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Surviving the Hype: An Experimental Framework for Scaling Enterprise Design Thinking

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You'll learn:

- How to sustain design thinking beyond the workshop
- How to use “design interventions” to create long-term impact in enterprises
- Best practices for evangelizing enterprise UX based on SAP’s experiments

Published in: Design
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Surviving the Hype: An Experimental Framework for Scaling Enterprise Design Thinking

  1. 1. SURVIVING THE HYPE An experimental model for scaling design thinking
  2. 2. Legend What We Learnt, (And What It Means For You) Why We Did It What We Did
  3. 3. PART 1 Why We Did It
  4. 4. DESIGN-THINKING IS GOING MAINSTREAM
  5. 5. SITUATION : DESIGN-THINKING TODAY image:wikimediacommons
  6. 6. EXHIBIT 1 : THE DESIGN VALUE INDEX Image:DMI2016
  7. 7. EXHIBIT 1 : #DESIGNINTECH 2016 image:DesigninTech2016
  8. 8. HOW MANY DESIGNERS DO YOU NEED TO CHANGE CULTURE ?
  9. 9. SAM’S RATIOS 1: 10 1: 100 1: 1000
  10. 10. YOU HAVE TO TEACH. Current employees Future employees+
  11. 11. COMPLICATION : CURRENT MODEL image:hpi
  12. 12. WORKSHOP UNIT OF SCALE
  13. 13. EARLY MODEL : CIRCA FEB 2015 NAIVE link:mediumarticle
  14. 14. PART 2 What We Did
  15. 15. BACKSTORY
  16. 16. link:wikipedia
  17. 17. WHAT WE DID CreatedbyOksanaLatyshevafromtheNonProject A N D R E A & D O N M I C H E L L E R A N A R O H I T PROJECT MOONSHINE
  18. 18. UNIVERSITY AS AN ANALOGUE FOR ENTERPRISE CENTRAL INSIGHT
  19. 19. UNIVERSITIES WE’RE WORKING WITH
  20. 20. WHAT WE DID 1. Define the Challenge 2. Develop a Systems Understanding 3. Reframe the Challenge 4. Find Intervention Spaces 5. Design Interventions 6. Scale Interventions
  21. 21. 1. DEFINE A CHALLENGE
  22. 22. 3. SYSTEMS UNDERSTANDING: JOURNEY Freshman Sophomore Junior SeniorYear Act 1 : Entry Shock Act 2 : Class Roulette Act 3 : “Light My Fire” Act 4: Exit Shock Intervention Space
  23. 23. 3. SYSTEMS UNDERSTANDING: STUDENT EXPERIENCE 50% 56% in 6 yrs 6.5s “Noisy” Channel “No Fit!” “Class Roulette” “Light My Fire”
  24. 24. 3. SYSTEMS UNDERSTANDING: EDUCATOR’S EXPERIENCE $ ?
