2.) Electromagnetic wave
3.) Effect of electromagnetic wave
8.) Active denial system
9.) HAARP project
Electromagnetic warfare is a newly growing
global concern, which threatens all the
It affects only electrical & electronics component
i.e. mobile, laptop , power grid , substations
• It travels with the speed of light.
• Electromagnetic waves are produced
whenever charged particles are accelerated,
and these waves can subsequently interact
with any charged particles.
• Electromagnetic wave
carry energy, momentum and angular
momentum away from their source particle
and can impart those quantities
to matter with which they interact.
• EM waves are massless, but they are still
affected by gravity.
• Lightning may also be regarded as a transient ,
high current electric discharge.
• It is a major natural source of Electromagnetic
radiation that interferes with modern
• The current generated by these are in range of
10kA to 200 kA.
• EMI is the degradation in the performance of a
device due to fields making up the Electromagnetic
Withstanding capability of electronic components to
an EM wave is called ELECTROMAGNETIC
Electronic components are made compatible
with following techniques-
It is a Future weapon i.e. more suitable weapons
than conventional weapon to achieve shock
effect over large target sets with small attacking
The objective is to paralyze the enemy’s
communication systems as quickly as possible.
It is of two types-
1.)Neuclear emp weapon
2.)non-neuclear emp weapon
E-bomb Technology Base:
• Power source - Explosively pumped Flux
Compression Generator (FCG).
• FCG invented by Los Alamos Labs during the
• FCG can produce tens of Mega Joules in tens
to hundreds of microseconds.
• Peak current of an FCG is 1000 X that of a
typical lightning stroke.
Flux Compression Generator
It is a device which is used for high power EMP generation
by compressing the magnetic flux using high explosive.it is
one time usable device.
Principle of Operation
Magneto-explosive generators use a technique
called "magnetic flux compression".
It works on Maxwell’s 3rd
principle which says that
magnetic flux is conservative.
∫B.ds = φ
• Low frequency pulses produced by FCG
create high voltage spikes on fixed wiring
• Microwave radiation from HPM devices can
couple directly through ventilation grilles,
gaps between panels, poor interface
shielding - producing a spatial standing
wave inside the equipment cavity.
Maximising Bomb Lethality:
Lethality is maximized by maximizing the
power coupled into the target set.
• Maximize peak power and duration of
warhead emission (using powerful FCG).
• Maximize coupling efficiency into target
Active denial system is a non-lethal directed energy
weapon developed by U.S. military designed for
area denial, perimeter secuirty and crowd control.
The ADS works by firing a high-powered beam of
95 GHz waves at a target, which corresponds to
a wavelength of 3.2 mm.
The ADS millimeter wave energy works on a similar
principle as a microwave oven, exciting the water
and fat molecules in the skin, and instantly heating
them via dielectric heating.
One significant difference is that a microwave oven
uses the much lower frequency (and longer
wavelength) of 2.45 GHz. The short millimeter
waves used in ADS only penetrate the top layers of
skin, with most of the energy being absorbed within
0.4 mm (1/64"),whereas microwaves will penetrate
into human tissue about 17mm (0.67").
Reflective materials such as aluminium cooking
foil should reflect this radiation and could be
used to make clothing that would be protective
against this radiation.
it was applied in afganistan by NATO but not
us air force
Purpose is to
Analyse the ionosphere
& developing new
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
Can be used for
weather changing of a
starfish Prime was a high-altitude(250 km
) nuclear test conducted by the United States on July
9, 1962, a joint effort of the Atomic Energy
Commission (AEC) and the Defense Atomic Support
A Thor rocket carrying a W49 thermonuclear
warhead and a Mk. 2 reentry vehicle was launched
from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean.
It produced a yield equivalent to
1.4 megatonnes of TNT
Due to this atmospheric test the 5 american and
2 russian sattelites had been damaged within
One month of the testing date while it was of
less powered than now.
Due to this now no open air test are allowed to
By the previous discussion we can say that
electromagnetic waves are a gift from god to us,
It depend upon us how to use it…..
1. Jay J. Ely - NASA langley research centre
2. Paul Thomas – Royal Air Force
3. DRDO – laser department
4. Carlo Corp- monash university , Australia
6. Threat assesment of EMP- american congress
7. EMP Commision assesment report
8. Mathew N.O. Sadiku- principles of EM
9. Kraus/Fleisch- EM with application
10. NATO- active denial system report 56