Location…. Located in Pacific Ocean.
East of Japan.
Deepest Trench in the world.
Also called as CHALLENGER DEEP.
It is 11,035 meters deep underwater
which is much greater than the height
of Mt. Everest whose height is
8848 meters above the sea level.
Oceanic – Oceanic convergence:-
Fast moving Pacific plate was
subducted under water by the fast
moving Philippine Plate.
Crust created from the East Pacific
Ridge parallel to the Mariana Trench.
New crust formed by East Pacific Ridge
moved and is subducted at Mariana Trench.
Geology of Mariana Islands….
After millions of years , erupted lava and debris pile up on the
This caused a submarine volcano to rise above sea level to form an
Due to this process about 15 volcano islands rose up from the
Biology of Mariana Trench…
It is very cold and highly pressurised.
Hydrothermal (hot water ) vents formed by tectonic plates release
hydrogen sulphide and other minerals.
Creatures from the deep show an incredible resistance to extreme
temperature conditions by different proteins which are adapted
for life under these conditions ( e.g. crabs, Angler fish etc.).
Another important feature of these creatures is their longevity i.e.
they can survive for over a century.
They are slow to develop.
Exploration of Mariana Trench…
1951 : Challenger II :- Mariana Trench was first pinpointed by
BRITISH SURVEY SHIP – CHALLENGER II.
1960 : (Exploration of the deepest point i.e. challenger deep)
:- Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard and Lt. Donald Wash dived into
the ocean from a U.S. submarine for 20 mins. And confirmed the
trench to be the deepest point on Earth. (the submarine was
named as TREISTE ).
1995 : - Japanese unnamed submersible launched to explore
2012: DEEPSEA CHALLENGER:- A manned submersible which
underwent sea trials in March 2012 was the 2nd ever to go to