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  1. 1. WHAT IS HARDNESS OF WATER? Hard water is water that has a high mineral content. Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium and magnesium, metal cat ions and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulfates. Hardness in water is defined as the presence of multivalent cat ions. Hardness in water causes the water to produce scales and a resistance to soap.
  2. 2. Water containing little or no dissolved salts of calcium or magnesium, especially water containing less than 85.5 parts per million of calcium carbonate. WHAT IS SOFT WATER? Water containing little or no dissolved salts of calcium or magnesium, especially water containing less than 85.5 parts per million of calcium carbonate is known as soft water. Most of the ions have been removed in soft water, but sodium and various anions (negatively charged ions) still remain.
  3. 3.       STEPS TO REDUCE HARDNESS OF WATER: We can install a mechanical water softener that replaces calcium and magnesium with sodium if your water source is hard. We can install a magnetic water conditioner that alters calcium ions so they are unable to cause lime scale. We can boil your water before drinking it. -Soften water using washing soda or lime. We can add ammonia, borax, lye or washing-soda to the water at the same time you add the soap when doing laundry and other household cleaning. We can use a water filter pitcher that provides water softening for drinking water. We can put a similar type of filter on your kitchen and bathroom sink faucets to provide softening for water dispensed through the tap.
  4. 4.       SOME HARMFUL EFFECTS OF HARD WATER ARE: Hard water interferes with almost every cleaning task from laundering and dish washing to bathing and personal grooming. Clothes laundered in hard water may look dingy and feel harsh and scratchy. Dishes and glasses may be spotted when dry. Hard water may cause a film on glass shower doors, shower walls, bathtubs, sinks, faucets, etc. Hair washed in hard water may feel sticky and look dull. Water flow may be reduced by deposits in pipes.
  5. 5. WHAT IS HYDROELECTRICITY? Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower. The production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable electricity generation.
  6. 6. WHAT IS TIDAL ENERGY? Tidal energy, sometimes called tidal power is the power achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water in tides and open ocean currents. There are two types of energy systems that can be used to extracted energy: kinetic energy, the moving water of rivers, tides and open ocean currents; and potential energy from the difference in height between high and low tides. Tidal power is classified as a renewable energy source, because tides are caused by the orbital mechanics of the solar system (ocean currents are caused by the surface effect of winds) and are considered inexhaustible. Tidal power has great potential for future power and electricity generation because of the essentially inexhaustible amount of energy contained in these rotational systems.
  7. 7. WHAT IS WAVE ENERGY? Waves are generated by the wind as it blows across the sea surface. Energy is transferred from the wind to the waves. Wave energy has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electricity generation. It is a clean and renewable energy source and its potential is huge. Some additional benefits of wave energy are: With the wave energy resource distributed across the globe, wave energy offers many countries the benefit of security of supply. Waves are generated over large areas of ocean and, once generated, travel immense distances with only small energy losses.
  8. 8.  Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.
  9. 9. WHAT IS RECYCLING OF WATER? The water recycling process utilizes very basic physical, biological and chemical principles to remove contaminants from water. Use of mechanical or physical systems to treat wastewater is generally referred to as primary treatment. Use of biological processes to provide further treatment is referred to as secondary treatment. Additional purification is called tertiary or advanced treatment.
  10. 10.  We can recycle water in our shower. Most people like to run the water until it warms up before getting into the shower. We can get a bucket to put in our shower and catch the water so that it's not wasted. We can also use this water for cooking.  We can save the water in our sink after dishwashing. We can use this water to pour into our toilet bowl tank for flushing. We can then gather the water in a pitcher or a pan to transfer it to the bathroom. Of course, we may not want to use the water if it has a lot of grease in it from frying pans. We don't want greasy water sitting in our toilet tanks.
  11. 11.  Reusing wastewater helps in improving sustainability and secures the water      with much less pressure on environmental sources in addition to many economic benefits. If wastewater is treated enough it can be reused for agriculture, landscaping irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flush and cooling water in power plants. By reusing treated wastewater, the cost will decrease as for the mentioned examples there would not be necessary to treat the water in its highest quality. It is also great method for a country to reduce its carbon footprint as it would need less treatments and transportation of wastewater to the treatment plants. Recycling water is a great method for regions with less annual rainfall as they can conserve more water. In addition to the benefits above, it decreases the use of fresh water which can conserve the balance in ecosystem as well as less water to treat and as a result less water to discharge into the sensitive waters.