  25. 25. 2. RE-FRAME THE CHALLENGE Design a system and experience, that empowers students, to become design- minded intrapreneurs, with purposeful careers ? H O W M I G H T W E
  26. 26. 4. FIND INTERVENTION SPACES $ C L A S S R O O M R E A L - W O R L D P R O B L E M S * low return on value for effort invested TA L E N T M AT C H I N G
  27. 27. 5. DESIGN INTERVENTIONS : CHANGE BEHAVIOR Expose POSTER Experience TRAILER Engage MOVIE NEWOLD
  28. 28. 5. DESIGN INTERVENTIONS : CLASSROOM OLD NEW Expose COOKBOOK Experience CLASSLAB Engage TEACHING COHORT
  29. 29. 5. INTERVENTION 1 : EXPOSE COOKBOOK
  30. 30. 5. INTERVENTION 2 : EXPERIENCE CLASSLAB
  31. 31. 5. INTERVENTION 3 : ENGAGE TEACHING COHORT Kenn Sugiyama Adjunct Professor San Francisco State Prof. Leigh Jin Information Systems San Francisco State Prof. Anne Massey Information Systems Indiana University Dr. Tracey Kijewski-Correa Civil & Env. Engg & Earth Sciences Notre Dame University COMMITTED COMMITTED COMMITTED SCALED Steve Reifenberg Kellogg Inst. for Intl. Studies Notre Dame University SCALED Scott Klemmer Associate Professor UC San Diego SCALED
  32. 32. NEWS : TOP 30 IN OPEN IDEO’S HIGHER ED CHALLENGE
  33. 33. 6. SCALE INTERVENTIONS : COOKBOOK ECOSYSTEM
  34. 34. INTERVENTION UNIT OF SCALE
  35. 35. WHAT WE DID 1. Define the Challenge 2. Develop a Systems Understanding 3. Reframe the Challenge 4. Find Intervention Spaces 5. Design Interventions 6. Scale Interventions
  36. 36. PART 3 What We Learnt
  37. 37. WHAT WE LEARNT 1. Emphasize Design-Doing 2. Treat this like a Systems Problem 3. Flag Situations with Low Return on Effort 4. Don’t Treat this as a Fight 5. Find the Soft Spot 6. Place a Bet 7. Design an Intervention 8. Create a Scaffolding for Behavior Change 9. Design Experiments alongside Releases 10. Build Cohorts
  38. 38. EMPHASIZE DESIGN-DOING Design thinking has the wrong emphasis 1
  39. 39. CURRENT MENTAL MODEL : POST-ITS image:hpi
  40. 40. DESIRED MENTAL MODEL : CRAFTSMANSHIP image:unsplash
  41. 41. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You’ve been asked to give an introduction to design- thinking. Action: Replace design-thinking with design-doing in your slides and simply use design-doing as the way to talk about design. We’ve seen people use it back with us within the same conversation 9
  42. 42. TREAT THIS LIKE A SYSTEMS PROBLEM Create systems level artifacts 2
  43. 43. MENTAL MODEL : SYSTEMS Connected Capable of Learning Humans working in Concert
  44. 44. EXHIBIT 1 : SYSTEM FACTS 1. Only 3% of 14 million students go to private college in the U.S. 2. On average 50% of those who enter college, leave without graduating 3. The university system is driven by the conditions of federal grants 4. Quality of teaching is not incentivised in the university system. Research is. 5. There is no measure of how well the student is learning 6. Grade inflation is common 7. The university punishes students for exploring outside a prescribed path 8. The university system is a bubble 9. Students across the board learn better through real-life experiences 10. Students are coming out, at best, qualified but deficient in critical skills
  45. 45. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You want to create system facts for your company or unit. Where do you start ? 9 Action: • Look up system facts for your company / unit : e.g. hiring, firing, tenure, promotion velocity, average age of employee • Speak to 8-10 employees on what gets noticed and promoted. • Deduce : what is the story about the what is incentivized and what is punished ?
  46. 46. EXHIBIT 2 : SYSTEM BEHAVIOR Freshman Sophomore Junior SeniorYear Act 1 : Entry Shock Act 2 : Class Roulette Act 3 : “Light My Fire” Act 4: Exit Shock Intervention Space
  47. 47. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You want to determine the system behavior for your company / unit. Where do you start ? 9 Action: • Speak to 8-10 employees of the unit across a range of experience • Have them sketch their journey in years or key moments • What does the aggregate experience signature of the unit look like ? • Where in the journey do you see an opportunity for improvement ?
