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HISTORY OF
INDIAN
ART & CRAFT
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
• The Indus Valley is on the border between India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
• It flourished along the banks of River Indus.
• The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization
• Time period: 3300 to1300 BCE; mature period 2600 to1600 BCE
• The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization. After Harappa, the
first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s.
• What was then the Punjab province of British India, and now is Pakistan.
• Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro (UNESCO
World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi.
HARAPPA
– Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi)
west of Sahiwal.
– The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and
occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay sculptured houses.
MOHENJO-DARO
• Mound of the Dead Men .
• Site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan & was Built around 2500 BCE.
• It was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley
Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements.
• The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well.
• Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major
streets.
PAINTING
– Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges,
and airbrushes, can be used. The final work is also called a painting.
– Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, gesture (as in gestural
painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in abstract art). Paintings can be
naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative,
symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in Artivism).
– A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples
of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes
Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin.
– In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action.
ART
• Indian art consists of a Variety of art form, including plastic arts (e.g., pottery
sculpture), visual arts (e.g., paintings), and textile arts (e.g., woven silk).
• Geographically, it spans the entire Indian subcontinent.
• A strong sense of design is characteristic of Indian art and can be observed in its
modern and traditional forms.
• The origin of Indian art can be traced to pre-historic Hominid settlements in the 3rd
millennium BC.
• Indian art has had cultural influences, as well as religious influences such as
Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and Islam.
CRAFT
• The crafts of India are diverse, rich in history and religion.
• The craft of each state in India reflect the influence of
different empires.
• Throughout centuries, crafts have been embedded as a
culture and tradition within rural communities.
STYLES OF PAINTING
• Abstract Art
• Modern Art
• Contemporary Art
• Figurative Art
• Landscape Art
• Wildlife Art
• Realism Art
• Still Life Art
• Folk Art
• Surreal Art
ABSTRACT ART
– It referred to as an imaginative way of exemplifying an artist's
view about the world not just the corporeal but also the
insubstantial.
– Abstract art puts more emphasis on thoughts or imagination,
articulated on canvas or other mediums.
MODERN ART
– Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period
extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s.
– Modern art has been considered as the art of the soul, of the
intellect, the feeling and the compassion.
– Like we all change, modern art is also changing incessantly,
continually reinventing itself and the way it observes or
demonstrates the world.
CONTEMPORARY ART
– It is the art of today produced in the second half of the 20th century or in
the21th century.
– Contemporary art is past of a cultural dialogue that concerns large
contextual frameworks.
– Such as personal & cultural identity, family, community& nationality.
– Diverse& eclectic, contemporary art as a whole is distinguished by the very
lack of uniform, organizing principle, ideology.
FIGURATIVE ART
– Figurative art is explained as a form of artwork - predominantly
paintings - which are evidently derived from bona fide object source,
and are for that reason by definition emblematic.
– The term "figurative art" is often used to signify art which symbolizes
human figures, or even an animal figure, and, despite the fact that this
is frequently the situation, it is not inevitable.
LANDSCAPE PAINTING
– Landscape painting, the depiction of natural scenery in art.
– Landscape paintings may capture mountains, valleys, bodies of water,
fields, forests, and coasts and may or may not include man-made structures
as well as people.
– In the Eastern tradition, the genre can be traced back to 4th-century-CE
China.
– landscape as an independent genre did not emerge in the Western tradition
the 16th century.
WILDLIFE ART
– The wildlife art is the foremost type of art that exerts a strong pull
on the wide range of animal lovers.
– More and more painters are stimulated and take pleasure in the
imaginative dare of clearly portraying their experiences about
wildlife.
– The pleasing to the eye wildlife art paintings mirrors their love for
wildlife, nature
REALISM ART
– Realist movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848
Revolution.
– Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of
nature or of contemporary life, sometimes called naturalism
– Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of
outward appearances.
STILL LIFE
– A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter,
typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers,
dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses,
books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.).
– It was not until the renaissance(14th century ) that still life emerged as an
independent painting genre, rather than existing primarily as a subsidiary
element in a composition.
FOLK ART
– It encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by
peasants or other labouring tradespeople.
