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# Introduction to Angular Measurements

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### Introduction to Angular Measurements

1. 1. HANSABA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SIDHPUR (098) Guided by: Prof. Mehul Chaudhary Head of Dept.: Prof. Rahul Rathod Presented by: 1) Patel Suhag B. (130980119075) 2) Patel Tarang (130980119076) 3) Patel Utsav J. (130980119077) 4) Prajapati Ashvin M. (130980119079)
2. 2. Introduction  The Angular Measurements are taken using an instrument known as compass.  Compass Surveying may be defined as the branch of surveying in which the position of an object is determined by Angular Measurements.  Linear Measurements in a traverse are measured using a chain or a tape.
3. 3. Traverse Traverse is a geometric figure consisting of series of connected lines. It has two types: (1) Open traverse (2) Closed traverse
4. 4. Open traverse When the starting point does not coincide with the end point, as shown in figure below, the traverse is called Open traverse or Unclosed traverse. AB C D E
5. 5. Closed Traverse When the starting point coincides with the end point as shown in figure, the traverse is called Closed Traverse. AB C D E
6. 6. Methods of traversing I. Chain traversing or Chain angle method:- In this method the entire work is done by chain or tape. Angles are fixed by measuring tie lines. Such angles are known as chain angles. II. Loose or free needle method:- In this method, the angular measurement is taken using a compass or a theodolite. Bearing of each line of traverse is taken with reference to magnetic meridian. III. Fast needle method:- In this method a theodolite is used to determine bearing of different lines of the traverse. IV. Angular measurement method:- In this method, a theodolite is used to measure either included or deflection angles between successive lines of the traverse.
7. 7. Instruments for measurements of angles  Following instruments are commonly used for measurement of angle: 1) Compass: a) Prismatic compass b) Surveyor’s compass c) Trough compass d) Tubular compass 2) Theodolite 3) Sextant  A compass essentially consists of: 1) A magnetic needle 2) A graduated circle
8. 8. Prismatic Compass Surveyor’s Compass
9. 9. Tubular CompassTrough Compass
10. 10. Theodolite Sextant
11. 11. THANK YOU