Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
The Immersed Boundary Method!
simulating fluid-structure interactions,!
from 2D fibers to 3D finite elements !
Julia E. Samso...
Overview"
1.  The immersed boundary method: when,
who, what, and why?"
2.  The immersed boundary method: how?
(2D)"
3.  Be...
The IB method: a brief history"
Charles	S.	Peskin	
Courant	Institute,	NY	
	
Flow	patterns	around	
heart	valves:	a	
digital...
The IB method: a brief history"
Laura	A.	Miller	
UNC	Chapel	Hill	
Boyce	E.	Griffith	
UNC	Chapel	Hill	
Charles	S.	Peskin	
C...
The IB method: definition"
Viscous	
fluid?	
Fluid	grid	
generated	from	
boundary	shape?	
IB!!!	
J	
Not	IB	
L	
Not	IB	
L
The IB method: definition"
"
"
A numerical method that allows us to simulate
boundaries (objects) in viscous flows, and in
w...
The IB method: definition"
The fluid is modeled on a fixed Cartesian mesh."
"
"
"
"
"
The boundary is modeled on a curvilinea...
The IB method: applications"
Alex	Hoover	
Tulane	University	
Nick	Battista	
UNC	Chapel	Hill	
Laura	Miller	
UNC	Chapel	Hill
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves"...
The Navier-Stokes equations"
This is the equation of motion for viscous
fluids."
The Navier-Stokes equations"
It basically follows Newton’s Second Law:"
F = m * a"
mass	*	acceleration	
pressure	
forces	
...
The Navier-Stokes equations"
Now, we add the equation for
incompressible flow."
mass	*	acceleration	
pressure	
forces	
visc...
Fluid mesh"
The fluid is represented
by a fixed (Eulerian)
Cartesian grid."
"
At each point, we solve
for the pressure and
v...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves"...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
Boundary"
The boundary is represented by a curvilinear Lagrangian
mesh that can move around in the fluid."
"
At each time s...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
Combining fluid and structure"
+ =
+ interactions!"
Combining fluid and structure"
Fluid	
(fixed	Cartesian	mesh)	
Structure	
(moving	curvilinear	mesh)	
moves	at	local	
fluid	v...
exerts	
forces	on	
Combining fluid and structure"
Fluid	
(fixed	Cartesian	mesh)	
Structure	
(moving	curvilinear	mesh)	
Spre...
Combining fluid and structure"
Delta function weights are used to determine how much force is applied
from the elastic boun...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
Combining fluid and structure"
Fluid	
(fixed	Cartesian	mesh)	
Structure	
(moving	curvilinear	mesh)	
moves	at	local	
fluid	v...
Combining fluid and structure"
Delta function is used again to determine the velocity at the boundary
point q from fluid vel...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
IB: the math below the surface"
1) Fluid"
2) Structure/boundary"
3) Interactions"
We need to know:"
-  how the fluid moves ...
IB: the math below the surface"
We now have a complete formulation for the
immersed boundary method."
" mass	*	acceleratio...
IB: the math below the surface"
We now have a complete formulation for the
immersed boundary method."
"
IB time stepping"
At each time step:"
1)  Compute the elastic force
density F on the boundary
mesh."
2)  Spread the elasti...
Making boundaries flexible (or not)"
There are a lot of fiber models to control
boundary characteristics like elasticity,
st...
github.com/nickabattista/IB2d	
	
Nick	Battista	
UNC	Chapel	Hill
Springs"
Springs allow longitudinal motion between
two coupled Lagrangian nodes."
ad	
RL	
RL+d	
elastic	potential	energy	
...
Springs: the rubber band example"
All Lagrangian
points are
connected by
springs with
resting length 0."
"
Colormap shows
...
Torsional springs"
Torsional springs allow transversal motion
between three coupled Lagrangian nodes."
ad	
θ	 If	θdesired	...
Torsional springs"
Torsional springs allow transversal motion
between three coupled Lagrangian nodes."
ad	
θ	 If	θdesired	...
Torsional springs"
Torsional springs allow transversal motion
between three coupled Lagrangian nodes."
ad	
θ	 If	θdesired	...
Torsional springs: the wobbly beam
example"
All Lagrangian
points are
connected by
beams with
curvature 0."
"
Colormap sho...
Target points"
Target points are used to prescribe motion of
Lagrangian points or make boundary rigid."
ad
Target points: the pulsing heart
example"
Target point
positions are
updated by
interpolating
between two
positions."
"
On...
Pushing the boundary…"
2D IB is where it all started, but newer (and
more complex) methods are available:"
-  3D IB"
-  IB...
3D immersed boundary"
Basically the same as 2D but adding a third
dimension."
"
Greatly increases computational cost but
t...
Collective pulsing in xeniid corals"
Xeniid corals are soft corals that form
pulsing colonies. The pulsing increases local...
Collective pulsing in xeniid corals"
"
"
This pulsing behavior
seems to be coordinated
and we want to know how
local flow a...
Collective pulsing in xeniid corals"
IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement"
Boyce	E.	Griffith	
UNC	Chapel	Hill	
	
