WHAT IS HARDNESS OF WATER?
Hard water is water that has a high mineral
content. Hard water minerals primarily consist of
calcium and magnesium, metal cat ions and
sometimes other dissolved compounds such as
bicarbonates and sulfates.
Hardness in water is defined as the presence of
multivalent cat ions. Hardness in water causes
the water to produce scales and a resistance to
Water containing little or no dissolved salts of calcium or magnesium, especially water containing less than 85.5 parts per million of calcium carbonate.
WHAT IS SOFT WATER?
Water containing little or no dissolved
salts of calcium or magnesium, especially
water containing less than 85.5 parts per
million of calcium carbonate is known as
soft water. Most of the ions have been
removed in soft water, but sodium and
various anions (negatively charged ions)
STEPS TO REDUCE HARDNESS OF WATER:
We can install a mechanical water softener that replaces calcium and
magnesium with sodium if your water source is hard.
We can install a magnetic water conditioner that alters calcium ions
so they are unable to cause lime scale.
We can boil your water before drinking it.
-Soften water using washing soda or lime.
We can add ammonia, borax, lye or washing-soda to the water at the
same time you add the soap when doing laundry and other
We can use a water filter pitcher that provides water softening for
We can put a similar type of filter on your kitchen and bathroom sink
faucets to provide softening for water dispensed through the tap.
SOME HARMFUL EFFECTS OF HARD WATER ARE:
Hard water interferes with almost every cleaning task from
laundering and dish washing to bathing and personal
Clothes laundered in hard water may look dingy and feel
harsh and scratchy.
Dishes and glasses may be spotted when dry.
Hard water may cause a film on glass shower doors, shower
walls, bathtubs, sinks, faucets, etc.
Hair washed in hard water may feel sticky and look dull.
Water flow may be reduced by deposits in pipes.
WHAT IS HYDROELECTRICITY?
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by
hydropower. The production of electrical power through the use of the
gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used
form of renewable electricity generation.
WHAT IS TIDAL ENERGY?
Tidal energy, sometimes called tidal power is the power
achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water
in tides and open ocean currents.
There are two types of energy systems that can be used to
extracted energy: kinetic energy, the moving water of rivers,
tides and open ocean currents; and potential energy from the
difference in height between high and low tides.
Tidal power is classified as a renewable energy source,
because tides are caused by the orbital mechanics of the solar
system (ocean currents are caused by the surface effect of
winds) and are considered inexhaustible. Tidal power has great
potential for future power and electricity generation because of
the essentially inexhaustible amount of energy contained in
these rotational systems.
WHAT IS WAVE ENERGY?
Waves are generated by the wind as it blows across the sea
surface. Energy is transferred from the wind to the waves.
Wave energy has the potential to be one of the most
environmentally benign forms of electricity generation. It is
a clean and renewable energy source and its potential is
huge. Some additional benefits of wave energy are:
With the wave energy resource distributed across the
globe, wave energy offers many countries the benefit of
security of supply.
Waves are generated over large areas of ocean and, once
generated, travel immense distances with only small
Geothermal energy is the heat from the
Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of
geothermal energy range from the shallow
ground to hot water and hot rock found a few
miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down
even deeper to the extremely high
temperatures of molten rock called magma.
WHAT IS RECYCLING OF WATER?
The water recycling process utilizes very
basic physical, biological and chemical
principles to remove contaminants from
water. Use of mechanical or physical
systems to treat wastewater is generally
referred to as primary treatment. Use of
biological processes to provide further
treatment is referred to as secondary
treatment. Additional purification is
called tertiary or advanced treatment.
We can recycle water in our shower. Most people like to run the
water until it warms up before getting into the shower. We can
get a bucket to put in our shower and catch the water so that
it's not wasted. We can also use this water for cooking.
We can save the water in our sink after dishwashing. We can
use this water to pour into our toilet bowl tank for flushing. We
can then gather the water in a pitcher or a pan to transfer it to
the bathroom. Of course, we may not want to use the water if it
has a lot of grease in it from frying pans. We don't want greasy
water sitting in our toilet tanks.
Reusing wastewater helps in improving sustainability and secures the water
with much less pressure on environmental sources in addition to many
If wastewater is treated enough it can be reused for agriculture, landscaping
irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flush and cooling water in power plants.
By reusing treated wastewater, the cost will decrease as for the mentioned
examples there would not be necessary to treat the water in its highest
It is also great method for a country to reduce its carbon footprint as it would
need less treatments and transportation of wastewater to the treatment
Recycling water is a great method for regions with less annual rainfall as they
can conserve more water.