– Folk art is primarily utilitarian & decorative rather than purely
aesthetic.
– Folk art is characterized by a naive style, in which traditional
rules of proportion & perspective are not employed.
SURREAL ART
– Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s in France
and Belgium.
– Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision,
created strange creatures from everyday objects, and developed painting .
– Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected contrast and
non sequitur.
– The aim was "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream
and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality".
INDIAN PAINTINGS
– India has a rich heritage of paintings and arts dating back to pre-historic
times.
– There are several types of painting techniques all over India and each of
the approach is unique and different from the others.
– Painting in India is a long practiced custom.
– This imaginative and artistic form of art has never ceased to enthuse
generations of artists as their zeal or line of work.
– Indian painting has espoused a wide array of modus operandi and
technique in its drive to the world of arts.
TYPES OF INDIAN PAINTINGS
• Kalighat Painting
• Kangra Painting
• Madhubani Painting
• Mughal Painting
• Mysore Painting
• Pahari Painting
• Pattachitra Painting
• Rajput Painting
• Tanjore Painting
• Warli Painting
KALIGHAT PAINTING
• Started in the 19th century, Bengal, India.
• Kalighat Paintings are started by artist who does scroll paintings. Scroll
Paintings famous in rural areas.
• These painters are known as artist troubadour.
• They started learning new techniques of painting with watercolor on thin
paper.
• They come to Calcutta but British conditions are making difficulty for them
to adjust therefore they went to Kalighat Temple where they found
opportunity, demand of religious art and settled at local areas. And ‘Kalighat
Paintings’ are born.
KANGRA PAINTING
• Kangra Painting is a pictorial art of Kangra.
• It became famous when Basohli School of painting became hazy during 18th
century.
• Kangra Paintings main centres were Basohli, Chamba, Bilaspur, Guler, Nurpur and
Kangra.
• These paintings are belonging to the school of Pahari Paintings that was favors by
the Rajput rulers between the 17th and 19th centuries.
• Kangra Paintings colors made from vegetables, leaves and minerals which provide
real, fresh and cool colors.
• Theme of Kangra Painting is Shringar (erotic sentiment) based on Radha and
Krishna love story.
MADHUBANI PAINTING
• Madhubani (Madhu means Honey & Ban means forest of woods) means Forest of Honey.
• Madhubani Painting also called as Mithila Painting.
• Women's have real intense desire for Madhubani Art .
• Women's of Brahman, Dusadh and Kayastha communities painted Mithila or Madhubani
Paintings in Mithla Region of Nepal & India.
• It was said that the time of Ramayana when Lord Rama wedding to the King Janaka’s daughter
Sita, King Janaka called artists for decorating his Palace.
• This art is accepted by many religions women including Sikh, Muslims. Five types of Madhubani
Art are: Bharni, Katchni, Tantrik,Godna & Gobar.
MUGHAL PAINTING
• Mughal Painting is one of the finest and rich art forms of India.
• Mughal Paintings become existence during the Mughal emperor from 16th
to 18th centuries.
• Mughal painting evolved from the Persian school of miniature painting
with Hindu, Buddhist and Jain influences.
• The paintings often revolved around themes like battles, legendary stories,
hunting scenes, wildlife, royal life, mythology, etc.
MYSORE PAINTING
• Mysore Painting is an important and rich traditional art form of South India which
started from town Mysore, Karnataka, India.
• Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1780-1865 AD) was a great expert in field of art
and provides extending support to dance, music, sculpture, painting and literature.
• Mysore paintings are known for their elegance, muted colors, and attention to
detail.
• The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu gods and goddesses and scenes
from Hindu mythology
PAHARI PAINTING
• Pahari (Pahar means Mountain in India) Painting is style of miniature forms
originated in Himalayan Hill Kingdoms of North India between 17th to 19th centuries.
• In Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (States of India) these pahari paintings
are known as Rajput Paintings.
• Pahari paintings have many styles such as Basohli Painting, Chamba Paintings,
Garhwal Paintings, Guler Kangra Paintings, Jammu Paintings, Kulu Paintings, Mankot
Paintings and Mandi Paintings.
