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BUILDING DRANAGE
SYSTEM
SubmittedTo : Charu Ma’am Submitted By : Utsav Khatri
DEFINITION
■ Basically refers to all the piping within the private
and public premises which conveys sewage,
rainwater and other liquid waste to a point of
disposal.
■ A drainage system does not include the mains of
public sewer systems or a private or a public
sewage treatment or disposal plant.
BASICTERMS
■ Wastewater : Water when used for different purpose like domestic commercial, industrial etc.,
receives impurities and become wastewater.Thus wastewater is used water and it has physical,
chemical, and biological Impurities in it.
■ Sewage : The waste water coming fromW.C. and containing human excreta is known as sewage.
■ Soil Pipe: It is pipe carrying sewage fromW.C.
■ Sewer: A pipe carrying sewage/ wastewater is called sewer.
■ Sullage: TheWastewater coming from bathrooms and kitchens which does not contain fecal
matter is known as sullage.
■ Waste Pipe: It is a pipe carrying sullage from bathrooms, kitchens, sinks, wash basins, etc.
■ Plumbing System: It is entire system of pipe line for providing water supply to the building or it is
a system of pipes for disposal of wastewater from the building.
■ Rainwater pipe : It is a pipe which carries only the rainwater .
■ Trap :Trap which is connected at the end of the soil pipe or waste pipe to stop the entry of foul
gases inside the building is known as trap.
PRINCIPLES OF DRAINAGE
■ Drainage should be preferable laid by side of the building to facilitate easy repair and
better maintenance.
■ Sewer joints should be leek proof because leakage if any shall create an odor problem
and leaked wastewater shall infiltrate in the ground and shall reduce bearing capacity of
soil below foundation, which is not desirable.
■ The sewage or sullage should flow under the force of gravity.
■ The house sewer should always be straight.
■ The entire system should be well ventilated from start to the end.
■ The house sewer should be connected to the manhole such that the invert level is
sufficiently higher to avoid back flow of sewage in house sewer.
■ Where ever there is change in direction of sewer line in the premises, provide inspection
chamber at the junction.
■ Rain water from roofs or open courtyards should not be allowed to flow through the
house sewers.
■ Adequate ventilation systems should be installed.
COMPONENTS OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM
TRAPS
PIPES
SANITARY
FITTINGS
TRAPS
■ The device which is connected at the
end of soil pipe or waste pipe to stop
the entry of foul gases inside the
building from soil is known as trap .
■ It is a bent pipe in the shape of ‘u’
which always remain full of water.
■ The depth of water seal varies from
25mm to 75mm.
■ Should provide enough water seal (
around 50 mm) with large surface
area.
■ Interiors surface should be smooth so
that the flow is not obstructed which
enables self cleaning.
■ It should be made of non- absorb
material
CLASSIFICATION OFTRAPS
ACCORDINGTO
SHAPE
ACCORDINGTO USE
■ FloorTraps (NahniTrap)
■ GullyTraps
■ InterceptingTraps
■ GreaseTraps
FLOORTRAPS (NAHNITRAP)
■ This trap is generally used to
admit sullage from the floors
of rooms, bathrooms, kitchen
etc. in to the sullage pipe.
■ This is provided with cast iron
or stainless steel or galvanized
gratings (Jallis) at its top so
that the entry of larger matter
is prevented thereby chances
of blockage are reduced.
■ A commonly used name of
trap is NahniTrap.
GULLYTRAPS
■ A Gully trap or gully is
provided at a junction
of a roof drain and
other drain coming
from kitchen or
bathroom.
■ Gully traps may either
have a P shaped or Q
shaped water sealing
arrangement.The
water seal is normally
50 mm to 75 mm
deep.
INTERCEPTINGTRAPS
■ Intercepting traps is provided at junction of
a house sewer and municipal sewer for
preventing entry of foul gases of municipal
sewer in to the house drainage system.
■ Intercepting trap is provided in the
manhole .
GREASETRAP
■ These type of traps are used in large hotels restaurants or industries where large
quantity of oils waste is generated. If the oily or greasy matter is not separated it will
stick to the building drainage system resulting in formation of scum and consequent
hinderance in aeration.
■ A grease trap is either a masonry or cast iron chamber with a bent pipe orTee pipe at
the outlet.
■ There is sudden increase in area of flow at the inlet and hence the velocity of flow is
reduced which results in separation of oil and grease from wastewater.The oil and
grease floats on the surface and should be removed periodically.
■ A separate outlet pipe for oil and grease trap can be installed with a valve to stop the
flow after complete removal of oil or grease from the top surface.
REQUIREMENT OF A GOODTRAP
■ It should possess a adequate water seal at all times .
■ It should be not absorbent material .
■ The internal and external surface should have smooth finish
so that dirt , etc. Does not stick to it .