In addition to the benefits above, it decreases the use of fresh water which
can conserve the balance in ecosystem as well as less water to treat and as a
result less water to discharge into the sensitive waters.
However, reusing wastewater is not without risks and it can have negative impacts on
human and the environment around it.
The most important factor in water reuse is hygiene and as it was mentioned earlier,
water is the source of life and that includes life of so many pathogens.
Pathogens are the major concerns when it comes to human health. Usually reverse
osmosis is a great method as it can remove the chemicals and pathogens from the
wastewater and then expose it to UV light or oxidation for disinfection.
Nutrients, organics and heavy metals in wastewater are the contaminants that if not
properly treated can seriously threat the human’s health and his surrounding
Other characteristics of wastewater such as salinity, chloride, nitrogen and
phosphorus are other factors than need to be considered for different purposes of
Usually household wastewater does not contain any heavy metal but the
concentration of new types of chemicals like hormones and residue of the
contraceptives is increasing in the wastewater and it can also have unknown impacts
on the ecosystem. Another problem could be different infrastructure to separate the
fresh water from the flush water in a building which would end up in higher costs.
Our mission is to provide safe water to
vulnerable populations through the
Chlorine Dispenser System. We work with
public, private and non-profit sector
partners and local communities to
implement evidence-based, cost-effective
and sustainable programs. We strive to
continuously innovate, evaluate and adapt
our programs to maximize health impact.
One such movement is Narmada Bachao
Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social
of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists,
and human rights activists against a number of
large dams being built across the Narmada river.
The river flows through the states of Gujarat, ,
and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar
Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the
river and was one of the first focal points of the
SUPREME COURT’S DECISION:
"The Narmada Bachao Andolan has rendered a yeoman's
service to the country by creating a high-level of awareness
about the environmental and rehabilitation and relief aspects
of Sardar Sarovar and other projects on the Narmada. But,
after the court verdict it is incumbent on it to adopt a new
role. Instead of 'damning the dam' any longer, it could assume
the role of vigilant observer to see that the resettlement work
is as humane and painless as possible and that the
environmental aspects are taken due care of.“
PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE MOVEMENT:
Amongst the major celebrities who have shown their support
for Narmada Bachao Andolan are booker
Prize winner Arundhati Roy and Aamir khan.
1994 saw the launch of Narmada: A Valley Rises, by
filmmaker Ali Kazimi . It documents the five-week Sangharsh
Yatra of 1991. The film went on to win several awards and is
considered by many to be a classic on the issue. In 1996,
veteran documentary filmmaker, Anand Patwardhan , made
an award-winning documentary: A Narmada Diary
FORMATION OF NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN:
There were groups such as Gujarat-based Arch- Vahini (Action Research in Community
Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people
affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti
(Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based Narmada
Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people) who either believed
in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently opposed dam
construction despite a resettlement policy
The Narmada dam's benefits include provision of drinking water, power generation and
irrigation facilities. However, the campaign led by the NBA activists has held up the
project's completion, and the NBA supporters have attacked on local people who accepted
compensation for moving. Others have argued that the Narmada Dam protesters are little
more than environmental extremists who use pseudoscientific agitprop to scuttle the
development of the region and that the dam will provide agricultural benefits to millions of
poor in India. There had also been instances when the NBA activists turned violent and
attacked rehabilitation officer from Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) and
caused damage to the contractor's machinery.
The NBA has been accused of lying under oath in court about land ownership in areas
affected by the dam. The Supreme Court has mulled perjury charges against the group.
The sustainability of ground-water resources is a
function of many factors, including depletion of
ground-water storage, reductions in streamflow,
potential loss of wetland and riparian ecosystems,
land subsidence, saltwater intrusion, and changes in
ground-water quality. Each groundwater system
and development situation is unique and requires
an analysis adjusted to the nature of the existing
water issues. The purpose of this Circular is to
illustrate the hydrologic, geologic, and ecological
concepts that must be considered to assure the
wise and sustainable use of our precious groundwater resources. The sustainability of ground water
resources is a function of many factors , including
decreases in ground water storage loss of wetland
and changes in ground water quality.
The impacts of over abstraction and water-level
declines have been reported widely. It is sufficient to note
here that over abstraction can lead to a wide array of
social, economic and environmental consequences
Critical changes in patterns of groundwater flow to and
from adjacent aquifer systems;
Declines in stream base flows, wetlands, etc. with
consequent damage to ecosystems and downstream
Increased pumping costs and energy usage;
Land subsidence and damage to surface infrastructure;
Reduction in access to water for drinking, irrigation and
other uses, particularly for the poor;