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# Isometric

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### Isometric

1. 1. ISOMETRIC DRAWING TYPICAL CONDITION. IN THIS 3-D DRAWING, AN OBJECT IS SO PLACED IT IS A TYPE OF PICTORIAL PROJECTION THAT, ITS THREE MUTUALLY PERPENDICULAR IN WHICH ALL THREE DIMENSIONS OF EDGES ARE EQUALLY INCLINED WITH THE PLANE AN OBJECT ARE SHOWN IN ONE VIEW AND OF PROJECTION. SO ALL THREE DIMENSIONAL IF REQUIRED, THEIR ACTUAL SIZES CAN BE AXES APPEAR AT EQUAL INCLINATIONS WITH MEASURED DIRECTLY FROM IT. EACH OTHER.( 1200) 3-D DRAWINGS CAN BE DRAWN NOW OBSERVE BELOW GIVEN DRAWINGS.IN NUMEROUS WAYS AS SHOWN BELOW. ONE CAN NOTE SPECIFIC INCLINATIONALL THESE DRAWINGS MAY BE CALLED AMONG H, L & D AXES. 3-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS, ISO MEANS SAME, SIMILAR OR EQUAL. OR PHOTOGRAPHIC HERE ONE CAN FIND OR PICTORIAL DRAWINGS. EQUAL INCLINATION AMONG H, L & D AXES. HERE NO SPECIFIC RELATION EACH IS 1200 INCLINED WITH OTHER TWO. AMONG H, L & D AXES IS MENTAINED. HENCE IT IS CALLED ISOMETRIC DRAWING L H H H PURPOSE OF ISOMETRIC DRAWING IS TO UNDERSTAND OVERALL SHAPE, SIZE & APPEARANCE OF AN OBJECT PRIOR TO IT’S PRODUCTION.
2. 2. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS:ISOMETRIC AXES, LINES AND PLANES:The three lines AL, AD and AH, meeting at point A and making1200 angles with each other are termed Isometric Axes. AThe lines parallel to these axes are called Isometric Lines.The planes representing the faces of of the cube as well asother planes parallel to these planes are called Isometric Planes. HISOMETRIC SCALE:When one holds the object in such a way that all three dimensionsare visible then in the process all dimensions become proportionallyinclined to observer’s eye sight and hence appear apparent in lengths.This reduction is 0.815 or 9 / 11 ( approx.) It forms a reducing scale whichIs used to draw isometric drawings and is called Isometric scale.In practice, while drawing isometric projection, it is necessary to converttrue lengths into isometric lengths for measuring and marking the sizes.This is conveniently done by constructing an isometric scale as describedon next page.
3. 3. Solution Steps:Problem 13.23: A cube of 25 mm 1.Assuming standing on HP, begin with TV,a square with all sideslong edges is so placed on HP on one equally inclined to XY. Project FV and name all points of FV & TV. 2.Draw a body-diagonal joining c’ with 1’( This can become // to xy)corner that a body diagonal is 3.From 3’ drop a perpendicular on this and name it p’ parallel to HP and perpendicular to 4.Draw 2nd Fv in which 3’p’ line is vertical means c’-1’ diagonalVP Draw it’s projections. must be horizontal. .Now as usual project TV.. 6.In final TV draw same diagonal is perpendicular to VP as said in problem. Then as usual project final FV. a1 ’ a’ b’d b1’ d1’ ’ a’ b’d’ c’ p’ c1’ p’ 1’ 11’ c’ 21’ 41’ 2’ 4’ X 1’ 2’ 4’ 3’ 3’ 3 1’ 1 1 Y d4 41 d1 21 41 a1 c3 11 a1 31 c1 b1 d1 21 b1 c1 b2
4. 4. TYPES OF ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS ISOMETRIC VIEW ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONDrawn by using True scale Drawn by using Isometric scale ( True dimensions ) ( Reduced dimensions ) D 4 H H 3 S TH 2 C G LEN 4 E RU T 1 3 2 TH S NG . LE CONSTRUCTION OF ISOM.SCALE. 0 1 ISOM From point A, with line AB draw 30 0 and 450 inclined lines AC & AD resp on AD. 450 Mark divisions of true length and from 0 300 A B each division-point draw vertical lines Isometric scale [ Line AC ] upto AC line. The divisions thus obtained on AC required for Isometric Projection give lengths on isometric scale.
