Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

U.Frith Neuropsychology of autism. Talk given at Kanazawa+notes 2007

1,738 views

Published on

Review summarising my research on autism up until 2007
Simplified with brief notes.

Published in: Science
  • My partner says the difference is incredible! My partner has probably punched me a hundred times to get me to roll over and stop snoring. I have been using your techniques recently and now my partner has told me that the difference is incredible. But what has amazed me the most is how much better and more energetic I now feel after a good night's sleep! Thank you so much! ▲▲▲ https://bit.ly/37PhtTN
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • It's genuinely changed my life. I have been sleeping in the spare room for 4 months - and let's just say my sex life had become pretty boring! My wife and I were becoming strangers living in the same house. Thanks to your strategies, I am now back in our bed and the closeness and intimacy have returned. Thank you so much for taking the time to put all this together. It has genuinely changed my life. ▲▲▲ http://ishbv.com/snoringno/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • She hasn't even mentioned my snoring!! When I read the story on your website I understood EXACTLY what you were talking about. I have been single for years because my snoring is so loud. As soon as I get to the stage where a girl stays over, I never hear from them again. Your program has taken my snoring down to a low hum. I now have a girlfriend and she hasn't even mentioned my snoring!! ◆◆◆ http://ishbv.com/snoringno/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Is it possible to improve your memory? How can I improve my memory recall? more info... ▲▲▲ https://bit.ly/2GEWG9T
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, eBooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

