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  1. 1. AVIATION Session :-2012-13 Batch :- J3 Submitted to: Mrs. . Reena ma’am Submitted BY : Utsav shivhare
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very thanks Frankfinn Institute & very grateful for the strong support and guidance provided to me by my Aviation teacher “Mrs.Reena Ma’am” Who helped me in preparing this assignment. I am very thankful to her for the same.
  3. 3. PASS GRADE 1 A (LO1 of unit 4)
  4. 4. Current Affairs in aviation Industry :  Low – cost Airline Indigo Ranked Second: Low- cost airline Indigo grabbed the second position in the aviation industry .  Goh Choon Phong – New CEO of Singapore Airlines Goh Choon Phong took charge as the chief executive officer of Singapore Airlines .  IATA Against Imposition of Service Tax : At a CII meeting organized on 23 September 2010 , the International Air Transport Association(IATA) criticized the recent move of the Indian Aviation Ministry to impose 10.3% service .  Rohit Nandan appointed Chairman and Managing Director(CMD) of Air India : India current Affairs August 2011 . Rohit Nandan a joint secretary in the civil aviation ministry was a appointed as chairman and managing Director (CMD) of Air India for a three year term .
  5. 5.  Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved Rs30,000 crore Bailout for Air India : Economy Current Affairs 2012, Union government approved Rs 30,000 crore bailout for Air india Rs 6750 crore would be infused immediately to meet the airline’s working capital requirement .  ST Aerospace Won Contract from jet Airways : Singapore’s ST Aerospace on 31 March 2010 secured a 10 – year contract worth 750 million US dollars from india’s jet Airways to provide engine maintenance and engineering support .
  6. 6. PASS GRADE 1 B (LO2/LO1,LO2 & 3 unit 4 & 9)
  7. 7. Identify and describe the function of the parts shown to you? (a) Cockpit :- A cockpit or flight deck is the area usually near the front of an aircraft , from which a pilot controls the aircraft . Most modern cockpits are enclosed , except on some small aircraft , and cockpits on large airlines are also physically from the cabin .From the cockpit an aircraft is controlled on the ground and in the air .
  8. 8. (b) Cargo :- Cargo is a storage section of an aircraft. Usually provided underside of the aircraft for Passenger Baggage and freight cargo is divided into part (Fwd) Cargo that is forward cargo and (Aft) cargo that is after cargo and , it is also called as HOLD and BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT.
  9. 9. (c) External part :Exterior part basically mean the body of an aircraft. The exterior structure of an aircraft can be divided into three parts. • Fuselage. • Wing assembly. • Empennage.
  10. 10. Aircrafts registration in that country must have along with the individual number . Function of external part of aircraft :
  11. 11. i) Fuselage : Central body portion of a plane designed to carry fuel , passengers , freight & mail . The part of the aircraft , which is streamlined , and the wings and tails are attached to it . It is made up of Duralium – an alloy of Aluminum , nickel & cobalt . ii) Cockpit :- The part of the aircraft that houses the pilots & the aircraft’s controls . iii) Cabin :- The portion of enclosed airplane intended for transporting passengers or freight . iv) Wings :- The parts of the plane that provided lift & support the weight of the plane , its passengers , crew & cargo while the plane is in flight .
  12. 12. v) Flaps :- The movable portions of the wings closest to the fuselage . These are controls surface installed on the trailing edge of a wing and used to increase the amount of lift generated by the wing at slower speeds . Flaps also have the effect of slowing an aircraft during its landing approach. vi) Ailerons :- Movable portion of the aircraft’s wings found on the outer part of the wing , on the trailing edge , which move in opposite direction i.e. up & down . These are used to make the plane turn & control the ‘roll’ if the aircraft .
  13. 13. vii) Rudder :- The movable vertical section of the tall , installed on the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer ,which controls the yaw motion of the aircrafts left and right . The Rudder permits the pilot to move the tail of the aircraft left or right by use of the rudder pedals in the cockpit . viii) Horizontal stabilizer :- This is the horizontal part of the tail assembly , the small wings at the rear of an aircraft fuselage . It balances the lift forces generated by the main wings farther forward on the fuselage . The stabilizer also usually contains the elevator .
