BLENDED LEARNING: A FRAMEWORK MODEL FOR LECTURERS1
Uwes A. Chaeruman
Center of ICT for Education, Ministry of Education and Culture
Rapid development of information and communication tehcnology influenced all
aspect of human life, including education. These emerging technology with its
potentials for education has become special attention for educators, esp. higher
education to apply e-learning system. One of e-Learning model used in higer
education is blended learning. Blended learning, actually has many blending
forms, not only simply just blending between face to face and online instruction.
It’s the right and relevant combination of both synchronous and asynchronous
learning modes. Its success depends on the ability of lecturers in choosing the
relevant technology and tools offered in the synchronous and asynchronous
learning seting. This paper will describe a framework model in designing effective
blended learning based on the work of William Horton (e-Learning by Design,
2006) and Rachel Van Noord et.al. (Blended Learning Continuum, 2007).
Hopefully this framework model and its example can give a worthfull guidance for
lecturers in designing an effective blended learning.
Keywords: e-learning, blended learning, blended learning continuum,
synchronous learning, asynchronous learning.
e-Learning: System and Models
e-Learning is commonly referred to the intentional use of networked information
and communication technology in teaching and learning. A number of terms are
also used to describe this mode of teaching and learning. They include online
learning, virtual learning, distributed learning, web-based learning, etc.
Fundamentally, they all refer to educational processes that utilize information
and communication technology to mediate asynchronous and as well as
synchronous learning and teaching activities (Naidu, 2006). While, Stockley
define e-learning as the delivery of a learning, training, or education by
electronic means. E-Learning involves the use of a computer or electronic
devices in someway to provide training, education or learning materials
(Stockley, 2010). Horton define it as the use of information and computer
technology to create learning experiences (Horton, 2006). Horton, emphasize
the term learning experiences as the main focus in defining e-learning.
So, e-Learning is a generic term that explain the use of electronic technology
for learning. Since, the focus of e-learning is to facilitate learning experience
occurance, we, simply define e-learning as an electronic technology enabled
learning. Some authors define e-learning differently, as described above, but its
has common purppse, i.e. to facilitate learning experiences more efective,
efficient and appealing that is enabled by emerging electronic technology,
especially information and communication technology.
Rashty (1999) as quoted by Noirid classify e-learning delivery system model
into three categories, i.e. adjunct, mixed or blended, and full online (Noirid,
2007). This model is viewed as a continuum rather as discrete classification It
can be figured out as follows:
Figure 1: e-Learning Delivery System Model
(adapted from Rashty (1999) by Noirid et.al. (2007)
One of the continuum of e-learning delivery system model as mentioned
above is mixed/blended learning that mix delivery of content, computer
mediated communication and or online collaboration with face-to-face
instruction appropriately. This means that when delivering blended learning
we should pay attention to the appropriateness of decision when, why and
how to use online method and when, why and how to use face-to-face
instruction. Blended learning is not the same with 50% online and 50% face-
Blended learning combines the best aspects of online learning, structured
face-to-face activities, and real world practice. Online learning systems,
classroom training, and on-the-job experience have major drawbacks by
themselves. The blended learning approach uses the strengths of each to
counter the other weaknesses (Soekartawi, 2010). In line with Soekartawi,
Graham, classified three kinds of combination of instruction in blended
learning, i.e. 1) combination of instructional model; 2) combination of
instructional method; and 3) combination of online and face-to-face learning
(Graham & Bonk, 2006.).
What is the differentiation between online learning and blende learning? The
definition of an online program or blended program is similar to the definition
used for courses; an online program is one where at least 80 percent of the
program content is delivered online and a blended program is one where
between 30 and 79 percent of the program content is delivered online (Allen,
Seaman, & Garret, 2007). Allen figured them out as follows:
0% Traditional Course with no online technology used - content is
delivered in writing or orally.
1 to 29% Web
Course which uses web-based technology to facilitate
what is essentially a face-to-face course. Uses a course
management system (CMS) or web pages to post the
syllabus and assignments, for example.
30 to 79% Blended/Hybr
Course that blends online and face-to-face delivery.
Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online,
typically uses online discussions, and typically has some
80+% Online A course where most or all of the content is delivered
online. Typically have no face-to-face meetings.
Table 1: Classification of Course (Allen, et.al. 2007)
Blended learning is the combination of multiple approaches to learning.
Blended learning can be accomplished through the use of 'blended' virtual
and physical resources. A typical example of this would be a combination of
technology-based materials and face-to-face sessions used together to
deliver instruction. In the strictest sense, blended learning is anytime any
instructor combines two methods of delivery of instruction. We figure out the
model of blended learning according to Noord that can be shown as follows (
Figure 2: Continuum of Blended Learnig (Noord, et.al., 2007)
Blended Learning Framework Model
Based on the work of Nord et.al. as mentioned above, we can categorized
learning seting into four quadrant as follows:
Figure 3: Learning Setting Quadrant
According to Horton, e-learning process can be categorized into three steps.
The frist step is absorb, followed by do and enact (Horton, 2006). If we
combined the framework of e-learning seting of Noord and e-learning process
of Horton can be explain as follows:
• Absorb; the student absorbs information or learning content through
self-paced asynchronous mode (quadrant 3). Example: student can learn
anytime anywhere animation on CD interactive, portable document file
from certain website, or video from youtube provided or suggested by
lecturer. Another way, student can learn or absorbs information through
live synchronous mode (quadrant 1) from lecturer presentation.
• Do; the students can try or doing exercise through self-paced
asynchronous animation (quadrant 3) by doing online test. Another way,
student can try or doing something together through collaborative
asynchronous (quadrant 4) by doing group project assignment etc.
• Enact; the student can connect what they have learned both through live
synchronous (such as lab practice) or collaborative synchronous (such
as group project assignment) seting.
Based on those model (Horton and Noord), I propose another framework
model. First, we define the e-learning process standard into four steps, i.e. 1)
learning; 2) deepening; 3) applying; and 4) assessing/measuring. It can be
described as follows:
Figure 4: e-Learning Process Cycle
In another way, it can be describe an example as follows:
Learning Seting and Strategy
Synchronous Learning Asynchronous Learnin
Live Sync Virtual Sync Self-paced
Learning presentation Learning
Measuring Onsite final test Online test Group project
Table 2: e-Learning Process Cycle
Framework Model in Action
We tried to apply the framework model mentioned above into syllabus of a
course. One new component of syllabus that is never included in conventional
syllabus is component of is instructional setting. Its example can be shown as
Example from the table above show us that the combination of blended learning
use only three modes, i.e. virtual synchronous, self-paced asynchronous dan
Closing and Further Direction
This paper intended just to propose a new framework model of blended learning
design based on the work of Horton and Noord. We have implemented this
model in the course we teach at the State University of Jakarta. Further
research is needed not just to identify wether this model can be easily applied
or not, but also, the guidance when we should use one of technology, tool and
method in synchronous learning seting (live and virtual sunchronous) and
asynchronous learning setting (self-paced and collaborative asynchronous.
Horton, W. (2006). e-Learning by Design. Ca, USA: John Willey and Son.
Naidu, S. (2006). e-Learning: a Guide of Principles, Procedures, and Practice. New Delhi:
Commonwealth Educational Media Center.
Noirid, S. (2007). E-learning Models: A Review of Literature. he 1st International Conference
on Educational Reform . Mahasarakham University, THAILAND.
Stockley, D. (2010). e-Learning Definition and Explanation. Retrieved February 19, 2010,
Topic Objective Instructional Setting and Strategy
(at 12 to 1 pm on
Reading article from
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example of learning organization