  48. 48. EXHIBIT 3 : SYSTEM ARCHETYPES
  49. 49. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You want to determine the employee archetypes in your unit / company . Where do you start ? 9 Action: • Interview 25 employees in your unit across a range of experiences • Look for repeating “types” in the personalities. • Give each type a name and specify further
  50. 50. EXHIBIT 4 : SYSTEM DESIGN 50% 56% in 6 yrs 6.5s “Noisy” Channel “No Fit!” “Class Roulette” “Light My Fire”
  51. 51. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You want to determine the system creating the experience for the unit today . Where do you start ? 9 Action: • Surface the central metaphors you keep hearing during interviews • Fuse the metaphors into a working system • Test to see it explains the dominate employee experience
  52. 52. EXHIBIT 5 : INTERVENTION SPACES $ C L A S S R O O M R E A L - W O R L D P R O B L E M S *spaces relevant for the design challenge TA L E N T M AT C H I N G
  53. 53. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You want to find the intervention spaces in the current system in your unit / company . Where do you start ?
 9 Action: • Re-state your design challenge: what are you trying to achieve ? • For your challenge e.g. change mindset, which parts of the system are affected ? • Highlight spaces critical to your design challenge.
  54. 54. FLAG SITUATIONS WITH LOW RETURN ON EFFORT Respect biocost 3
  55. 55. MENTAL MODEL : LEAKY BUCKET Where are you leaking energy ?
  56. 56. EXHIBIT 1 : LOW-ENGAGEMENT LECTURES image:advancesinphysiologyeducation
  57. 57. EXHIBIT 2 : SPAMMING RECRUITERS WITH RESUMES
  58. 58. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : For the intervention spaces you’ve identified, you want to identify situations which can serve as an entry point for interventions . How will you find them ? 
 9 Action: Talk to primary actors, about where they feel the least return on effort ? Where do they feel exhausted by the effort ? Where does it feel thankless ? List situations. Pick one where you have greatest influence to change. These are your key situations.
  59. 59. DON’T TREAT THIS AS A FIGHT Treat this an exercise in releasing constraints 4
  60. 60. OLD MENTAL MODEL : DAVID AND GOLIATH image:resourcemagonline
  61. 61. NEW MENTAL MODEL : PEOPLE UNDER CONSTRAINTS
  62. 62. EXPERIENCE : CONSTRAINTS FEELS LIKE I want to… but..
  63. 63. EXAMPLE : I WANT TO, BUT..
  64. 64. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You’ve identified key situations within the intervention spaces that look like a good place to start. What do you do next ?
 9 Action: • Explore a key situation with the primary actor • Do an “I want to..” part of the exercise with he.r. Have her sort the I want to in order of personal importance • Do the “..but” part of the exercise. Have the actor rank the most important constraints • Review the constraints holding the primary actor back
  65. 65. FIND THE SOFT SPOT5 Know what you can change, what you can’t and where to start.
  66. 66. MENTAL MODEL : SOFT SPOT
  67. 67. EXHIBIT 1 : GRADE INFLATION ( PUBLIC ) Because : Universities accept federal grants Universities have to accept the conditions of federal grants Universities have to focus on retention Professors feel pressured not to fail students Professors grade students higher than they normally would
  68. 68. EXHIBIT 2 : MISSING PROFESSORS ( PRIVATE ) Because : Universities have a research focus Universities offer tenure in return for research papers Professors have to submit 3 peer reviewed articles in 6 years Professors have very little capacity left over to teach TA’s and adjuncts are substituting for them in class
  69. 69. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You’ve identified the constraints within a key situation. You want to determine where to start making changes. What do you do next ? 9 Action: Pick the top constraint Explore the constraint chain. Ask, why does this constraint exist and uncover related constraints until the full chain is explicable Analyse the chain. Where do you sense the most “give” ? This is your soft spot. This is where you start making a change.
  70. 70. PLACE A BET What might release the constraint ? What might the effect of that be ? 6
  71. 71. MENTAL MODEL : UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
  72. 72. FORMULATION : BET If We… Then… Resulting In..
  73. 73. EXHIBIT : 14 BETS ON HIGHER EDUCATION #2 #1 #2 #3 #3 ** *
  74. 74. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You’ve identified the soft spot. You want to jump in a make changes. What do you do next ? 