• The themes of the paintings revolved around love and devotion .
• There was also illustration of great epics, puranas, etc.
PATTACHITRA PAINTING
• Pattachitra is an Orissa (State of India) word but in Sanskrit “patta means canvas or cloth
and Chitra means picture”. Pattachitra is traditional paintings of Orissa, India.
• These paintings featuring the old paintings of Kalinga Region dating back to the 5th century
BC mainly found on religious areas that are Puri, Konark and Bhubaneshwar Region.
• It is the one of the oldest and famous form of art in Orrisa.
• The themes of paintings are based on scenes from religious epics like Radha Krishna, Lord
Jagannath, Vishnu based on ‘Gita Govinda’ of Jayadev, Ramayana, Mahabharata.
• There are different categories which have Pattachitra Painting based on like Jagannath
Paintings, Vaishnav Paintings, Ramayana Paintings, Bhagavat Paintings.
RAJPUT PAINTING
• Rajput painting originated in the royal states of Rajasthan,
somewhere around the late 16th and early 17th century .
• Depict a number of themes, events of epics like the Ramayana
and the Mahabharata, the life of Lord Krishna, landscapes and
humans.
• Rajput paintings were often politically charged and commented
on social values of the time.
TANJORE PAINTING
• Tanjore Painting is one of the most popular forms of classical South Indian painting. It is
the native art form of Thanjavur (also known as Tanjore) city of Tamil Nadu.
• Thanjavur paintings are characterized by rich, flat and vivid colors, simple iconic
composition, glittering gold foils overlaid on delicate and inlay of glass beads and pieces
or very rarely precious and semi-precious gems which add to their appeal.
• Tanjore Painting of India originated during the 16th century, under the reign of the
Cholas.
• Most of these paintings revolve around the theme of Hindu Gods and Goddesses, along
with saints.
WARLI PAINTING
• Warli art is a beautiful folk art of Maharashtra, traditionally created by the tribal
women's. Tribal are the Warli and Malkhar koli tribes found on the northern
outskirts of Mumbai, in Western India.
• This art was first explored in the early 1970 & from then it was named as “Warli
art”, even though the tribal style of art is thought to date back as early as 10th
century A.D .
• The most important aspect of the painting is that it does not depicts
mythological characters or images of deities, but depict social life.
• Pictures of human beings and animals, along with scenes from daily life .
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History of indian art& craft

  • 2. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION • The Indus Valley is on the border between India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. • It flourished along the banks of River Indus. • The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization • Time period: 3300 to1300 BCE; mature period 2600 to1600 BCE • The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization. After Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s. • What was then the Punjab province of British India, and now is Pakistan. • Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi.
  • 3. HARAPPA – Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. – The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay sculptured houses.
  • 4. MOHENJO-DARO • Mound of the Dead Men . • Site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan & was Built around 2500 BCE. • It was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements. • The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. • Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets.
  • 5. PAINTING – Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. The final work is also called a painting. – Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, gesture (as in gestural painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in abstract art). Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in Artivism). – A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. – In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action.
  • 6. ART • Indian art consists of a Variety of art form, including plastic arts (e.g., pottery sculpture), visual arts (e.g., paintings), and textile arts (e.g., woven silk). • Geographically, it spans the entire Indian subcontinent. • A strong sense of design is characteristic of Indian art and can be observed in its modern and traditional forms. • The origin of Indian art can be traced to pre-historic Hominid settlements in the 3rd millennium BC. • Indian art has had cultural influences, as well as religious influences such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and Islam.
  • 7. CRAFT • The crafts of India are diverse, rich in history and religion. • The craft of each state in India reflect the influence of different empires. • Throughout centuries, crafts have been embedded as a culture and tradition within rural communities.
  • 8. STYLES OF PAINTING • Abstract Art • Modern Art • Contemporary Art • Figurative Art • Landscape Art • Wildlife Art • Realism Art • Still Life Art • Folk Art • Surreal Art
  • 9. ABSTRACT ART – It referred to as an imaginative way of exemplifying an artist's view about the world not just the corporeal but also the insubstantial. – Abstract art puts more emphasis on thoughts or imagination, articulated on canvas or other mediums.
