HANSABA COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SIDHPUR (098)
Prof. Mehul Chaudhary
Head of Dept.:
Prof. Rahul Rathod
1) Patel Suhag B. (130980119075)
2) Patel Tarang (130980119076)
3) Patel Utsav J. (130980119077)
4) Prajapati Ashvin M. (130980119079)
The Angular Measurements are taken using an instrument
known as compass.
Compass Surveying may be defined as the branch of surveying
in which the position of an object is determined by Angular
Linear Measurements in a traverse are measured using a chain
or a tape.
Traverse is a geometric figure consisting of series of
It has two types: (1) Open traverse
(2) Closed traverse
When the starting point does not coincide with
the end point, as shown in figure below, the
traverse is called Open traverse or Unclosed
When the starting point coincides with the end
point as shown in figure, the traverse is called
Methods of traversing
I. Chain traversing or Chain angle method:- In this method the
entire work is done by chain or tape. Angles are fixed by
measuring tie lines. Such angles are known as chain angles.
II. Loose or free needle method:- In this method, the angular
measurement is taken using a compass or a theodolite.
Bearing of each line of traverse is taken with reference to
III. Fast needle method:- In this method a theodolite is used to
determine bearing of different lines of the traverse.
IV. Angular measurement method:- In this method, a theodolite is
used to measure either included or deflection angles
between successive lines of the traverse.
Instruments for measurements of angles
Following instruments are commonly used for measurement of angle:
a) Prismatic compass
b) Surveyor’s compass
c) Trough compass
d) Tubular compass
A compass essentially consists of:
1) A magnetic needle
2) A graduated circle