5. 5. 1 SHAPE Isometric view if the Shape is ISOMETRIC OF F.V. or T.V. DPLANE FIGURES L L D RECTANGLE H C A D A AS THESE ALL ARE C 2-D FIGURES WE REQUIRE ONLY D TWO ISOMETRIC AXES. B C B B B A IF THE FIGURE IS TRIANGLE 3 B L FRONT VIEW, H & L 1 B 1 L 3AXES ARE REQUIRED. H A AIF THE FIGURE IS TOP 3 VIEW, D & L AXES D1 ARE REQUIRED. 2 A 2 2 4 Shapes containing PENTAGON H EInclined lines should 1 E 4 1 D 4 be enclosed in a Drectangle as shown. D D E A AThen first draw isom. L L 1 3of that rectangle and 3 A C then inscribe that C 2 B shape as it is. B C 3 2 B 2
6. 6. STUDY 2 ZILLUSTRATIONSDRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF ACIRCLE IF IT IS A TV OR FV.FIRST ENCLOSE IT IN A SQUARE.IT’S ISOMETRIC IS A RHOMBUS WITHD & L AXES FOR TOP VIEW.THEN USE H & L AXES FOR ISOMETRICWHEN IT IS FRONT VIEW.FOR CONSTRUCTION USE RHOMBUSMETHOD SHOWN HERE. STUDY IT. 2 A B 2 4 A B 3 4 3 D C 1 D C 1
7. 7. 3 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS 25 RDRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE FIGURESHOWN WITH DIMENTIONS (ON RIGHT SIDE)CONSIDERING IT FIRST AS F.V. AND THEN T.V. 50 MM IF FRONT VIEW 100 MM IF TOP VIEW
8. 8. ISOMETRIC SHAPE IF F.V. IF T.V. 4 OFPLANE FIGURES HEXAGONAS THESE ALL ARE 2-D FIGURESWE REQUIRE ONLY TWO ISOMETRIC AXES. CIRCLEIF THE FIGURE ISFRONT VIEW, H & L AXES ARE REQUIRED. IF THE FIGURE IS For Isometric of Circle/Semicircle use Rhombus method. Construct Rhombus TOP VIEW, D & L of sides equal to Diameter of circle always. ( Ref. topic ENGG. CURVES.) AXES ARE REQUIRED. SEMI CIRCLE For Isometric of Circle/Semicircle use Rhombus method. Construct it of sides equalto diameter of circle always. ( Ref. Previous two pages.)
9. 9. 5 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID STANDING ON H.P. (Height is added from center of pentagon)ISOMETRIC VIEW OF BASE OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID STANDING ON H.P. 4 4 D D E E D D L L 1 3 1 3 A C A C B 2 B 2
10. 10. 6 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PENTAGONALL PRISM LYING ON H.P. 4 H E 1 D A L 3 C B 2 ISOMETRIC VIEW OF HEXAGONAL PRISM STANDING ON H.P.
11. 11. 7 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS CYLINDER STANDING ON H.P.CYLINDER LYING ON H.P.
12. 12. 8 STUDY Z HALF CYLINDERILLUSTRATIONS STANDING ON H.P. ( ON IT’S SEMICIRCULAR BASE) HALF CYLINDER LYING ON H.P.( with flat face // to H.P.)
13. 13. 9 STUDY ISOMETRIC VIEW OF Z A FRUSTOM OF SQUARE PYRAMID ILLUSTRATIONS STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE. 60 FV X Y40 20 TV
14. 14. STUDY 10ILLUSTRATION PROJECTIONS OF FRUSTOM OF ISOMETRIC VIEW PENTAGONAL PYRAMID ARE GIVEN. OF FRUSTOM OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID DRAW IT’S ISOMETRIC VIEW. SOLUTION STEPS: 60 60FV FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC 20 OF IT’S BASE. x y THEN DRAWSAME SHAPE AS TOP, 60 MM ABOVE THE E 1 4 BASE PENTAGON CENTER. A THEN REDUCE THE TOP TO 20 MM SIDES AND JOIN WITHTV 40 20 D THE PROPER BASE CORNERS. B 40 2 3 C
15. 15. ISOMETRIC VIEW OF 11 STUDY A FRUSTOM OF CONE ZILLUSTRATIONS STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE. 60 FV X Y40 20 TV
16. 16. PROBLEM: A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 12 STUDY 50 MM LONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED ON THE TOP OF A ZILLUSTRATIONS CUBE OF 50 MM LONG EDGES.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR. 50 30 50
17. 17. 13 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS cPROBLEM: A TRIANGULAR PYRAMIDOF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 50 MM aLONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED oON THE TOP OF A CUBE OF 50 MM p aLONG EDGES. bDRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR. o c p b SOLUTION HINTS. TO DRAW ISOMETRIC OF A CUBE IS SIMPLE. DRAW IT AS USUAL. BUT FOR PYRAMID AS IT’S BASE IS AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE, IT CAN NOT BE DRAWN DIRECTLY.SUPPORT OF IT’S TV IS REQUIRED. SO DRAW TRIANGLE AS A TV, SEPARATELY AND NAME VARIOUS POINTS AS SHOWN. AFTER THIS PLACE IT ON THE TOP OF CUBE AS SHOWN. THEN ADD HEIGHT FROM IT’S CENTER AND COMPLETE IT’S ISOMETRIC AS SHOWN.