  14. 14. ix) Elevator :- The control surface , usually on the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer , which is used to control the pitch attitude of an aircraft . Movement of the elevator will force the nose of an aircraft up or down. x) Landing gear/undercarriage :- Located underneath the plane , it allows the plane to land and supports it while it on ground . It also has the mechanism to reduce and absorb the shock of landing to acceptable limits . xi) Slats : Special surfaces attached to or actually part of the leading edge of the wing . During takeoff and landing , they are extended to produce extra lift .
  15. 15. xii) Winglet :- Extended portion of the wing , curving upwards , that helps in increasing lift during takeoff and landing. d) Interior part :- In the cross section of an aircraft/ airline one can see that it is mainly divided into two parts separated by the floor . The upper portion is the cabin that houses the passengers & the crew of the flight . The lower half is the cargo where the freight/ mail is placed . All the flight controls of the aircraft pass through the floor of the plane.
  16. 16.  Cargo : Usually provided on the underside of the aircraft for storage of passenger baggage & freight .  Cabin: The portion of enclosed airplane intended for transporting Passengers or freight . An airliner can have a single deck or have two decks , like a Boeing 747 .
  17. 17. • Aisle : A passage between two sections of seats , comprising of horizontally placed rows that is located from the nose to the tail of the aircraft without any obstruction.
  18. 18.  Doghouse : A small cupboard , placed on the floor of the aircraft on casters , usually behind the last row of seats in every zone/section of the plane. Used for storage purpose.
  19. 19. • Galley :The ‘Kitchen’ of the aircraft is called the Galley . The number of galleys in each airliner depends on the number of passenger that aircraft can carry & the size of the aircraft itself . All galleys have the provision for storing & preparing food & beverages . Removal containers, that insert & latch into the galley walls are used for rapid replenishment of supplies , food , beverages &waste storage.
  20. 20. (e) Slide raft :- The part of the aircraft door/exit that holds the slide/ raft in a compressed state. An evacuation slide is an inflatable slide used to evacuate an aircraft quickly . An escape slide is required on all commercial aircraft where the door sill height is such that , in the event of an evacuation , passengers Would be unable to step Down from the door uninjured .
  21. 21. Cabin inter communication system :The phone network on board consisting of handsets in flight deck, near every door , flight attendant station, and the crew rest area. Each handset can initiate and receive call from all points.
  22. 22.      Passenger Service Unit : PSU is an abbreviation aviation for Passenger Service Unit. This aircraft components is situated above each seat row in the overhead panel above the passenger seats in the cabin of airlines . Amongst other things a PSU contains reading lights , loudspeakers , illuminated signs and automatically deployed oxygen masks and also louvers providing conditioned air. The PSU is the module located above the seats , providing the passenger with the following functions : Reading light and switches Audio facility for announcement and boarding music Attendant call and indication. Seat row numbering A number of different signs , such as fasten seat belt , no smoking and return to seat .
  23. 23. Jump seat : In aircraft jump seats which are officially termed auxiliary crew stations can be located in cockpits or passenger cabin . In cockpits , jump seats are provided for individuals who are not operating the aircraft .These might include trainee pilots , off-duty crew members in transition to another airport government officials or airline staff .
  24. 24. The passenger cabin jump seats are used by the cabin crew , especially during take off and landing .These seats are normally located near to emergency exits so that flight attendants can quickly open the exit door for an emergency evacuation . The passenger cabin jump seats usually fold out of the way when not in use to keep aisles , workspaces and emergency exits clear .
  25. 25. PASS GRADE (LO4 of unit 4)
  26. 26. Emergency equipment used in emergency :(a) Smoke Hood :- A smoke hood is a protective device similar in concept to a gas mask . A translucent airtight bag seals around the head of wearer while an air filter held in the mouth connects to the outside atmosphere and is used to breathe. Smoke hoods are intended to protect victims of fire from the effects of smoke inhalation. High quality smoke hoods are generally constructed of heat resistant material like Kapton , and can withstand relatively high temperatures . The most important part of a smoke hood is the filter that provides protection from the toxic byproducts of combustion.
