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Cannabinoids Rebecca R.


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Cannabinoids Rebecca R.

  1. 1. MARIJUANA Andrea Trementozzi, Rebecca Raftery, Julius Parker, Sophie
  2. 3. Cannabis sativa <ul><li>Botanical name for hemp </li></ul><ul><li>Plant native to Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Probably traded on Silk Road trade route, after Chinese discovered it 4000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon III’s troops returned to France with hasish (“hash”) from Egypt in 1800s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to the introduction of hemp in the Western World </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Cannabis sativa </li></ul>
  4. 5. Endocannabinoids <ul><li>Exist naturally in nervous and immune systems of animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anandamide : neurotransmitter that binds to cannabinoid receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Act on presynaptic terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Travel “backwards” from postsynaptic terminal and act on presynaptic terminal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde Signaling </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Phytocannabinoids <ul><li>Found in the Cannabis sativa plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol): primary active drug component of hemp plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabinol (CBN): mildly psychoactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabidiol (CBD): not psychoactive </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Synthetic Cannabinoids <ul><li>Created synthetically in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>First reported synthesis was in 1963 by Mechoulam and Yehiel Gaoni </li></ul><ul><li>Were able to reconstruct THC configurations in their lab </li></ul>
  7. 8.
  8. 9. <ul><li>CBD, CBG, CBN, and CBC are cannabinoids found in strain of hemp plant </li></ul><ul><li>CBD is psychoactive (acts mostly on CNS causing changes in mood), CBG and CBN are non-psychoactive </li></ul><ul><li>structures of each are very similar, most variation occurs in hydroxyl groups </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>-THC has a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol structure </li></ul><ul><li>-it is also psychoactive like CBD </li></ul><ul><li>-the difference between THC and CBD is again one variation of a hydroxyl group </li></ul><ul><li>-CBD adds an extra hydrogen to create OH on the lower left piece of the structure </li></ul><ul><li>-CBD also adds an extra hydgrogen where there is none in THC </li></ul>
  10. 11. History of Usage <ul><li>Hemp seeds were used as food in China </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes used as tea leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Used fruits and leaves for medicinal purposes </li></ul><ul><li>In Egypt, used for its effects on mind and body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. How Cannabinoids Are Used <ul><li>Smoked in a joint, bong, cigar, or pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed in tea and food </li></ul>
  12. 13. Mind/Body Effects <ul><li>Intoxication </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Heartbeat </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of coordination/ balance </li></ul><ul><li>Slow reaction time </li></ul><ul><li>Red eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted Perception </li></ul>
  13. 14. Mind/Body Effects cont’d <ul><li>Problems with short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in problem-solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>“The Munchies” </li></ul><ul><li>(Anxiety/Paranoia) </li></ul><ul><li>(Raise in blood pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>(Sleepiness) </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 16. THC <ul><li>delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol </li></ul><ul><li>Green/gray mixture of shredded & dried Cannabis leaves and flowers </li></ul><ul><li>3% of the average marijuana joint is THC </li></ul>
  16. 17. Hashish (Hash) <ul><li>Resin from trichomes (resin glands) in Cannabis plant </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly cultivated in the Middle East and northern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Reddish-brown color </li></ul><ul><li>Dried and compressed into balls, cakes, and cookie-like sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces are smoked from a pipe </li></ul>
  17. 18. Hashish, cont’d <ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 19. Marinol ® (Dronabinol) <ul><li>Synthetic cannabinoid (chemically created) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active ingredient Dronabinol = synthetic THC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prescription drug in the form of capsules </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily used to alleviate nausea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Also used to stimulate appetite for patients with anorexia due to AIDS </li></ul>
  19. 20. Marinol ® , cont’d <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 21. Dronabinol vs. THC <ul><li>Dronabinol is the active ingredient in Marinol </li></ul><ul><li>It is a synthesized variation of the regular delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol structure (basically the same structure as THC) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Mode of Action in the Brain <ul><li>Active ingredient, THC, in Cannibus, binds to g-protein-coupled receptors in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents the natural endocannabinoids from binding correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Most cannabinoid receptors are found in the cerebellum and basal ganglia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains the loss of motor control and balance </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Mode of Action in the Brain, cont’d <ul><li>THC also binds to receptors in the hippocampus, causing problems with short-term memory </li></ul>
  23. 25. Marijuana Statistics <ul><li>According to the U.S. Dept. of Justice, Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction time for motor skills (like driving), is lowered by 41% after smoking 1 joint, and reduced 63% after smoking 2 joints. </li></ul>
  24. 26. The Law <ul><li>In MA, “Possession of one ounce or less of marijuana is a civil offense, subject to a $100 fine like a traffic ticket… Possession of more than one ounce of marijuana is punishable by up to six months in jail and a fine of up to $500.” </li></ul>
  25. 27. *If under 18, must attend drug awareness program, or pay $1,000 fine
  26. 28. Medicinal Marijuana <ul><li>Drugs like Marinol ® are legal in Massachusetts for medical purposes for people suffering from side effects of glaucoma, asthma, or chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason, many think marijuana should be legalized </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Now legal (for medicinal purposes) in 14 states, although it is illegal under federal law </li></ul><ul><li>In MA, Proposition 2 was passed in November 2008 to legalize marijuana for medicinal uses </li></ul>
  28. 30. Controversy <ul><li>Pro Legalization: Medical, agricultural, industrial uses of hemp plant override recreational aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Anti Legalization: Marijuana is addictive and has damaging effects, and can cause long-term health problems (heart & lung disease, throat cancer, etc.) </li></ul>
  29. 31. Stances on Marijuana <ul><li>“I think hard drugs are disgusting. But I must say, I think marijuana is pretty lightweight.” - Linda McCartney </li></ul><ul><li>“I now have absolute proof that smoking even one marijuana cigarette is equal in brain damage to being on Bikini Island during an H-bomb blast.” -Ronald Reagan </li></ul>
  30. 32. Stances on Marijuana, cnt’d <ul><li>“ I think people need to be educated to the fact that marijuana is not a drug. Marijuana is an herb and a flower. God put it here. If He put it here and He wants it to grow, what gives the government the right to say that God is wrong?” -Willie Nelson </li></ul>