18. 18. 14 STUDY PROBLEM: ZILLUSTRATIONS A SQUARE PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY BY A CYLINDER WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES OF PLATE. IT’S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW. FV 30 10 30 30 D 50 + 50 TV
19. 19. 15 STUDY PROBLEM: ZILLUSTRATIONS A CIRCULAR PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY BY A SQUARE PYRAMID WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES OF PLATE. IT’S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW. FV 30 10 30 40 SQUARE 60 D TV
20. 20. 16 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 10 20 40 FV 40 X Y TV 50 D 30 D
21. 21. STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF SPHERE & HEMISPHERE 17 450 r R Iso-Direction r 300 R r r Isom. Scale P C r r R CR TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION R OF A HEMISPHERE P r P Adopt same procedure. C = Center of Sphere. Draw lower semicircle only. Then around ‘C’ construct P = Point of contact Rhombus of Sides equal to R = True Radius of Sphere Isometric Diameter. r = Isometric Radius. For this use iso-scale. Then construct ellipse in TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE this Rhombus as usual 1. FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC OF SQUARE PLATE. And Complete 2. LOCATE IT’S CENTER. NAME IT P. Isometric-Projection 3. FROM PDRAW VERTICAL LINE UPWARD, LENGTH ‘ r mm’ of Hemi-sphere. AND LOCATE CENTER OF SPHERE “C” 4. ‘C’ AS CENTER, WITH RADIUS ‘R’ DRAW CIRCLE. THIS IS ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE.
22. 22. PROBLEM: 18 STUDYA HEMI-SPHERE IS CENTRALLY PLACEDON THE TOP OF A FRUSTOM OF CONE. Z ILLUSTRATIONSDRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY. r 50 D R r 30 D r50 P 50 DFIRST CONSTRUCT ISOMETRIC SCALE.USE THIS SCALE FOR ALL DIMENSIONSIN THIS PROBLEM. 450 R r 300
23. 23. 19 STUDY A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 40 MM BASE SIDES AND 60 MM AXIS ZILLUSTRATIONS IS CUT BY AN INCLINED SECTION PLANE THROUGH THE MID POINT OF AXIS AS SHOWN.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF SECTION OF PYRAMID. 3’ 4’ 4 3 1’2’ X Y 1 a d 1 4 2 o 3 b 2 c
24. 24. 20 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 50 O X Y 20 25 O 25 20
25. 25. 21 STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. ZILLUSTRATIONS 35 FV 35 10 x y O 10 20 30 40 70 TV O
26. 26. 22 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. FV 30 10 30 SV 30 10 30 x y ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL TV
27. 27. 24 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV x y 10 40 60 40 TV 60
28. 28. F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 25 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV x y 10 40 60 40 TV 60
29. 29. 26 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW 20 20 20 x y O 50 20 30 O 20 20 20 TOP VIEW
30. 30. 27 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 30 SQUARE 40 20 50 20 10 O 30 60 F.V. S.V. O
31. 31. 28 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. FV 40 10 O 30 D 45 10 50 O 80 TV
32. 32. 29 STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. ZILLUSTRATIONS FV 40 X O 10 Y 100 10 25 TV 10 30 10 25 30 R O 20 D
33. 33. 30 STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. ZILLUSTRATIONS 30 FV RECT. SLOT 10 50 35 10 X Y O 20 D TV 60 D 30 D O
34. 34. 31 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 10 25 15 25 40 10 25 25 O O 80 25 F.V. S.V.
35. 35. F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 32 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS 450 30 FV 40 X Y O 30 D 40 TV 15 40 O
36. 36. 33 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. HEX PART 30 20 20 40 20 O 50 20 15 O 30 100 60
37. 37. 34 STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. ZILLUSTRATIONS 20 40 F.V. 30 10 X Y O 10 30 10 30 O 80 T.V.
38. 38. F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. 35 Draw it’s isometric view. STUDY 10 10 15 Z ILLUSTRATIONS 25 25X Y O 50 10 FV LSV 36NOTE THE SMALL CHZNGE IN 2ND FV & SV. DRAW ISOMETRIC ACCORDINGLY. 10 X Y O FV LSV
39. 39. 37 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 30 20 10 20 15 10 15 O 15 30 15 X O Y 50 F.V. LEFT S.V.
40. 40. 38 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 30 10 60 30 O 40 40 O F.V. S.V.