  27. 27. Virtually all smoke hood designs utilize some form of active charcoal filter and particulate filter to screen out corrosive fumes like ammonia and chlorine , as well as acid gases like hydrogen chloride and hydrogen carbon monoxide to relatively harmless carbon dioxide through a catalytic process. (b) Oxygen bottle :- This bottle is used to store oxygen , and can be in situation where people suffer of lack of oxygen .It is produced of aramik reinforced epoxy by filament winding , over an aluminum liner
  28. 28. Sometimes a complement of glass fibers can be added. The material has been chosen to fulfill the requirements of high strength and hardness , so that the bottle doesn’t explode under high pressure or when knocked. (c) Fire Axe :- A fire axe is a type of which has been designed specifically for the use of firefighters , and it includes several features which make it ideally suited to emergency services in general . The primary distinguish feature of a fire axe is the head . Which features a classic axe blade on one side and a pointed pick on the other . Companies which specialize in selling supplies to emergency services personal often carry fire axes , and they can also be ordered directly from manufactures .
  29. 29. A typical fire axe is mounted on a long half which has often been treated to be fire resistant . The half is attached to the head especially firmly . So that the head does not fly off at inopportune moments . Typically the head of the axe is also painted in bright colors which make it easy to distinguish in conditions of low visibility and the pick and head may be painted in different colors so that firefighters can be sure they are working with the right end .
  30. 30. (d) Asbestos Gloves : Asbestos is fire-resistance and also provides very effective insulation . It was often used in the 20th century for many purpose , including a variety of a construction materials and protective clothing . Asbestos gloves were often used for industrial purposes to protect the hands of workers from extremely high temperatures . They were used in steel plants , foundries and glassworks and often by firefighters as well . While the use of asbestos gloves and other asbestos clothing did protect such workers from the hazards of their work , it also exposed workers to other to other serious hazards.
  31. 31. (e) Fire Extinguisher : A fire extinguisher , flame extinguisher , or simply an extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires , often in emergency situation . It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fore , such as one which has reached the ceiling , endangers the user or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department . Typically ,a fire extinguish consist of a hand- held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharge to extinguish a fire. Fire extinguisher is two types : Water and Halon fire extinguisher .
  32. 32. (f) Oxygen mask : An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs .Oxygen masks may cover the nose and mouth or the entire face(full face mask) . They may be made of plastic , silicon or rubber .Canisters of pure oxygen placed in the cabin for first aid & smoke fighting purposes.
  33. 33. (g) Mega phone : A mega phone , speaking-trumpet , bullhorn , blow horn or loud hailer is a portable , usually hand-held , cone- shaped acoustic horn used to amplify a person’s voice or other sounds and direct it in a given direction . The sound is introduced into the narrow end of the megaphone , by holding it up to the face and speaking into it , and direct it in a given direction . The sound is introduced into the narrow end of the megaphone ,by holding it up to the face and speaking into it, and the sound waves radiate out the wide end.
  34. 34. The megaphone increases the volume of sound by increasing the acoustic impedance seen by the vocal cords , matching the impedance of the vocal cords to the air , so that more sound power is radiated . It also serves to direct the sound waves in the direction the horn is pointed . (h) ELT : Distress radio beacons , also known as emergency beacons ,PLB , ELT are tracking transmitters which aid in the detection and location of boats , aircraft , and people in distress .Strictly they are radio beacons that interface with worldwide offered service of Cospas-Sarsat , the international satellite system for search and rescue .
  35. 35. When manually activated , or automatically activated upon immersion , such beacons send out a distress signal .The basic purpose of a distress radio beacon is to help rescuers find survivors within the so-called golden day during which the majority of survivors can usually be saved . (i) Life Jacket : A life jacket is a type of personal flotation device designed to keep a person’s airway clear of the water whether the wearer is conscious or unconscious . They are either made from two layers of bonded polyurethane to be inflated or from foam
  36. 36. The inflatable lifejacket is probably the most widely used for both leisure and commercial activities , while the foam lifejacket is predominantly designed either for children , or for emergency use .
  37. 37. MERIT (unit 4 & 9)
  38. 38. CABIN CREW ROUTINE Airlines : Jet Airways Sector : London Flight Time : 9:00 am(Departure from Delhi) 03:23 am(Arrival at London)
  39. 39. REPORTING FOR DUTY : On the day of flight : Sign in. Crew will Report to the Moment Control at 7:45 am(1 hour,45 min. before the flight time).  Then crew will Check Departure board. The Detail which Crew checked and saw are : • Captain name : Ali • Senior most crew : Pavan Kumar • Flight no. IX 323 • Registration no.: VT EAS • Departure time : 9:00 am • Arrival time : 03:23 am
  40. 40. BRIEFING AT AIRPORT : • • • • In the briefing room, Chief will check crew : Knowledge about safety & first aid Documents Grooming Usage of Emergency equipment and features.
