Hallucinogens Stacy Y.


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Hallucinogens Stacy Y.

  1. 1. Psychedelic Drugs
  2. 2. Hallucinogens Overview <ul><li>Some of these drugs are synthesized, others come naturally from plants </li></ul><ul><li>The cactus peyote and mushroom amanita have been used since prehistoric times </li></ul><ul><li>Some, such as these, have religious and spiritual use </li></ul><ul><li>Others were popular for just “having a good time” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychedelics and the Brain <ul><li>Agonists at Serotonin Receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Strong Structural Similarities to serotonin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Bind at serotonin receptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Also inhibits reuptake of seretonin </li></ul><ul><li>Alters Seretonergic pathways </li></ul>
  4. 4. Serotonin <ul><li>Neurotransmitter </li></ul><ul><li>In Body: regulates intestinal movement </li></ul><ul><li>In Brain, it regulates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive functions learning and memory </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. But How Do Drugs Alter Behavior? <ul><li>Normal Serotonin Activity Does Not Cause Hallucinogenic Behavior, So Why Do DRUGS ? </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists aren’t sure </li></ul><ul><li>Theory : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs alter the receptors shape, then activate different effectors (end results) via different signaling pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-stimulation of receptors  increase EPSC’s  increase neuron firing in cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also changes gene expression that change firing properties of neurons </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Look at the structures: ALL AT ONCE Psilocybin Psilocin LSD Muscarine Ayahuasca Peyote
  7. 7. L S D : What is it? <ul><li>Lysergic acid diethylamide; “Acid” </li></ul><ul><li>Odorless, colorless, bitter-tasting synthetic substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made from ergot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common, non-addictive hallucinogen </li></ul>
  8. 8. LSD: Mode of Action <ul><li>After ingested by mouth or by eyes… </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists are unsure, but believe that LSD inhibits the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin primarily in cerebral cortex and locus coeruleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imbalance in cerebral cortex causes alteration in thought, mood, and perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imbalance in locus coeruleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to bizarre sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiences (auditory, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visual, and tactile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> hallucinations) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Effects of LSD <ul><li>Begins to work 30 min. after ingested and can work for over 12 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dizziness, increased heart rate, nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of unreality, hallucinations, perception of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depending on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dose, emotions, setting, other drugs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Bad Trips <ul><li>LSD is unpredictable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm, spiritual trip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or frightening, bizarre images and strong emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This can lead to feeling dizzy, anxious, disoriented, or paranoid </li></ul><ul><li>Taking LSD can destabilize people who are already predisposed to mental illness, such as schizophrenia </li></ul>
  11. 11. FL-A--S---H----B-----A------c-------k--------s <ul><li>Hallucinogen-Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) </li></ul><ul><li>After several trips, or even just one </li></ul><ul><li>Constant hallucinations while NOT on LSD </li></ul><ul><li>No treatment, but often ends on its own after months or years </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucination flashbacks could be just like other memories </li></ul><ul><li>Or could be result of permanent changes to the brain </li></ul>
  12. 12. History of Discovery <ul><li>1938 Swiss doctor Albert Hoffmann </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical company, created LSD accidentally </li></ul><ul><li>Thought, along with other scientists, that LSD could cure schizophrenia, criminal behavior, and alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments did not yield conclusive results </li></ul>
  13. 13. LSD: Social Aspects <ul><li>Scientists tested LSD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many self-tested and shared the drug with friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some test subjects began smuggling LSD out of the lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became popular in the 1960s before made illegal in the 1970 Controlled Substances Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two Harvard professors, Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ayahuasca <ul><li>Other names: Psilohuasca, ‘Shroom-a-huasca </li></ul><ul><li>Name origin : Ayahuasca means “spirit vine” or “vine of the souls” in indigenous languages of South America. Ayahuasca is also called Yage or Cipo in Colombia and Brazil respectively </li></ul><ul><li>History of drug: Used for healing purposes by Amerindians of the Amazon </li></ul>
