Lecture 13 Workstation Design

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Lecture 13 Workstation Design

  1. 1. OFFICE AND WORKSTATION ERGONOMICS
  2. 2. Considerations <ul><li>Computer Workstation Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation Design </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ERGONOMICS IS…… <ul><li>The relationship of people to their tools, tasks, and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Tools are designed to fit the employee </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when things go wrong…. </li></ul>
  4. 4. COMMONLY USED TERMS <ul><li>Musculoskeletal Injuries (MSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Overexertion Injuries (OE) </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Related Soft Tissue Disorders (ASTD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>injuries or disorders of the muscles, tendons,ligaments,joints,blood vessels, or related soft tissue including sprains and strains that may be caused or aggravated by work. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Signs and Symptoms of MSI <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>redness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>movement is difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skin colour change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joint stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tight muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feeling “pins & needles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbness </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. IDENTIFIED POSITIONS <ul><li>Neutral Posture (GOOD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined as the position our bodies take in the absence of gravity (e.g., in space) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position in which repetitive stress injury is least likely to occur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static Positions (BAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles become fatigued when blood flow is reduced </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. OFFICE WORKSTATION RISK FACTORS <ul><li>Awkward postures </li></ul><ul><li>Forceful exertions </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Static loading </li></ul><ul><li>Localized contact stress </li></ul><ul><li>DISCUSSION OF EMG, DEMONSTRATION </li></ul>
  8. 8. IINJURIES <ul><li>Tendonitis </li></ul><ul><li>Bursitis </li></ul><ul><li>Epicondylitis </li></ul><ul><li>Eyestrain </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul>
  9. 9. TENDONITIS <ul><li>Tendonitis or tenosynovits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is an inflammation of the tendon or tendon sheath </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. BURSITIS <ul><li>Bursitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bursa becomes inflamed due to excessive friction or rubbing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A bursa is a sac like cavity filled with slippery fluid found between tendons and bony prominence-reduces friction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Carpal Tunnel <ul><li>Carpal Tunnel Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>When lining around tendons is inflamed, there is less space for the nerve and it becomes compressed. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Workstation design <ul><li>Chair </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Desk </li></ul>
  13. 13. CHAIR <ul><li>Choose one with maximum adjustments and simple controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seat depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seat angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumbar support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arm rests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilt </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. NEUTRAL POSTURES <ul><li>Sitting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head balanced naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over shoulders (not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protruding in front of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulders relaxed, not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hunched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forearms and thighs parallel to the floor, at a 90  angle to upper arms and lower legs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Monitor Positioning <ul><li>Directly in front of body </li></ul><ul><li>About 18-30 inches away from body (arm’s length) </li></ul><ul><li>Top of monitor about eye level, or slightly below </li></ul>
  16. 16. Key Board Positioning <ul><li>Keyboard tray with adjustability (swivels left and right, tilts forward and back, allows for mouse, extends to different heights and positions) </li></ul><ul><li>Position so wrists are in neutral posture </li></ul>
  17. 17. Neutral Postures Include <ul><li>Wrist posture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrists straight, not bent or twisted </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Keyboards <ul><li>Several new styles of keyboards </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to promote neutral posture </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mouse <ul><li>Should be at the same level and distance as the keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>New mouse designs (e.g., trackball) require less index finger work </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Least flexible component </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain accessories to make due with existing furnishings </li></ul><ul><li>If able to purchase new, look for designs that will allow correct monitor, keyboard, and mouse positioning </li></ul>Desk
  21. 21. “ Real Life”
  22. 22. “ Real Life”
  23. 23. “ Real Life” “ Real Life”

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