 9 Action: Remember this is a complex system with unindented consequences For If We.. what might release the constraint ? For Then.. what is the first order effect of releasing the constraint ? For Resulting In..what might the ultimate effect of this be ?
  75. 75. DESIGN AN INTERVENTION Don’t just ideate. Intervene. 7
  76. 76. MENTAL MODEL : INTERVENTION image:swipsesnse
  77. 77. FORMULATION : INTERVENTION How Might.. What Might..
  78. 78. EXAMPLE : FORMULATION What might a kit for introducing all critical moments for the design mindset look like ?
  79. 79. EXHIBIT 1 : COOKBOOK
  80. 80. EXAMPLE : FORMULATION How might we create a safe space for creating future classes ?
  81. 81. EXHIBIT 2 : CLASS LAB
  82. 82. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You have your bet. Now its time to ideate. What do you do next ? 9 Action: Remember an intervention is an insertion Create your brainstorm seed from the IF part of your hypothesis Get together a diverse group and brainstorm Pick intervention which feel like the least demanding behavior change.
  83. 83. BACK AT SAP Global Leadership Development Program
  84. 84. CREATE A SCAFFOLDING FOR BEHAVIOR CHANGE Assume progressive commitment 8
  85. 85. SCAFFOLDING BEHAVIOR CHANGE : MOVIES Expose POSTER Experience TRAILER Engage MOVIE NEWOLD
  86. 86. SCAFFOLDING BEHAVIOR CHANGE : CLASSROOM SPACE OLD NEW Expose COOKBOOK Experience CLASSLAB Engage TEACHING COHORT
  87. 87. INTERVENTION 1 : EXPOSE COOKBOOK
  88. 88. INTERVENTION 2 : EXPERIENCE CLASSLAB
  89. 89. INTERVENTION 3 : ENGAGE COHORT Kenn Sugiyama Adjunct Professor San Francisco State Prof. Leigh Jin Information Systems San Francisco State Prof. Anne Massey Information Systems Indiana University Dr. Tracey Kijewski-Correa Civil & Env. Engg & Earth Sciences Notre Dame University COMMITTED COMMITTED COMMITTED SCALED Steve Reifenberg Kellogg Inst. for Intl. Studies Notre Dame University SCALED Scott Klemmer Associate Professor UC San Diego SCALED
  90. 90. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You have a few ideas for intervention. One of them is a cross-functional workshop. You’re tempted to jump into implementation. What do you do next ? 9Action: • Remember an intervention needs to be scaffolded • Ideate on how to expose, experience and engage your primary actors with your intervention. • Create intervention for each
  91. 91. SCALING DESIGN-DOING IN ENTERPRISE : EMPLOYEES
  92. 92. DESIGN EXPERIMENTS ALONGSIDE RELEASES Make failure psychologically safe 9
  93. 93. CONCEPT : PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
  94. 94. REFERENCE : CUSTOMER DEVELOPMENT SteveBlank
  95. 95. EXHIBIT 1 : COOKBOOK EXPERIMENT DESIGN
  96. 96. EXHIBIT 2 : COOKBOOK EXPERIMENT BOARD CREATE TEST MEASURE CHANGE Intervention Function Form Hypothesis Riskiest Assumption Validation Approach Experiment Critieria Result Learnings Pivot / Persevere Cookbook Recipes Getting expert industry and academic practitioners to contribute recipes EducatorsCohort Create a group of expert practitioners in university and industry who want to put recipes out. IF WE — ask professors to contribute recipes THEN - they will commint in large enough numbers LEADING TO — a steady supply of fresh recipes coming in from professors There is a critical mass of expert professors who are willing to share their recipes with everyone else. Interview Pre-Sell Concierge Prototype Survey asking them to choose commitment levels from 30 min to 3 hours 10 %educators commit to creating new recipes 30%3 of 10 educators agree to commit to creating new recipes. PERSEVERE COHORT find Network Find expert practitioners by networking out way through practitioners we already know IF WE — ask our existing network of expert practitioners for introductions to their peers THEN — most of them will comply LEADING TO — 100 connections to experts in the