  41. 41. EMBARKATION PROCEDURE :  Formalities of a cabin crew at the time of embarkation are : • Check baggage. • ID check • Boarding • Security Check  Crew proceed to the aircraft after security check.  Crew should embark at least 45min before the departure.  And as crew enter the aircraft according to work position , Crew will go to the mid galley .
  42. 42. PRE-FLIGHT CHECK AND DUTIES: • Crew will check all the emergency equipments and emergency features. • Crew will also check the Cabin dressing, Lavatory dressing. • Crew will make sure that the galley is prepared with all the beverages and meals.
  43. 43. SERVICE ON BOARD : • • • •  While the passengers board the aircraft , Crew welcome and greet them and help them in finding their seat . After all the passengers are on board . Before/During Take-off : After all the galley’s are prepared Crew start service first. Crew serve passengers with the sweets , Hot Towels and Welcome drinks . In the mean while welcome announcement and demonstrations are also done. Now crew make sure that Cabin secure for take off. On board service : All the particular announcement like before take off , before meal service, before landing , after landing , safety measures are said.
  44. 44. Meal service : • Crew announce for a service and start the service. • Crew go to the cabin along with the trolley with preset trays and several to the passengers. • The main dish is served according to the passenger choice. • After that Tea/Coffee service is done. • The trays are collected. Preparation for landing: Clearance : • Crew check the Cabin to be secured. • Crew check the lavatory clear and keep galley secured. • Senior most informs commander. • As per the commanders order, Crew sit in crew station for landing. • Then the flight is landed. After landing : • Airport specific announcement is done . • Crew help the passengers in removing baggage, Thank them for choosing our airline and wish a good day. • The crew disembark the passengers.
  45. 45. POST FLIGHT DUTIES : After all the passengers deplane :  Crew check the cabin for any left over passengers.  Also check lavatory, baggage bins and loose items for any personal belongings of passengers. Then I fill the documents to be filled ; • Crew Complete the flight report by filling the remaining particulars . • Crew fill the catering check list . • Crew fill the Complain book. • Crew fill if any emergency equipment is used .
  46. 46. DISEMBARKATION PROCEDURE:  Crew thank all the Crew members.  And then proceed to Moment Control .  Always cabin crew should deplane , after the Cockpit Crew.  At last , again Crew go to Moment control and know next days Sector from the Roster.
  47. 47. Distinction (unit 4 & 9)
  48. 48. Boeing 747 & Airbus A380 : Boeing : The Boeing 747 is a wide- body commercial airline and cargo transport aircraft , often referred to by its original nickname , Jumbo jet or Queen of the Skies . It is among the world’s most recognizable aircraft , and was the first wide body ever product . Manufactured by Boeing commercial Airplane unit in the United States , the original version of the 747 was two and a half times the size of the Boeing 707 , one of the common large common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s . First flown commercially in 1970 , the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years .
  49. 49. The four engine 747 uses a double deck configuration for part of its length .It is available in passenger , freighter and other versions . Boeing designed the 747’s hump like upper deck to serve as a first class lounge or extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carried by removing seats and installing a front cargo door .Boeing did so because the company expected supersonic airlines to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete , while believing that the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would be robust into the future .The 747 in particular was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold but it exceeded its critics expectations with production passing the 1000 mark in 1933 by September 2012 , 1448 aircraft had been built with 81 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order .
  50. 50. Airbus A380 : The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide body four engine jet-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus a subsidiary of EADS .It is the world’s largest passenger airliner and due to its size many airports have had to upgrade their facilities to property accommodate it . Initially named Airbus A3XX , the aircraft was designed to challenge Boeing’s monopoly in the large-aircraft market , the A380 made its first on 27 April 2005 and began commercial service in October 2007 with Singapore Airlines. The A380 upper deck extends along the entire length of the fuselage with a width equivalent to a wide-body aircraft . This allows for an A380-800’s cabin with 478 square meters and provides seating for 525 people in a typical three-class configuration or up to 853 people in all economy class configurations.
