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HPPR 404 Research and Evaluation Sherrell Steele Formal Research
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the characteristics of formal research </li></ul><ul><li>List the seven steps in the survey pl...
Why use formal research?  <ul><li>To measure audiences attitudes, opinions and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>To understand a...
Characteristics of formal research  <ul><li>Empirical (precise measures)  </li></ul><ul><li>Objective (values free, neutra...
Three categories of surveys <ul><li>Descriptive surveys – document current circumstances and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>...
Seven step survey planning process <ul><li>Identify goal and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Select a sample </li></ul><ul><l...
Modes of collecting data <ul><li>Internet surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone calls </li></ul...
Your thoughts?  <ul><li>Referring to p. 170 of your text what are the benefits and liabilities of each of these survey met...
Your thoughts? <ul><li>Referring to pages 172 and 173 of your text, what are two advantages and three disadvantages of sur...
Experiments <ul><li>Most powerful means of determining campaign effects because they can prove causation </li></ul><ul><li...
Lab v.s. field experiments <ul><li>Lab: High internal validity, low external validity </li></ul><ul><li>Field experiment: ...
Variables  <ul><li>Independent variables are the conditions that researchers manipulate to determine the effect on the aud...
Conditions, treatments <ul><li>Conditions – consistent states  e.g. humorous ads only </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment – contra...
3 experimental research design <ul><li>Pre-test, post-test with control group </li></ul><ul><li>Post-test only with contro...
Your thoughts?  <ul><li>Referring to pages 182 and 183 of your text, what are the five advantages and two disadvantages of...
Content analysis <ul><li>Converts communications content into quantitative or numerical form. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently...
Your thoughts? <ul><li>Referring to pages 188 and 189 of your text, what are the four advantages and three disadvantages o...
Summary and conclusions  <ul><li>Formal research methods offer objectivity, systematic data collection, representative sam...
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HPPR404 Unit8

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Research and Evaluation | Unit 8

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HPPR404 Unit8

  1. 1. HPPR 404 Research and Evaluation Sherrell Steele Formal Research
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the characteristics of formal research </li></ul><ul><li>List the seven steps in the survey planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh the advantages and limitations of surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Consider applications of experimental research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Describe content analysis methods </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why use formal research? <ul><li>To measure audiences attitudes, opinions and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>To understand and explain audiences motivations and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>To understand media message effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>To measure and describe media impact </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of formal research <ul><li>Empirical (precise measures) </li></ul><ul><li>Objective (values free, neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Representative (probability–based sampling methods) </li></ul><ul><li>Externally valid </li></ul><ul><li>Replicable (can be repeated) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Three categories of surveys <ul><li>Descriptive surveys – document current circumstances and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical surveys – provide explanations of why certain circumstances, attitudes , and behaviors exist or test hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Combined (descriptive and analytical) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Seven step survey planning process <ul><li>Identify goal and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Select a sample </li></ul><ul><li>Chose a survey method </li></ul><ul><li>Design survey instrument (e.g. questionnaire) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Compile and code data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze, interpret and report </li></ul>
  7. 7. Modes of collecting data <ul><li>Internet surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-mode: Why preferred? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Your thoughts? <ul><li>Referring to p. 170 of your text what are the benefits and liabilities of each of these survey methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Your thoughts? <ul><li>Referring to pages 172 and 173 of your text, what are two advantages and three disadvantages of survey research? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Experiments <ul><li>Most powerful means of determining campaign effects because they can prove causation </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of control </li></ul><ul><li>Allow researchers to isolate variables in controlled conditions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lab v.s. field experiments <ul><li>Lab: High internal validity, low external validity </li></ul><ul><li>Field experiment: high external validity, lower control </li></ul>
  12. 12. Variables <ul><li>Independent variables are the conditions that researchers manipulate to determine the effect on the audience (sample) E.g. Two different sample ads </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables are the opinions or attitudes arising E.g. Audiences ad preferences </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conditions, treatments <ul><li>Conditions – consistent states e.g. humorous ads only </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment – contrasting states e.g. humorous and serious ads </li></ul><ul><li>Control group – no treatment e.g. no ads </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3 experimental research design <ul><li>Pre-test, post-test with control group </li></ul><ul><li>Post-test only with control group (most common) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-test, post-test with additional control groups (Solomon four-group design) (most rigorous, but rare due to logistics) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Your thoughts? <ul><li>Referring to pages 182 and 183 of your text, what are the five advantages and two disadvantages of experiments? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Content analysis <ul><li>Converts communications content into quantitative or numerical form. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently used in media analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Media analysis looks at frequency, tone, themes and issues of stories or articles </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: objective, systematic, quantitative, scientific </li></ul>
  17. 17. Your thoughts? <ul><li>Referring to pages 188 and 189 of your text, what are the four advantages and three disadvantages of content analysis? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Summary and conclusions <ul><li>Formal research methods offer objectivity, systematic data collection, representative samples and replicable designs thus are trustworthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Each method has strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of benefits and limitations will allow you to work with (internal) research specialists or contracted research firms. </li></ul>

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