Identifying your audience will do more than ensure that you write clearly. It will also help you focus on the audience’s needs. Start out by thinking about what your audience knows about the situation now. Then, think about how to guide them from their current knowledge to what you need them to know. To help you do this, try answering the following questions: Who is my audience? What does my audience already know about the subject? What does my audience need to know? What questions will my audience have?
Novices want to get started quickly. Novice users generally have little time for learning and need immediate success in their actions. Novices have only theoretical knowledge, because they have little or no prior experience. • Advanced Beginners perform new tasks as the need arises. They are willing to learn, but only have time for a small amount of new learning. Advanced beginners start to apply practical knowledge and experience to their daily tasks. • Competent Performers need to solve problems quickly. They focus on troubleshooting and have the ability to identify, diagnose, and solve problems. Competent performers have a grasp of the basic rules and begin to violate them. • Proficient users begin to work more effectively using the tools you provide. They are ready to learn more concepts and have a need to understand the underlying processes. Proficient users can perform more advanced tasks with little help. • Experts want to increase their efficiency using your tools. They understand the products and tools completely and understand the results of their actions. Expert users need to understand the principles and theories behind the tools and need more than just isolated facts.
Concept: descriptive information that helps users to understand the background and context of a subject. Reference: detailed facts that users look up. Reference topics support the correct execution of tasks. Task: description of a procedure from a user’s point of view.
A topic is a top-level sequence pattern. It is a practical application of a sequence pattern. We have a fixed purpose and (if enforced via XML) a fixed sequence of functional items (elements).
The comma (,) helps readers understand the writer's meaning and prevents ambiguity. Commas are used to make sentences clearer and more readable. Do not use a comma to introduce bulleted lists, procedures, and “do the following” statements. Use a colon instead.
In general, use commas in the following situations: • Before a conjunction (and, but, or, nor) that links an independent clause. Do not use a comma when two independent clauses are short and closely related, unless there is a possibility of confusing the reader. • To enclose non-restrictive clauses and parenthetical elements. • To separate items in a series. Include a comma before the last item in a series to avoid confusion.
That Use that to introduce a restrictive clause. Clauses beginning with that are generally not set off with commas. Do not omit the word that when it is optional because it is hard to localize. Example 3-3: That Correct This is the forum that answers the question about whether to use email or e-mail. Explanation There are many forums; the phrase that answers the question about whether to use email or e-mail restricts (narrows the meaning of) the subject of the sentence to one forum. Which Use which to introduce a non-restrictive clause. Clauses beginning with which are always set off with commas.
Voice indicates the relation of the subject to the action of the verb. When the verb is in the active voice, the subject acts. When the verb is in the passive voice, the subject is acted upon. The passive voice often causes confusion, leaves incomplete sentences, hides the subject of the sentence within the text, and results in wordy sentences. Use the active voice whenever possible, and always use the active voice in procedures and instructions.
Avoid the passive voice, if possible. Using the passive voice causes the following concerns for the translator: • Passive voice is not commonly used in some languages, which may require the translator to convert the sentence to active voice. • Passive voice sentences tend to be less concise than active voice. The added complexity may impede comprehension and make the content more difficult to localize. • In some languages, there may be more than one way to translate a passive verb construction. Multiple options can lead to inconsistencies in the localized document.
Was mir hier noch fehlt, ist, dass Passiv inhaltliche Ungenauigkeiten nach sich zieht - der Akteur wird nicht benannt, folglich wird der Anwender es nicht unbedingt auf sich beziehen und ggf. eine Handlung nicht ausführen > Haftung Aktivsätze sind kürzer und verringern die Übersetzungskosten Auch bei automatisch passierenden Aktionen kann man einen Akteur benennen, z.B. die Software oder das IT-System