Simulating	the	blood-
muscle-valve	mechanics	of	
th...
Heart valves and blood flow"
Generate 3D simulations
of the interactions
between blood flow and
heart valves to better
under...
IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement"
A more refined grid will give a better
resolution to the simulation. But it also
greatly i...
IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement"
"
So how to have your cake and eat it too???"
ad	
25	x	25	 50	x	50	 100	x	100	 200	x	200
IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement"
Only refine the fluid grid where needed:
close to the boundary and in regions of high
vorti...
ad	
Heart development in zebrafish"
4 days post
fertilization"
"
Blood cells and
endocardium are
colored"
"
Two chambers: o...
Heart development in zebrafish"
Ventricle	
Atrium	
	75	um	
Courtesy	of	Leigh	Ann	Samsa	and	Dr.	Jiandong	Liu		
School	of	Med...
ad	
Heart development in zebrafish"
Ventricle	
Atrium	
AV	
Canal	
Ventricle	
IBAMR	model
ad	
Heart development in zebrafish"
Trabeculae	appear	to	shield	the	endocardium	
from	higher	shearing	forces	
velocity	fiel...
IB with Finite Elements"
A completely different beast…"
ad	
Un	
Un-1	
Un-2	
Un+1	
Un+2	
Un+3	
Un-2	
	Un-1	
	Un	
	Un+1	
	Un...
IB with Finite Elements"
Generating finite element meshes is hard
(although there are software packages
available)."
"
But ...
Jellyfish locomotion"
Alexander	Hoover	
Tulane	University	
	
From	pacemaker	to	
vortex	ring:	modeling	
jellyfish	propulsion...
Jellyfish locomotion"
Jellyfish locomotion"
Jellyfish locomotion"
Jellyfish locomotion"
Resources"
Code"
2D code examples in MatLab (Nick Battista): github.com/nickabattista/IB2d"
IBAMR code: https://github.com...
Acknowledgements"
At UNC"
Laura Miller"
Nick Battista"
Shannon Jones"
Boyce Griffith"
"
"
"
Elsewhere"
Alex Hoover"
Shilpa ...
Questions?!
julia@unc.edu"
@juliaesamson"
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The immersed boundary method, from 2D fibres to 3D finite elements

1,159 views

Published on

Speaker: Julia E. Samson
Date: 18-12-2015

Abstract: The immersed boundary method is a numerical approach to solving fluid-structure interactions. By decoupling the mesh for the object or boundary (a beating heart, a pulsing jellyfish, a leaf flapping in the wind…) and the fluid grid, the immersed boundary enables one to model both the effects of the fluid on the boundary and the effects of the boundary on the fluid. After explaining the concepts and mechanisms behind this method, examples of current research projects will be used to illustrate the variety of problems that can be addressed using the immersed boundary method.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

