. Withdrawal Effects from Stimulants <ul><li>Craving </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Mental confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness and insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Deep or disturbed sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul>
  32. 32. Social Effects of Stimulants <ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating financial strain </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of families </li></ul><ul><li>Job loss </li></ul>
  33. 33. Economic Effects of Stimulants <ul><li>Users become broke </li></ul><ul><li>Users steal money; tax dollars pay for addicts </li></ul><ul><li>Money for education and public services wasted </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent otherwise able people from contributing to society/economy </li></ul>

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