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mariana trench


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mariana trench

  2. 2. Geology of Mariana Trench
  3. 3. Location…. Located in Pacific Ocean.  East of Japan.  Deepest Trench in the world.  Also called as CHALLENGER DEEP.  It is 11,035 meters deep underwater which is much greater than the height of Mt. Everest whose height is 8848 meters above the sea level.
  4. 4. Formation…  Oceanic – Oceanic convergence:- Fast moving Pacific plate was subducted under water by the fast moving Philippine Plate.  Crust created from the East Pacific Ridge parallel to the Mariana Trench.  New crust formed by East Pacific Ridge moved and is subducted at Mariana Trench.
  5. 5. Computer Simulation of Mariana Trench
  6. 6. Geology of Mariana Islands….  After millions of years , erupted lava and debris pile up on the ocean floor.  This caused a submarine volcano to rise above sea level to form an island volcano.  Due to this process about 15 volcano islands rose up from the ocean floor.
  7. 7. Biology of Mariana Trench…  It is very cold and highly pressurised.  Hydrothermal (hot water ) vents formed by tectonic plates release hydrogen sulphide and other minerals.  Creatures from the deep show an incredible resistance to extreme temperature conditions by different proteins which are adapted for life under these conditions ( e.g. crabs, Angler fish etc.).  Another important feature of these creatures is their longevity i.e. they can survive for over a century.  They are slow to develop.
  8. 8. Exploration of Mariana Trench…  1951 : Challenger II :- Mariana Trench was first pinpointed by BRITISH SURVEY SHIP – CHALLENGER II.  1960 : (Exploration of the deepest point i.e. challenger deep) :- Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard and Lt. Donald Wash dived into the ocean from a U.S. submarine for 20 mins. And confirmed the trench to be the deepest point on Earth. (the submarine was named as TREISTE ).
  9. 9.  1995 : - Japanese unnamed submersible launched to explore Mariana Trench.  2012: DEEPSEA CHALLENGER:- A manned submersible which underwent sea trials in March 2012 was the 2nd ever to go to Challenger deep.