■ It should be free from any inside projection , angles ,
contractions, so that flow is not obstructed.
■ It should be self cleansing .
■ It should be simple in construction , cheap and readily
available.
PIPES
TYPES OF PIPES
■ Soil pipe : it is the pipe carrying sewage from urinals , water closet , etc.
■ Waste pipe : it is pipe carrying sewage from bathrooms , kitchen , sinks
etc. It does not carry human excreta.
■ Vent pipe: the pipe installed for the purpose of ventilation of the
system is known as vent pipe .
■ Rain water : it is a pipe which carries only the rain water .
■ Ant siphonage pipe : a pipe which is installed in the house drainage to
preserve the water seal of the traps is known as ant siphonage pipe .
■ Ventilating pipe : the ventilating pipe enables the foul gases of sewage
to be safely discharge in to the atmosphere .
SANITARY FITTINGS
WASH BASIN
■ These are plumbing
fixtures mainly used
for handwashing.
■ These are normally
made of glazed
earthenware or
vitreous china.
Sometimes they are
also made from iron
stainless steel or
plastic, specially for
the places where
users are more.
SINKS
■ Sinks are the plumbing
fixtures provided in kitchens
for cleaning utensils.
■ Sinks are also provided in
laboratories for cleaning
laboratory glassware's etc.
BATHTUBS
■ BathTub is the plumbing
fixtures provided in the
bathroom for taking bath.This
is made of glazed earth ware
or vitreous china, cement
concrete finished with terrazzo
or glazed porcelain tiles or
marbles and enameled iron.
■ A circular waste hole at the
bottom of bath tub is provided
for drainage purpose.The hole
is provided with a metallic
waste fitting also called waste
coupling having a strainer and
clean opening of about 40 mm
to 50 mm dia . A waste pipe is
fixed to the waste fitting.
WATER CLOSETS
■ A water closet is a sanitary fitting which is designed to receive human excreta directly and
convey to the septic tank or underground sewer through a trap.
■ It is usually connected to a flushing to flush the closet and discharge the human excrete to the
soil pipe.
■ The water closets are of three type :
■ 1) Indian type 2) European type 3) Anglo- Indian type
URINAL
■ They are designed to accept and dispose of liquid human wastes only.
■ The types of urinal are :
■ Ceramic slab.
■ Stall type stall type .
■ Bowl type.
FLUSHINGTANK
■ Used to flush away the contents of soil fitting to
the drain.
■ It is installed to flush the water closet and urinal.
■ Specification:
■ Fixed 2m and 0.6 m above floor level.
■ Capacity of the tank from 5 to 15 liters (popular :
9 liter) For Indian w/c, flushing tank are made
from cast iron and fixed at a height of about 1.75
m above the top of the closest pan.
SYSTEM
OF
PLUMBING
SINGLE STACK SYSTEM
■ From the name it is clear that only
single pipe acts as soil pipe, waste
pipe and ventilation pipe.
■ This is poorly ventilated system
■ It is simple system and easy to
construct.
■ Risk of water seal breaking in the trap
is high.
■ Waste or air of the waste pipe may be
forced up due to back pressure.
ONE PIPE SYSTEM
■ A Separate vent pipe is provided
in this system.
■ This system is costly and difficult
to construct
■ Ventilation is provided to sullage
pipe and soil pipe too.
■ Arrangement of pipe work is
difficult.
SINGLE STACK PARTIALLYVENTILATED
SYSTEM
■ Only water closet traps are
ventilated.
■ Traps of baths, washbasins and
kitchen are not joined with vent
pipe.
■ This will discharged in to one
common soil and waste pipe .
■ This is economical system .
■ It is required to maintain water seal
of 75 mm or more.
■ It has simple arrangement of pipe.
TWO PIPE SYSTEM
■ Water closets, bath traps, kitchen
traps and wash basin traps all are
connected to vent pipes.
■ Separate soil pipe and waste pipes
are provided.
■ Two vent pipes are provided.
■ There are four stakes in this system
■ It is efficient system but costlier than
other systems.
HOUSE DRAINAGE PLAN
■ Important points to be considered while preparing house drainage plan are
mentioned below.
■ Drainage layout plan should be as simple as possible. Pipes should be laid in
straight line.
■ Both vertical and horizontal pipes shall be laid in straight lines as far as possible.
■ Where there is change in the direction of pipe, inspection chamber or manhole
should be provided.
■ Sewers should not be laid under a building to avoid the risk of decrease in
bearing capacity in case of continuous leakage of sewage from joints.The leaked
sewage percolates in the soil and increase moisture content of soil below the
foundation. Increased moisture content decreases bearing capacity which is not
desirable.
■ Pipes should be laid at proper gradient and proper size.The usual size of house
sewer are 100 mm, 150 mm, 230 mm, and 300 mm. they should be laid with such
a gradient that there is no deposit of solid matter.