The immersed boundary method, from 2D fibres to 3D finite elements

  1. 1. The Immersed Boundary Method! simulating fluid-structure interactions,! from 2D fibers to 3D finite elements ! Julia E. Samson, Nick A. Battista, Laura A. Miller" University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill" December 18th, 2015"
  2. 2. Overview" 1.  The immersed boundary method: when, who, what, and why?" 2.  The immersed boundary method: how? (2D)" 3.  Beyond the basics: 3D, IBAMR, and IBFE" " Alex Hoover Tulane University
  3. 3. The IB method: a brief history" Charles S. Peskin Courant Institute, NY Flow patterns around heart valves: a digital computer method for solving the equations of motion. PhD thesis, 1972.
  4. 4. The IB method: a brief history" Laura A. Miller UNC Chapel Hill Boyce E. Griffith UNC Chapel Hill Charles S. Peskin Courant Institute
  5. 5. The IB method: definition" Viscous fluid? Fluid grid generated from boundary shape? IB!!! J Not IB L Not IB L
  6. 6. The IB method: definition" " " A numerical method that allows us to simulate boundaries (objects) in viscous flows, and in which the fluid grid is not fitted to the boundary shape." "
  7. 7. The IB method: definition" The fluid is modeled on a fixed Cartesian mesh." " " " " " The boundary is modeled on a curvilinear Lagrangian mesh that moves freely through the fixed Cartesian mesh."
  8. 8. The IB method: applications" Alex Hoover Tulane University Nick Battista UNC Chapel Hill Laura Miller UNC Chapel Hill
  9. 9. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves" -  how the boundary moves" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  10. 10. The Navier-Stokes equations" This is the equation of motion for viscous fluids."
  11. 11. The Navier-Stokes equations" It basically follows Newton’s Second Law:" F = m * a" mass * acceleration pressure forces viscous forces other body forces
  12. 12. The Navier-Stokes equations" Now, we add the equation for incompressible flow." mass * acceleration pressure forces viscous forces other body forces the fluid is incompressible
  13. 13. Fluid mesh" The fluid is represented by a fixed (Eulerian) Cartesian grid." " At each point, we solve for the pressure and velocity of the fluid using the Navier- Stokes equations. The body forces will be given by the boundary."
  14. 14. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves" -  how the boundary moves" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  15. 15. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  16. 16. Boundary" The boundary is represented by a curvilinear Lagrangian mesh that can move around in the fluid." " At each time step, we solve for the position of each boundary point and for the forces at that point."
  17. 17. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  18. 18. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves ✔" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  19. 19. Combining fluid and structure" + = + interactions!"
  20. 20. Combining fluid and structure" Fluid (fixed Cartesian mesh) Structure (moving curvilinear mesh) moves at local fluid velocity exerts forces on
  21. 21. exerts forces on Combining fluid and structure" Fluid (fixed Cartesian mesh) Structure (moving curvilinear mesh) Spread the elastic force density from curvilinear mesh onto Cartesian grid.
  22. 22. Combining fluid and structure" Delta function weights are used to determine how much force is applied from the elastic boundary to nearby fluid grid cells."
  23. 23. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves ✔" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  24. 24. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves ✔" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid ✔" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  25. 25. Combining fluid and structure" Fluid (fixed Cartesian mesh) Structure (moving curvilinear mesh) moves at local fluid velocity Interpolate the velocity field from the Cartesian grid onto the curvilinear mesh.
  26. 26. Combining fluid and structure" Delta function is used again to determine the velocity at the boundary point q from fluid velocities near that point."
  27. 27. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves ✔" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid ✔" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary"
  28. 28. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves ✔" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid ✔" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary ✔"
  29. 29. IB: the math below the surface" 1) Fluid" 2) Structure/boundary" 3) Interactions" We need to know:" -  how the fluid moves ✔" -  how the boundary moves ✔" -  how the boundary impacts the fluid ✔" -  how the fluid impacts the boundary ✔"
  30. 30. IB: the math below the surface" We now have a complete formulation for the immersed boundary method." " mass * acceleration pressure forces viscous forces other body forces the fluid is incompressible Spread the elastic force density from curvilinear mesh onto Cartesian grid. Interpolate the velocity field from the Cartesian grid onto the curvilinear mesh.
  31. 31. IB: the math below the surface" We now have a complete formulation for the immersed boundary method." "
  32. 32. IB time stepping" At each time step:" 1)  Compute the elastic force density F on the boundary mesh." 2)  Spread the elastic force from the deformed boundary to the underlying fluid (this is f)." 3)  Solve the equations of fluid motion defined on the fluid grid using the elastic body force density f(x,t) and update the velocity field." 4)  Move the boundary at the local fluid velocity. Determine the velocity at each Lagrangian point through interpolation."
  33. 33. Making boundaries flexible (or not)" There are a lot of fiber models to control boundary characteristics like elasticity, stretchiness, porosity, mass…" " 3 examples in 2D:" -  Springs" -  Torsional springs" -  Target points" Nick Battista UNC Chapel Hill
  34. 34. github.com/nickabattista/IB2d Nick Battista UNC Chapel Hill