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  • 11. MODERN ART – Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s. – Modern art has been considered as the art of the soul, of the intellect, the feeling and the compassion. – Like we all change, modern art is also changing incessantly, continually reinventing itself and the way it observes or demonstrates the world.
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  • 13. CONTEMPORARY ART – It is the art of today produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the21th century. – Contemporary art is past of a cultural dialogue that concerns large contextual frameworks. – Such as personal & cultural identity, family, community& nationality. – Diverse& eclectic, contemporary art as a whole is distinguished by the very lack of uniform, organizing principle, ideology.
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  • 15. FIGURATIVE ART – Figurative art is explained as a form of artwork - predominantly paintings - which are evidently derived from bona fide object source, and are for that reason by definition emblematic. – The term "figurative art" is often used to signify art which symbolizes human figures, or even an animal figure, and, despite the fact that this is frequently the situation, it is not inevitable.
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  • 17. LANDSCAPE PAINTING – Landscape painting, the depiction of natural scenery in art. – Landscape paintings may capture mountains, valleys, bodies of water, fields, forests, and coasts and may or may not include man-made structures as well as people. – In the Eastern tradition, the genre can be traced back to 4th-century-CE China. – landscape as an independent genre did not emerge in the Western tradition the 16th century.
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  • 19. WILDLIFE ART – The wildlife art is the foremost type of art that exerts a strong pull on the wide range of animal lovers. – More and more painters are stimulated and take pleasure in the imaginative dare of clearly portraying their experiences about wildlife. – The pleasing to the eye wildlife art paintings mirrors their love for wildlife, nature
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  • 21. REALISM ART – Realist movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution. – Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary life, sometimes called naturalism – Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of outward appearances.
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  • 23. STILL LIFE – A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.). – It was not until the renaissance(14th century ) that still life emerged as an independent painting genre, rather than existing primarily as a subsidiary element in a composition.
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  • 25. FOLK ART – It encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other labouring tradespeople. – Folk art is primarily utilitarian & decorative rather than purely aesthetic. – Folk art is characterized by a naive style, in which traditional rules of proportion & perspective are not employed.
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  • 27. SURREAL ART – Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s in France and Belgium. – Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, and developed painting . – Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected contrast and non sequitur. – The aim was "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality".
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  • 29. INDIAN PAINTINGS – India has a rich heritage of paintings and arts dating back to pre-historic times. – There are several types of painting techniques all over India and each of the approach is unique and different from the others. – Painting in India is a long practiced custom. – This imaginative and artistic form of art has never ceased to enthuse generations of artists as their zeal or line of work. – Indian painting has espoused a wide array of modus operandi and technique in its drive to the world of arts.
  • 30. TYPES OF INDIAN PAINTINGS • Kalighat Painting • Kangra Painting • Madhubani Painting • Mughal Painting • Mysore Painting • Pahari Painting • Pattachitra Painting • Rajput Painting • Tanjore Painting • Warli Painting
  • 31. KALIGHAT PAINTING • Started in the 19th century, Bengal, India. • Kalighat Paintings are started by artist who does scroll paintings. Scroll Paintings famous in rural areas. • These painters are known as artist troubadour. • They started learning new techniques of painting with watercolor on thin paper. • They come to Calcutta but British conditions are making difficulty for them to adjust therefore they went to Kalighat Temple where they found opportunity, demand of religious art and settled at local areas. And ‘Kalighat Paintings’ are born.
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  • 33. KANGRA PAINTING • Kangra Painting is a pictorial art of Kangra. • It became famous when Basohli School of painting became hazy during 18th century. • Kangra Paintings main centres were Basohli, Chamba, Bilaspur, Guler, Nurpur and Kangra. • These paintings are belonging to the school of Pahari Paintings that was favors by the Rajput rulers between the 17th and 19th centuries. • Kangra Paintings colors made from vegetables, leaves and minerals which provide real, fresh and cool colors. • Theme of Kangra Painting is Shringar (erotic sentiment) based on Radha and Krishna love story.