THANKYOU

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Building dranage system

  • 1. BUILDING DRANAGE SYSTEM SubmittedTo : Charu Ma’am Submitted By : Utsav Khatri
  • 2. DEFINITION ■ Basically refers to all the piping within the private and public premises which conveys sewage, rainwater and other liquid waste to a point of disposal. ■ A drainage system does not include the mains of public sewer systems or a private or a public sewage treatment or disposal plant.
  • 3. BASICTERMS ■ Wastewater : Water when used for different purpose like domestic commercial, industrial etc., receives impurities and become wastewater.Thus wastewater is used water and it has physical, chemical, and biological Impurities in it. ■ Sewage : The waste water coming fromW.C. and containing human excreta is known as sewage. ■ Soil Pipe: It is pipe carrying sewage fromW.C. ■ Sewer: A pipe carrying sewage/ wastewater is called sewer. ■ Sullage: TheWastewater coming from bathrooms and kitchens which does not contain fecal matter is known as sullage. ■ Waste Pipe: It is a pipe carrying sullage from bathrooms, kitchens, sinks, wash basins, etc. ■ Plumbing System: It is entire system of pipe line for providing water supply to the building or it is a system of pipes for disposal of wastewater from the building. ■ Rainwater pipe : It is a pipe which carries only the rainwater . ■ Trap :Trap which is connected at the end of the soil pipe or waste pipe to stop the entry of foul gases inside the building is known as trap.
  • 4. PRINCIPLES OF DRAINAGE ■ Drainage should be preferable laid by side of the building to facilitate easy repair and better maintenance. ■ Sewer joints should be leek proof because leakage if any shall create an odor problem and leaked wastewater shall infiltrate in the ground and shall reduce bearing capacity of soil below foundation, which is not desirable. ■ The sewage or sullage should flow under the force of gravity. ■ The house sewer should always be straight. ■ The entire system should be well ventilated from start to the end. ■ The house sewer should be connected to the manhole such that the invert level is sufficiently higher to avoid back flow of sewage in house sewer. ■ Where ever there is change in direction of sewer line in the premises, provide inspection chamber at the junction. ■ Rain water from roofs or open courtyards should not be allowed to flow through the house sewers. ■ Adequate ventilation systems should be installed.
  • 5. COMPONENTS OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM TRAPS PIPES SANITARY FITTINGS
  • 6. TRAPS ■ The device which is connected at the end of soil pipe or waste pipe to stop the entry of foul gases inside the building from soil is known as trap . ■ It is a bent pipe in the shape of ‘u’ which always remain full of water. ■ The depth of water seal varies from 25mm to 75mm. ■ Should provide enough water seal ( around 50 mm) with large surface area. ■ Interiors surface should be smooth so that the flow is not obstructed which enables self cleaning. ■ It should be made of non- absorb material
  • 8. ACCORDINGTO USE ■ FloorTraps (NahniTrap) ■ GullyTraps ■ InterceptingTraps ■ GreaseTraps
  • 9. FLOORTRAPS (NAHNITRAP) ■ This trap is generally used to admit sullage from the floors of rooms, bathrooms, kitchen etc. in to the sullage pipe. ■ This is provided with cast iron or stainless steel or galvanized gratings (Jallis) at its top so that the entry of larger matter is prevented thereby chances of blockage are reduced. ■ A commonly used name of trap is NahniTrap.
  • 10. GULLYTRAPS ■ A Gully trap or gully is provided at a junction of a roof drain and other drain coming from kitchen or bathroom. ■ Gully traps may either have a P shaped or Q shaped water sealing arrangement.The water seal is normally 50 mm to 75 mm deep.
  • 11. INTERCEPTINGTRAPS ■ Intercepting traps is provided at junction of a house sewer and municipal sewer for preventing entry of foul gases of municipal sewer in to the house drainage system. ■ Intercepting trap is provided in the manhole .
  • 12. GREASETRAP ■ These type of traps are used in large hotels restaurants or industries where large quantity of oils waste is generated. If the oily or greasy matter is not separated it will stick to the building drainage system resulting in formation of scum and consequent hinderance in aeration. ■ A grease trap is either a masonry or cast iron chamber with a bent pipe orTee pipe at the outlet. ■ There is sudden increase in area of flow at the inlet and hence the velocity of flow is reduced which results in separation of oil and grease from wastewater.The oil and grease floats on the surface and should be removed periodically. ■ A separate outlet pipe for oil and grease trap can be installed with a valve to stop the flow after complete removal of oil or grease from the top surface.
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  • 14. REQUIREMENT OF A GOODTRAP ■ It should possess a adequate water seal at all times . ■ It should be not absorbent material . ■ The internal and external surface should have smooth finish so that dirt , etc. Does not stick to it . ■ It should be free from any inside projection , angles , contractions, so that flow is not obstructed. ■ It should be self cleansing . ■ It should be simple in construction , cheap and readily available.