  35. 35. Springs" Springs allow longitudinal motion between two coupled Lagrangian nodes." ad RL RL+d elastic potential energy force from deformation
  36. 36. Springs: the rubber band example" All Lagrangian points are connected by springs with resting length 0." " Colormap shows vorticity." ad
  37. 37. Torsional springs" Torsional springs allow transversal motion between three coupled Lagrangian nodes." ad θ If θdesired = 180 and C = 0
  38. 38. Torsional springs" Torsional springs allow transversal motion between three coupled Lagrangian nodes." ad θ If θdesired = 180 and C = 0 elastic potential energy curvature
  39. 39. Torsional springs" Torsional springs allow transversal motion between three coupled Lagrangian nodes." ad θ If θdesired = 180 and C = 0 deformation forces
  40. 40. Torsional springs: the wobbly beam example" All Lagrangian points are connected by beams with curvature 0." " Colormap shows magnitude of velocity." ad
  41. 41. Target points" Target points are used to prescribe motion of Lagrangian points or make boundary rigid." ad
  42. 42. Target points: the pulsing heart example" Target point positions are updated by interpolating between two positions." " Only target points, no beams or springs." " Colormap shows pressure." ad
  43. 43. Pushing the boundary…" 2D IB is where it all started, but newer (and more complex) methods are available:" -  3D IB" -  IBAMR (IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement)" -  IBFE (IB with Finite Elements)"
  44. 44. 3D immersed boundary" Basically the same as 2D but adding a third dimension." " Greatly increases computational cost but this might be offset by the generation of more realistic models. "
  45. 45. Collective pulsing in xeniid corals" Xeniid corals are soft corals that form pulsing colonies. The pulsing increases local flow and thus mass transfer."
  46. 46. Collective pulsing in xeniid corals" " " This pulsing behavior seems to be coordinated and we want to know how local flow and pulsing behavior are connected." Collective pulsing behavior Water flow
  47. 47. Collective pulsing in xeniid corals"
  48. 48. IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement" Boyce E. Griffith UNC Chapel Hill Simulating the blood- muscle-valve mechanics of the heart by an adaptive and parallel version of the immersed boundary method. PhD thesis, 2005.
  49. 49. Heart valves and blood flow" Generate 3D simulations of the interactions between blood flow and heart valves to better understand heart physiology and to assess the functioning of prosthetic valves." from http://anatomyandphysiologyi.com/heart-anatomy- chambers-vessels-valves/
  50. 50. IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement" A more refined grid will give a better resolution to the simulation. But it also greatly increases the computational cost…" ad 25 x 25 50 x 50 100 x 100 200 x 200
  51. 51. IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement" " So how to have your cake and eat it too???" ad 25 x 25 50 x 50 100 x 100 200 x 200
  52. 52. IB with Adaptive Mesh Refinement" Only refine the fluid grid where needed: close to the boundary and in regions of high vorticity è Adaptive Mesh Refinement" ad 25 x 25 50 x 50 100 x 100 200 x 200
  53. 53. ad Heart development in zebrafish" 4 days post fertilization" " Blood cells and endocardium are colored" " Two chambers: one atrium and one ventricle" Courtesy of Leigh Ann Samsa and Dr. Jiandong Liu School of Medicine, UNC Chapel Hill
  54. 54. Heart development in zebrafish" Ventricle Atrium 75 um Courtesy of Leigh Ann Samsa and Dr. Jiandong Liu School of Medicine, UNC Chapel Hill
  55. 55. ad Heart development in zebrafish" Ventricle Atrium AV Canal Ventricle IBAMR model
  56. 56. ad Heart development in zebrafish" Trabeculae appear to shield the endocardium from higher shearing forces velocity field + vorticity map streamlines (after atrium finishes contraction)
  57. 57. IB with Finite Elements" A completely different beast…" ad Un Un-1 Un-2 Un+1 Un+2 Un+3 Un-2 Un-1 Un Un+1 Un+2 Un+3 Un+4 Un+5 Un+6 A collection of single nodal points (= fiber) A collection of polygonal pieces (= elements)
  58. 58. IB with Finite Elements" Generating finite element meshes is hard (although there are software packages available)." " But the benefits are enormous:" -  Simulations run way faster" -  The FE mesh allows for a more accurate structure geometry" -  Material properties are captured way better" -  Boundaries are less leaky" -  The models are more stable"
  59. 59. Jellyfish locomotion" Alexander Hoover Tulane University From pacemaker to vortex ring: modeling jellyfish propulsion and turning. PhD thesis, 2015
  60. 60. Jellyfish locomotion"
  61. 61. Jellyfish locomotion"
  62. 62. Jellyfish locomotion"
  63. 63. Jellyfish locomotion"
  64. 64. Resources" Code" 2D code examples in MatLab (Nick Battista): github.com/nickabattista/IB2d" IBAMR code: https://github.com/ibamr/ibamr" " Papers" Griffith, B. E., 2005. Simulating the blood-muscle-valve mechanics of the heart by an adaptive and parallel version of the immersed boundary method. Ph.D. thesis, New York University." Mittal, R., Iaccarino, G., 2005. Immersed boundary methods, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 37, 239-261" Peskin, C. S., McQueen, D. M., 1996. Fluid dynamics of the heart and its valves, In Case Studies in Mathematical Modeling: Ecology, Physiology, and Cell Biology, Pearson, 313-342" Peskin, C. S., 2002. The immersed boundary method, Acta Numerica, 11, 1-39" " Webpages" Boyce Griffith: http://griffith.web.unc.edu/ and http://cims.nyu.edu/~griffith/" Laura Miller: http://miller.web.unc.edu/" Nick Battista: http://battista.web.unc.edu/" Alex Hoover: http://hooverap.web.unc.edu/ or email ahoover2@tulane.edu" "
  65. 65. Acknowledgements" At UNC" Laura Miller" Nick Battista" Shannon Jones" Boyce Griffith" " " " Elsewhere" Alex Hoover" Shilpa Khatri" Uri Shavit" Roi Holzman" Funding" The Company of Biologists" NSF"
  66. 66. Questions?! julia@unc.edu" @juliaesamson"

×