Bay Area All design jobs are represented in our network pitch SimplePitch A simple pitch which asks the practitioner to contribute to creating more skills students while serving their self-interest IF WE..ask professors to signup with a degree of commitment they can choose into THEN.. 80% of them will signup to create recipes LEADING TO..a critical cohort of professors we can work with There is a critical mass of expert professors who are willing to share their recipes with everyone else. Interview Pre-Sell Concierge Prototype Google Survey 75%educators sign up 51%14 of 27 educators signed up. WE LEARNT THAT.. asking for support is not enough. 50% is a decent number, but likely the educators have busy lives and this is simply low on their current priority of things to do PIVOT Explore other ways of getting educators to commit to creating recipes - make it easy, create peer pressure, create top down pressure, create incentives, give support IF WE..ask professionals to have a conversation with us, to share design skills they use most often THEN.. Most of them would accept LEADING TO..a critical mass of professionals we can tap for recipes Professionals want to contribute Interview Pre-Sell Concierge Prototype Austin made the ask in the Global Design All Hands at DCC. 75%professionals sign up 75%professionals signed up. approximately 15 names WE LEARNT THAT.. keeping the ask simple is key. PERSEVERE Use this pitch to approach practitioners in the Valley schedule SUPPORT Experiment Board : Cookbook
  97. 97. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : You've got the heads of business to agree to a cross- functional workshop. How will you know if this “experiment” has worked ?
 9Action: • Experiment design : • inputs: business heads • process : design process • outputs • qualitative : 50% buy-in to design process > survey with 5 point scale • quantitative : 80% agree to have team trained > yes/no for training • key action : 80% send mail to direct reports for action > send mail
  98. 98. BUILD COHORTS Use groups as force multipliers 10
  99. 99. CONCEPT : GROUPS AS UNIT OF GROWTH
  100. 100. Kenn Sugiyama Adjunct Professor San Francisco State Prof. Leigh Jin Information Systems San Francisco State Prof. Anne Massey Information Systems Indiana University Dr. Tracey Kijewski-Correa Civil & Env. Engg & Earth Sciences Notre Dame University COMMITTED COMMITTED COMMITTED SCALED Steve Reifenberg Kellogg Inst. for Intl. Studies Notre Dame University SCALED Scott Klemmer Associate Professor UC San Diego SCALED EXHIBIT 1 : COOKBOOK COHORT
  101. 101. EXHIBIT 2 : COOKBOOK SCALING MODEL JoseMoya,ZaffStudio,JamisonWieser,GregorCresnarromNounProject Interested Invested Engaged Scaled Understand It Experience It Try It Master It
  102. 102. BACK IN THE ENTERPRISE Situation : The heads of business have give the go ahead for you to scale design-doing into their unit. What do you do next ?
 9 Action: • Form a managers cohort and move them along the scale • Form an employees cohort and move them along the scale • Form inter-disciplinary cohorts as you go • Do this within a business unit or across-functions
  103. 103. WHAT WE LEARNT : THE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL 1. Emphasize Design-Doing 2. Treat this like a Systems Problem 3. Flag Situations with Low Return on Effort 4. Don’t Treat this as a Fight 5. Find the Soft Spot 6. Place a Bet 7. Design an Intervention 8. Create a Scaffolding for Behavior Change 9. Design Experiments alongside Releases 10. Build Cohorts
  104. 104. GRAMMAR BEFORE CONVERSATIONS questions : rana.chakrabarti@sap.com The Little Book Of Designing Interventions
  105. 105. Legend What We Learnt, (And What It Means For You) Why We Did It What We Did
  106. 106. SURVIVING THE HYPE An experimental model for scaling design thinking

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