Cognitive-Behavioural therapy effects on athlete performance: Coaching Implications
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapyeffects on athlete performance:Coaching implicationsBy Justin Uzabeaga
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)• Addis et al. (2000) suggests that this type of treatment primarily involves the restructuring of negative thought processes, publicly observable behaviour and cognitive structures
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Methods• Luiselli and Reed (2011) suggest that Goal Setting, Self Talk and Imagery are key Cognitive- Behavioural methods
Goal Setting• Lee (1988) suggests that setting team goals is significantly related to teams increased performance.
Self Talk• Hatzigeorgiadis, Mpoumpaki, Theodorakis and Zourbanos (2009) suggest that self talk increased task performance and self confidence and reduced anxiety in 72 tennis players.
Mental Rehearsel• Copper, Driskell and Moran (1994) suggest that cognitively rehearsing a task before performing it or mental rehearsal is beneficial for the performance the subsequent task
Mental Rehearsal and Skill Aquisition• Maring (1990) suggest that mental rehearsal positively influences new motor skill acquisition
CBT and Emotions• Jones (2003) suggests that emotions are important factors in sport performance as they influence an athlete’s motivations and physical and cognitive functioning• Baron, Davis and Gillson (2009) suggest that CBT reduces athlete salivary cortisol levels
Coach-Athlete Alliance• O’Broin and Palmer (2009) suggest that Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy positively effects the coach and athlete alliance or relationship.
CBT effect on Perfectionism• Flett, Heisel, Hewitt and Madosky (2002) suggest that perfectionism or frequent ruminating over mistakes or imperfections is correlated to depression and anxiety• Gardiner and Kearns (2007) showed that the Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can decrease participant’s perfectionism and self handicapping cognitions
CBT and Hope• Oades, Grant and Green (2006) suggest that Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy increases hope, goal striving and well being.• Cook et al. (1997) suggest that hope is a significant predictor of academic and sporting performance
CBT effect on athletes• Rose (2010) assessed cognitive behavioural and other psychological methods effect on track and field athletes
CBT and Regulation Negative Cognitions and Emotions• Frodi et al. (2010) suggest that CBT enables individuals to regulate negative cognitive thoughts and ruminations, emotions and incorporate positive cognitions.
CBT in Elite Golfers• Cohn, Llyod and Rotella (1990) Suggest that these Cognitive-Behavioural methods increased the golfer’s adherence to pre shot routines and subsequent performance
References• Addis, M.E., Atkins, D.C., Dimidjian, S., Dobson, K.S., Gallop, R., Gollan, J. K. et al. (2006). Randomised trial of behavioural activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. Journal of Counselling and Clinical Psychology, 4, 658-670.• Baron, D., Davis, H., & Gillson, G. (2009). Salivary cortisol and mood reductions in Olympic athletes using cognitive behavioural methods. Handbook of Sports Psychology, 18.• Cohn, P.J., Llyod, J.W., & Rotella, R.J. (1990). Effects of a cognitive- behavioural interventionon the preshot routine and performance in golf. The sport Psychologist, 33-47.• Cook, DL., Curry, L.A., Rehm, M., Ruby, B.C., & Snyder, C.R. (1997). Role of hope in academic and sport achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1257-1267.
References• Copper, C., Driskell, J.E., & Moran, A. (1994). Does mental practice enhance performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 481-492.• Flett, G.L., Heisel, M.J., Hewitt, P.L., & Madosky, D. (2002). Perfectioninsm cognitions, rumination and psychological distress. Journal of Rational Emotive and Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy, 1.• Forbes, A, Gardiner, M., & Kearns, H. (2007). A cognitive behavioural coaching intervention for the treatment of perfectionism and self handicapping in a nonclinical population, Journal of Behaviour Change, 157-172.• Frodi, A., Nilsson, E.K., Palmer, S., Regner, A.M., & Gyllensten, K. (2010). Experiences of cognitive coaching: A qualitative study. International Coaching Psychology Review, 1750-2764.
References• Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Mpoumpaki, S., Theodorakis, Y., & Zourbanos, N. (2009). Mechanisms underlying the self-talk-performance relationship: The effects of motivational self-talk on self-confidence and anxiety. Psychology of sport and Exercise, 186-192.• , M.V. (2003). Controlling emotions in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 471-486.• Lee, C. (1988). The relationship between goal setting, self efficacy, and female field hockey team performance. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 147-161.• Luiselli, J.K., & Reed, D.D. (2011). Behavioural Sport Psychology: Evidence-Based Approaches to Performance Enhancement (1st ed.). New York.
References• Maring, J. (1990). Effects of mental practice on rate of skill acquisition. Physical Therapy, 3.• Oades, L.G., Grant, A.M., & Green, L.S. (2006). Cognitive- behavioural, solution-focused life coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well- being, and hope. The Journal Positive Psychology, 142-149.• O’Broin, A., & Palmer, S. (2009). Co-creating an optimal coaching alliance: A cognitive behavioural coaching perspective. International Coaching Psychology Review, 2.• Rose, O. (2010). Where should training for athletes begin? Examining the efficacy of mental training with track and field athletes of the university of the west indies, mona campus. International Journal of Arts and sciences, 192-215.••
References• Picture Taken From Wikiversity under the Creative Commons Licence 3.0• File: Phil Jackson coaching LAL.jpg• File: Question book.png