U.Frith Neuropsychology of autism. Talk given at Kanazawa+notes 2007

  1. 1. Neuropsychological studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders Uta Frith 31st Annual Meeting of the Neuropsychology Association of Japan 27th September Kanazawa
  2. 2. Infantile Autism Kanner 1943 Inability to relate affectively to others Insistence on sameness Islets of ability 2 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  3. 3. A little bit of history 100 years ago autism not recognised at all 70 years ago autistic children first described in the Netherlands, in the US, in Austria… 50 years ago psychosocial origin presumed - not brain abnormality Now progress towards identifying brain abnormality, genetic risk factors and other putative causes 3 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  4. 4. Everyone agrees on a biological basis for autism Autism is a biologically based condition With a strong genetic component With its effect on brain development There is some brain abnormality But We do not yet have biological markers 4 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  5. 5. Everyone agrees on three key behavioural signs Difficulties in Social interaction Difficulties in Communication Restricted Patterns of Behaviour Not everyone agrees on how to explain these - at the cognitive level - at the brain level There are different cognitive theories These have led to new knowledge 5 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  6. 6. No single theory is sufficient Three cognitive theories are needed - at least - To explain social and communication problems – E.g. Mind blindness To explain everyday coping problems – E.g. Executive dysfunction To explain cognitive strengths – E.g. Weak central coherence 6 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  7. 7. Deficits in Social Cognition are a Core Feature of Autism One hypothesis explains many of the problems in communication and social interaction that are obvious from the second year of life Poor mentalizing ability A missing capacity due to specific brain abnormality • Affecting the intuitive ability to “read minds” • Leaving intact other social capacities 7 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  8. 8. Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith, 1985: Sally-Anne test 8 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  9. 9. 9 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  10. 10. Sally (mistakenly) thinks her marble is in the basket Autistic children typically fail this test 10 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  11. 11. Able autistic people can learn to read other minds but subtle problems persist Klin, 2000; Abell et al. 2000; Castelli et al. 2002 Example: Heider & Simmer effect We are often compelled to attribute mental states to animated shapes Two triangles interacting together vs Two triangles just floating 11 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  12. 12. Revealing components of the brain’s mentalising system compared with Brain activity while watching interacting triangles 12 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 Brain activity while watching randomly moving triangles Comparison shows extra activity when we see interactions and mentalise Where?
  13. 13. QuickTime™ and a Animation decompressor are needed to see this picture. 13 Uta FCritho mKaena ozauwt aa Snedp tepmlabye r- 2 i0t0’s7 nice out here.
  14. 14. QuickTime™ and a Animation decompressor are needed to see this picture. 14 Uta Frith Kanazawa September Animation that does not invite me2n00ta7 lising drifting…floating…
  15. 15. Mentalising system Superior temporal sulcus 15 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 Castelli et al., 2000 Medial prefrontal cortex Basal temporal, periamygdaloid Basal temporal
  16. 16. Mentalising system in the autistic brain Reduced activation Weak connectivity between components 16 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  17. 17. Brain activity associated with mentalizing in normal and autistic Ss 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 R. extra-striate R. basal temporal R. STS R. medial prefrontal 17 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 medial STS prefrontal Inferior V3 LO temporal 10 autistic 10 control Castelli et al 2002 TP/ amygdala In autism reduced connectivity between V3 and anterior regions
  18. 18. What about reading own mind? Many people with autism say • they cannot describe their own feelings Why? • Do they not have the feelings? • Are they not aware of the feelings? • Are they not aware of having feelings? 18 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  19. 19. Monitoring own feelings How does the picture make you feel? Pleasant - Neutral - Very unpleasant 19 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  20. 20. Being aware of having the feelings Monitoring inner feeling compared to picture colour Mentalizing system active Being aware of the feelings Introspecting on feeling evoked by unpleasant picture compared to feeling evoked by nice picture Anterior Insula active Actually having the feelings Looking at unpleasant picture compared to nice picture Amygdala - orbitofrontal system active 20 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  21. 21. Monitoring feelings - Mentalizing system active Reduced activation in autism 21 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 Difference between Controls and ASD
  22. 22. 22 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 MentS MentS MentS AntIns Amygdala Sel f Aware of having feelings Aware of feeling Just feeling
  23. 23. The non-social difficulties Executive functions • A range of higher-order control processes • Needed to act flexibly in novel or complex situations Poor executive control is associated with poor frontal lobe function and explains a range of problem behaviours in people with ASD 23 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  24. 24. Examples of executive function tests performed poorly by people with ASD Wisconsin Card sorting Tower of London Think about different dimensions for sorting Don’t perseverate 24 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 Plan several steps ahead Don’t forget the rules
  25. 25. What symptoms can be explained by executive function failure? Not being able to • inhibit no-longer-useful behaviour (perseveration) • respond flexibly in the face of change • plan ahead • monitor behaviour to check when goal is reached • hold in mind several things at once 25 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  26. 26. How to cope with poor executive control? • Give clear structure • Give constant prompts and reminders • Give outside support • Specific techniques – For routinising behaviour – For coping with novelty • Coping with anxiety Most intervention programmes are geared to alleviate executive function problems 26 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  27. 27. Cognitive strengths also need to be explained Weak central coherence Theory (WCC) attempts to explain • Fascination with small details • Superior perceptual discrimination • Savant skills 27 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  28. 28. Explaining the non-social features Weak central coherence • WCC an information processing style – tendency to process details at the expense of global meaning – opposite to strong central coherence where global precedes local • More likely in relatives of individuals with autism • Advantages when analytic skills are required • Disadvantages when overall meaning is crucial 28 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  29. 29. Embedded Figures Test 29 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  30. 30. Cognitive strengths in autism (A) Block Design subtest of the Wechsler intelligence test, (B) locating embedded figures, (C) copying impossible figures. (D) identifying target size in Ebbinghaus illusion. (E and F) Finding the odd-man-out in cluttered displays whether the target is defined by a single feature as in (E) or by a conjunction of features as in (F). (G) tolerating higher levels of noise in determining the orientation of luminance-defined sine-wave gratings. 30 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  31. 31. Weak central coherence can produce problems in everyday life A fragmentary world • Inability to use context to make sense of situation • Diminished top-down influences on perception Example: walk - don’t walk different actions can be required even with identical signal depending on context 31 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  32. 32. A common denominator for social and non-social symptoms of ASD? • No shared social world • No shared physical world • The cognitive system lacks some basic preferences • Information is processed without prior expectations – As if anything is possible • Perception does not use prediction no TOP and no TOP-DOWN MODULATION 32 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  33. 33. What is this? 33 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  34. 34. 34 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  35. 35. The same picture again: Obviously it is a cow ! 35 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  36. 36. Bottom-up vs Top-down in the Brain Two kinds of neural systems driving neurons: bottom-up input controlling neurons: top-down expectations In autism The two systems don’t connect well together Hence poor top-down modulation 36 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 TIFF (UQnucicokmTpimrees™sed a)n dde caompressor are needed to see this picture. What is meant by TOP-DOWN?
  37. 37. What happens in the brain during top-down modulation? 37 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  38. 38. Vuilleumier (2001) “Attend to vertical (horizontal) location” Geoff Bird, Caroline Catmur, Giorgia Silani, Uta Frith and Chris Frith (2003) Before picture flashes up 38 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 When expecting to see faces or houses in one of two locations, then activity in the is enhanced in the brain regions that process faces or houses: Parahippocampal Place area Fusiform Face area
  39. 39. 39 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007 (a) Attentional modulation of response in fusiform gyrus at x = - 42, y = - 80, z = - 12 0 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 Control Autistic Group % Signal Change (b) Attentional modulation of response in parahippocampal gyrus at x = - 26, y = - 46, z = - 12 0 1.6 1.4 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1 1.2 Control Autistic Group % Signal Change Evidence for lack of top-down modulation The difference in the response when attended and unattended Less modulation in Fusiform Face Area And in Parahippocampal Place Area in autism in autism
  40. 40. Evidence for lack of top-down modulation in mentalizing In autism • Visual areas detect mentalizing stimuli and process them in detail • but higher-level processes fail to interpret them 40 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  41. 41. A speculation about brain reorganisation in autism Cognitive deficits may reflect disconnections between driving and controlling neurons Disconnections may be a consequence of lack of appropriate pruning of re-entrant (backward) connections during the early years of life (Chris Frith, 2003) 41 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  42. 42. Causes of TOPMOD failure • Brain re-organisation may fail in first two years of life – Probably under genetic control • To test this we would need to study actual progress of brain reorganization in development • Ideally using longitudinal high-field scanning An exciting programme for the future 42 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  43. 43. Even more speculation… “The absent self” • High-order control system in the brain = self • Provocative idea: In autism - this self is absent or weak • The individual lacks awareness of this self and cannot reflect on own feelings • Analogy of absent chief executive of a big organisation – staff are working well and problems arise only in certain situations, e.g. when priorities have to be set. • Can be strength: basic level sensory processes may flourish and may dominate behaviour • Can be weakness: Basic level processes may overwhelm perception • Thus individual may suffer the fate of a feather in the storm of sensations 43 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007
  44. 44. Thanks to my colleagues and collaborators Francesca Happé, Chris Frith, Fulvia Castelli, Elisabeth Hill, Geoff Bird, Rachel Brindley, Giorgia Silani, Tania Singer and Sarah White Thanks to the MRC for funding this research 44 Uta Frith Kanazawa September 2007

×