  15. 15. Preparation <ul><li>Ayahuasca is made from boiling the stem of the ayahuasca vine, Bansteriopis caapi, with other plants </li></ul><ul><li>The plants that most often accompany the ayahuasca vine in the mixture are called the three campanions: </li></ul><ul><li>Chacruna (Psychotria viridis) </li></ul><ul><li>Sameruca (Pychotria carthaginensis) </li></ul><ul><li>Chalipanga (Diplopterys cabrerana) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chemistry <ul><li>Ayahuasca is often used as an antidepressant </li></ul><ul><li>MAOIs in it reduce the clearing of serotonin from the synaptic cleft and allow DMT to travel to neurons </li></ul><ul><li>MAOI causes more serotonin to bind to serotonin receptors on the dendrites of neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Causes elation and the opposite effects of depression. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effects <ul><li>Ayahuasca can also be smoked, inhaled, or injected to avoid the digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Parenterally administered ayahuasca acts quickly, but produces a short, brief effect </li></ul><ul><li>Ayahuasca drink is taken orally and passes through digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>May take up to several hours to cause an effect, but lasts for longer periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause dizziness, vomiting, and nausea </li></ul>
  18. 18. Legality <ul><li>it is legal to possess ayahuasca vine, but it is illegal to have DMT or other plants that contain DMT, such as the chacruna plant </li></ul><ul><li>under Chapter 13 of the Controlled Substances Act, DMT is classified as a Schedule I drug </li></ul><ul><li>the Drug Enforcement Administration has found that DMT has a high potential for abuse and there is no medical use of DMT in treatments in the U.S </li></ul><ul><li>DMT lacks the accepted safety requirements for use under medical supervision. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bufotenine
  20. 20. Bufotenine <ul><li>Also called 5-HO-DMT </li></ul><ul><li>Weak hallucogenic tryptamine drug </li></ul><ul><li>Comes from natural sources but can be prepared synthetically </li></ul><ul><li>poisonous alkaloid similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin </li></ul><ul><li>does not easily cross the blood-brain barrier </li></ul><ul><li>secreted from glands found on the skin and backs of toads </li></ul><ul><li>constricts blood vessels, which causes a rise in blood pressure levels. </li></ul>
  21. 21. History <ul><li>Austrian chemist Handovsky first isolated Bufotenine from toad skin at the University of Prague during World War I </li></ul><ul><li>In 1934, Heinrich Wieland confirmed the structure of it in his lab in Munich </li></ul><ul><li>In 1936, Toshio Hoshino reported the synthesis of bufotenine and was the first to recreate it in a lab </li></ul>
  22. 22. Legality <ul><li>Bufotenine is classified as a Schedule I hallucinogen </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal to manufacture, buy, distribute, or possess bufotenine without a DEA license </li></ul><ul><li>Bufotenine cannot be obtained by prescription, either </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bufotenine In Fairytales <ul><li>The Frog Prince , The Princess & The Frog </li></ul>
  24. 24. Peyote Peyote <ul><li>Cactus in Southwestern US and Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Sacred Plant” “The Key to the Door of Illusion” “The Cube that Turns You On, Man” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Peyote Effects <ul><li>When Chewed or Drunken as Tea  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-12 hours of deep introspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and auidtory affects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swirls of color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time alteration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bitter; often causes nausea and vomiting </li></ul>
  26. 26. Peyote Religion <ul><li>For thousands of years, has been used by Native American and Atzecan tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated into their ceremonies and religious practices and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a healing remedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sacred Medicine” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combat physical, spiritual and social ills </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Peyote Stirs Contoversy in Supreme Court <ul><li>When lawmakers tried to outlaw peyote, they received opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed banning the drug was a violation of the First Amendement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Peyote is legal in </li></ul><ul><li> some states to </li></ul><ul><li>certified members of </li></ul><ul><li>Peyote Religion </li></ul>
  28. 28. Peyote and Mescaline <ul><li>Mescaline=the main component of peyote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A psychoactive alkaloid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be produced synthetically in labs </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Psilocybin: The Drug <ul><li>Schedule I drugs </li></ul><ul><li>contain psilocin and psilocybin </li></ul><ul><li>These compounds are psychedelics and cause an effect similar to that of LSD </li></ul><ul><li>Psilocybin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tryptamine and an alkaloid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>posphate ester of psilocyn and the more chemically stable of the two compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less potent than psilocin due to higher molecular weight </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Amanita Muscaria <ul><li>Psychedelic chemical include Muscarine and Muscaria, an active alkaloid and Ibotanic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms:nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and bronchospasm </li></ul><ul><li>With larger doses: acrimation, hypotension and shock. </li></ul><ul><li>brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Legal everywhere </li></ul>