  • 15. PIPES
  • 16. TYPES OF PIPES ■ Soil pipe : it is the pipe carrying sewage from urinals , water closet , etc. ■ Waste pipe : it is pipe carrying sewage from bathrooms , kitchen , sinks etc. It does not carry human excreta. ■ Vent pipe: the pipe installed for the purpose of ventilation of the system is known as vent pipe . ■ Rain water : it is a pipe which carries only the rain water . ■ Ant siphonage pipe : a pipe which is installed in the house drainage to preserve the water seal of the traps is known as ant siphonage pipe . ■ Ventilating pipe : the ventilating pipe enables the foul gases of sewage to be safely discharge in to the atmosphere .
  • 18. WASH BASIN ■ These are plumbing fixtures mainly used for handwashing. ■ These are normally made of glazed earthenware or vitreous china. Sometimes they are also made from iron stainless steel or plastic, specially for the places where users are more.
  • 19. SINKS ■ Sinks are the plumbing fixtures provided in kitchens for cleaning utensils. ■ Sinks are also provided in laboratories for cleaning laboratory glassware's etc.
  • 20. BATHTUBS ■ BathTub is the plumbing fixtures provided in the bathroom for taking bath.This is made of glazed earth ware or vitreous china, cement concrete finished with terrazzo or glazed porcelain tiles or marbles and enameled iron. ■ A circular waste hole at the bottom of bath tub is provided for drainage purpose.The hole is provided with a metallic waste fitting also called waste coupling having a strainer and clean opening of about 40 mm to 50 mm dia . A waste pipe is fixed to the waste fitting.
  • 21. WATER CLOSETS ■ A water closet is a sanitary fitting which is designed to receive human excreta directly and convey to the septic tank or underground sewer through a trap. ■ It is usually connected to a flushing to flush the closet and discharge the human excrete to the soil pipe. ■ The water closets are of three type : ■ 1) Indian type 2) European type 3) Anglo- Indian type
  • 22. URINAL ■ They are designed to accept and dispose of liquid human wastes only. ■ The types of urinal are : ■ Ceramic slab. ■ Stall type stall type . ■ Bowl type.
  • 23. FLUSHINGTANK ■ Used to flush away the contents of soil fitting to the drain. ■ It is installed to flush the water closet and urinal. ■ Specification: ■ Fixed 2m and 0.6 m above floor level. ■ Capacity of the tank from 5 to 15 liters (popular : 9 liter) For Indian w/c, flushing tank are made from cast iron and fixed at a height of about 1.75 m above the top of the closest pan.
  • 25. SINGLE STACK SYSTEM ■ From the name it is clear that only single pipe acts as soil pipe, waste pipe and ventilation pipe. ■ This is poorly ventilated system ■ It is simple system and easy to construct. ■ Risk of water seal breaking in the trap is high. ■ Waste or air of the waste pipe may be forced up due to back pressure.
  • 26. ONE PIPE SYSTEM ■ A Separate vent pipe is provided in this system. ■ This system is costly and difficult to construct ■ Ventilation is provided to sullage pipe and soil pipe too. ■ Arrangement of pipe work is difficult.
  • 27. SINGLE STACK PARTIALLYVENTILATED SYSTEM ■ Only water closet traps are ventilated. ■ Traps of baths, washbasins and kitchen are not joined with vent pipe. ■ This will discharged in to one common soil and waste pipe . ■ This is economical system . ■ It is required to maintain water seal of 75 mm or more. ■ It has simple arrangement of pipe.
  • 28. TWO PIPE SYSTEM ■ Water closets, bath traps, kitchen traps and wash basin traps all are connected to vent pipes. ■ Separate soil pipe and waste pipes are provided. ■ Two vent pipes are provided. ■ There are four stakes in this system ■ It is efficient system but costlier than other systems.
  • 29. HOUSE DRAINAGE PLAN ■ Important points to be considered while preparing house drainage plan are mentioned below. ■ Drainage layout plan should be as simple as possible. Pipes should be laid in straight line. ■ Both vertical and horizontal pipes shall be laid in straight lines as far as possible. ■ Where there is change in the direction of pipe, inspection chamber or manhole should be provided. ■ Sewers should not be laid under a building to avoid the risk of decrease in bearing capacity in case of continuous leakage of sewage from joints.The leaked sewage percolates in the soil and increase moisture content of soil below the foundation. Increased moisture content decreases bearing capacity which is not desirable. ■ Pipes should be laid at proper gradient and proper size.The usual size of house sewer are 100 mm, 150 mm, 230 mm, and 300 mm. they should be laid with such a gradient that there is no deposit of solid matter.
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