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  • 35. MADHUBANI PAINTING • Madhubani (Madhu means Honey & Ban means forest of woods) means Forest of Honey. • Madhubani Painting also called as Mithila Painting. • Women's have real intense desire for Madhubani Art . • Women's of Brahman, Dusadh and Kayastha communities painted Mithila or Madhubani Paintings in Mithla Region of Nepal & India. • It was said that the time of Ramayana when Lord Rama wedding to the King Janaka’s daughter Sita, King Janaka called artists for decorating his Palace. • This art is accepted by many religions women including Sikh, Muslims. Five types of Madhubani Art are: Bharni, Katchni, Tantrik,Godna & Gobar.
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  • 37. MUGHAL PAINTING • Mughal Painting is one of the finest and rich art forms of India. • Mughal Paintings become existence during the Mughal emperor from 16th to 18th centuries. • Mughal painting evolved from the Persian school of miniature painting with Hindu, Buddhist and Jain influences. • The paintings often revolved around themes like battles, legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, royal life, mythology, etc.
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  • 39. MYSORE PAINTING • Mysore Painting is an important and rich traditional art form of South India which started from town Mysore, Karnataka, India. • Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1780-1865 AD) was a great expert in field of art and provides extending support to dance, music, sculpture, painting and literature. • Mysore paintings are known for their elegance, muted colors, and attention to detail. • The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu gods and goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology
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  • 41. PAHARI PAINTING • Pahari (Pahar means Mountain in India) Painting is style of miniature forms originated in Himalayan Hill Kingdoms of North India between 17th to 19th centuries. • In Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (States of India) these pahari paintings are known as Rajput Paintings. • Pahari paintings have many styles such as Basohli Painting, Chamba Paintings, Garhwal Paintings, Guler Kangra Paintings, Jammu Paintings, Kulu Paintings, Mankot Paintings and Mandi Paintings. • The themes of the paintings revolved around love and devotion . • There was also illustration of great epics, puranas, etc.
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  • 43. PATTACHITRA PAINTING • Pattachitra is an Orissa (State of India) word but in Sanskrit “patta means canvas or cloth and Chitra means picture”. Pattachitra is traditional paintings of Orissa, India. • These paintings featuring the old paintings of Kalinga Region dating back to the 5th century BC mainly found on religious areas that are Puri, Konark and Bhubaneshwar Region. • It is the one of the oldest and famous form of art in Orrisa. • The themes of paintings are based on scenes from religious epics like Radha Krishna, Lord Jagannath, Vishnu based on ‘Gita Govinda’ of Jayadev, Ramayana, Mahabharata. • There are different categories which have Pattachitra Painting based on like Jagannath Paintings, Vaishnav Paintings, Ramayana Paintings, Bhagavat Paintings.
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  • 45. RAJPUT PAINTING • Rajput painting originated in the royal states of Rajasthan, somewhere around the late 16th and early 17th century . • Depict a number of themes, events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the life of Lord Krishna, landscapes and humans. • Rajput paintings were often politically charged and commented on social values of the time.
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  • 47. TANJORE PAINTING • Tanjore Painting is one of the most popular forms of classical South Indian painting. It is the native art form of Thanjavur (also known as Tanjore) city of Tamil Nadu. • Thanjavur paintings are characterized by rich, flat and vivid colors, simple iconic composition, glittering gold foils overlaid on delicate and inlay of glass beads and pieces or very rarely precious and semi-precious gems which add to their appeal. • Tanjore Painting of India originated during the 16th century, under the reign of the Cholas. • Most of these paintings revolve around the theme of Hindu Gods and Goddesses, along with saints.
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  • 49. WARLI PAINTING • Warli art is a beautiful folk art of Maharashtra, traditionally created by the tribal women's. Tribal are the Warli and Malkhar koli tribes found on the northern outskirts of Mumbai, in Western India. • This art was first explored in the early 1970 & from then it was named as “Warli art”, even though the tribal style of art is thought to date back as early as 10th century A.D . • The most important aspect of the painting is that it does not depicts mythological characters or images of deities, but depict social life. • Pictures of human beings and animals, along with scenes from daily life .
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