  51. 51. Compare of Airbus A380 & Boeing 747 : Airbus A380 : Engines : Four Rolls-Royce Trent 900 turbofans or four General Electric/Pratt & Whitney GP-7200 turbofans Typical cruising speed : Mach 0.85(850 km/h) Range : 14,800 km (8,000 nm) Max takeoff weight : 560,000 kg (1,234,600 lb) Wingspan :79.8m (261 ft 10 in) Length : 72.75m (238 ft 8 in) Passenger seating : 555 passengers on two decks in a three-class arrangement , and up to 800 passengers in a one-class arrangement. Cost : About $250 million US
  52. 52. Boeing 747 : Engines : Four Genx-2B67 turbofans Typical cruising speed : Match 0.855(855 km/h) Range : 14,815 km (8,000 nm) Max takeoff weight :435,456 kg (960,00 lb) Wingspan : 68.5 m (224 ft 9 in) Length : 74.2 m (243 ft 6 in) Passenger seating : 450 passenger in a typical three-class configuration Cost : About$ 205 million US The A380 can seat many more passengers than the 747-8- the most of any commercial airline ever created . The running costs are also expected to be lower than brand-new features that make the A380 seem like less of a cramped , commercial airliner and more like a luxurious cruise ship – lounger , bars ,gymnasiums , duty – free stores and even a salon .The seats are also more spread –out , even for economy class.
  53. 53. The 747-8’s price is also considerably lower than the A380’s – but for the extra $10 million or so airliners will be able to get a lot more , and their passengers will have a much more comfortable flight. Overall, passengers will prefer to fly on the A380 more than they will prefer to fly on the 747 -8 , even if it means spending a little longer in the aircraft.
  54. 54. Case study of Air crash Air France Flight 447 : Date : 1 June 2009 Passengers : 216 Crew : 12 Fatalities : 228 Survivors : 0 Aircraft type: Airbus A330-203 Operator : Air France Registration : F-GZCP Flight origin : Rio de janeiro-Galeo Int’1 Airport Destination : Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport
  55. 55. Air France Flight 447 was a scheduled commercial flight from Galeao international Airport in Rio de janeiro , Brazil to Charles de Gaulle international Airport in Paris , France. On 1 June 2009 , the Airbus A330-200 airline service the flight crashed into the Atlantic Ocean , Killing all 216 passengers and 12 aircrew . The accident was the deadliest in the history of Air France and has been described as the worst accident in both French and Brazilian aviation history . It was the second fatal accident involving an Airbus A330 , the first while in commercial passenger service , and the deadliest for this aircraft type . The aircraft crashed following an aerodynamic stall caused by inconsistent airspeed sensor readings , the disengagement of the autopilot , and the pilot making noseup inputs despite stall warnings, causing a fatal loss of airspeed handling of approach to stall and stall recovery at high altitude , this was not a standard training required at the time of the accident .
  56. 56. The reason for the faulty airspeed reading is unknown , but it is assumed by the accident investigators to have been caused by the formation of ice inside the pitot tubes, thereby depriving them of forward – facing air pressure .Pitot tube blockage has contributed to airliner crashes in the past such as Northwest Airlines Flight 6231 in 1974 and Birgenair Flight 301 in 1996 . The investigation in to the accident, which continued for three years after the disaster , was initially hampered by the lack of eyewitness evidence and radar tracks , as well as by difficulty in finding the aircraft’s black boxes , which were finally located and recovered from the ocean floor in May 2011 , nearly two years after the accident . The final report was released at a news conference on 5 July 2012 . It states that the accident resulted from a succession of events temporary inconsistency between the airspeed measurements, probably following an obstruction of the pitot tubes by ice crystals , that caused the autopilot to disconnect , inappropriate control inputs that destabilized the flight path and led to a stall , and pilot misunderstanding of the situation leading to a lack of control inputs that would have made it possible to recover.
  57. 57. Conclusion : As for me it was an accident, yes, the pilot had not received specific training but there is inconsistency of the airspeed measurements and the probably obstruction of the pitot tubes by ice crystals, that caused autopilot to disconnect and inappropriate controls inputs that destabilized the flight path and the pilot had misunderstanding the situation due to lack of control inputs .