  12. 12.  However, reusing wastewater is not without risks and it can have negative impacts on      human and the environment around it. The most important factor in water reuse is hygiene and as it was mentioned earlier, water is the source of life and that includes life of so many pathogens. Pathogens are the major concerns when it comes to human health. Usually reverse osmosis is a great method as it can remove the chemicals and pathogens from the wastewater and then expose it to UV light or oxidation for disinfection. Nutrients, organics and heavy metals in wastewater are the contaminants that if not properly treated can seriously threat the human’s health and his surrounding ecosystem. Other characteristics of wastewater such as salinity, chloride, nitrogen and phosphorus are other factors than need to be considered for different purposes of water recycling. Usually household wastewater does not contain any heavy metal but the concentration of new types of chemicals like hormones and residue of the contraceptives is increasing in the wastewater and it can also have unknown impacts on the ecosystem. Another problem could be different infrastructure to separate the fresh water from the flush water in a building which would end up in higher costs.
  13. 13. Our mission is to provide safe water to vulnerable populations through the Chlorine Dispenser System. We work with public, private and non-profit sector partners and local communities to implement evidence-based, cost-effective and sustainable programs. We strive to continuously innovate, evaluate and adapt our programs to maximize health impact.
  14. 14. One such movement is Narmada Bachao Andolan. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, , and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement.
  15. 15.  SUPREME COURT’S DECISION: "The Narmada Bachao Andolan has rendered a yeoman's service to the country by creating a high-level of awareness about the environmental and rehabilitation and relief aspects of Sardar Sarovar and other projects on the Narmada. But, after the court verdict it is incumbent on it to adopt a new role. Instead of 'damning the dam' any longer, it could assume the role of vigilant observer to see that the resettlement work is as humane and painless as possible and that the environmental aspects are taken due care of.“  PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE MOVEMENT: Amongst the major celebrities who have shown their support for Narmada Bachao Andolan are booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy and Aamir khan. 1994 saw the launch of Narmada: A Valley Rises, by filmmaker Ali Kazimi . It documents the five-week Sangharsh Yatra of 1991. The film went on to win several awards and is considered by many to be a classic on the issue. In 1996, veteran documentary filmmaker, Anand Patwardhan , made an award-winning documentary: A Narmada Diary
  16. 16. FORMATION OF NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN: There were groups such as Gujarat-based Arch- Vahini (Action Research in Community Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people) who either believed in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy CRITISISM: The Narmada dam's benefits include provision of drinking water, power generation and irrigation facilities. However, the campaign led by the NBA activists has held up the project's completion, and the NBA supporters have attacked on local people who accepted compensation for moving. Others have argued that the Narmada Dam protesters are little more than environmental extremists who use pseudoscientific agitprop to scuttle the development of the region and that the dam will provide agricultural benefits to millions of poor in India. There had also been instances when the NBA activists turned violent and attacked rehabilitation officer from Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) and caused damage to the contractor's machinery. The NBA has been accused of lying under oath in court about land ownership in areas affected by the dam. The Supreme Court has mulled perjury charges against the group.
  17. 17. The sustainability of ground-water resources is a function of many factors, including depletion of ground-water storage, reductions in streamflow, potential loss of wetland and riparian ecosystems, land subsidence, saltwater intrusion, and changes in ground-water quality. Each groundwater system and development situation is unique and requires an analysis adjusted to the nature of the existing water issues. The purpose of this Circular is to illustrate the hydrologic, geologic, and ecological concepts that must be considered to assure the wise and sustainable use of our precious groundwater resources. The sustainability of ground water resources is a function of many factors , including decreases in ground water storage loss of wetland and changes in ground water quality.
  18. 18. The impacts of over abstraction and water-level declines have been reported widely. It is sufficient to note here that over abstraction can lead to a wide array of social, economic and environmental consequences including: Critical changes in patterns of groundwater flow to and from adjacent aquifer systems; Declines in stream base flows, wetlands, etc. with consequent damage to ecosystems and downstream users; Increased pumping costs and energy usage; Land subsidence and damage to surface infrastructure; Reduction in access to water for drinking, irrigation and other uses, particularly for the poor;

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