KOTLER Mm.16.10

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KOTLER Mm.16.10

  1. 1. Marketing Management MBA CP 205 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi
  2. 2. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi
  3. 3. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications
  4. 4. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi <ul><li>Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Know what steps are involved in developing an advertising program. </li></ul><ul><li>Know how sales promotion decisions should be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what are the guidelines for effective brand-building events </li></ul><ul><li>and experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Know how companies can exploit the potential of public relations </li></ul><ul><li>and publicity. </li></ul>Managing Mass Communications
  5. 5. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Advertising
  6. 6. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications The five Ms of advertising
  7. 7. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Informative advertising Reminder advertising Reinforcement advertising Persuasive advertising Objectives of advertising
  8. 8. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Stage in the product life cycle Market share and consumer base Competition and clutter Advertising frequency Product substitutability Factors to consider in setting advertising budget
  9. 9. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Developing the advertising campaign Managing Mass Communications Message generation and evaluation Creative development and execution Social responsibility review
  10. 10. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>Positioning statement </li></ul><ul><li>Key message </li></ul><ul><li>Target market </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Key brand benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Brand promise </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of promise </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Creative considerations </li></ul>Creative brief
  11. 11. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Television <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Reaches broad spectrum of consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost per exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to demonstrate product use </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to portray image and brand personality </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Brief </li></ul><ul><li>Clutter </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of production </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of placement </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of attention by viewers </li></ul>
  12. 12. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Print ads <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed product information </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate user imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to segment </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Passive medium </li></ul><ul><li>Clutter </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to demonstrate product use </li></ul>
  13. 13. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Print ad components Headline Picture Signature Copy
  14. 14. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>Is the message clear at a glance? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the benefit in the headline? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the illustration support the headline? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the first line of the copy support or explain the headline and illustration? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the ad easy to read and follow? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the product easily identified? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the brand or sponsor clearly identified? </li></ul>Print ad evaluation criteria
  15. 15. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Choosing among major media types <ul><li>Target audience and media habits: Radio and TV are the most effective media for reaching teenagers. </li></ul><ul><li>Product characteristics: Media types have different potential for demonstration, visualization, explanation, believability and color. </li></ul><ul><li>Message characteristics: Timeliness and information content will influence media choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: TV ads are expensive while print ads are relatively inexpensive. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Major media types <ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Direct mail </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow pages </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>Brochures </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>
  17. 17. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Media selection <ul><li>It involve finding the most cost effective media to deliver the desired no. and type of exposures to the target audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Success in achieving advertising objective say product trial, depends on brand awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers need to find out no. of exposures required to produce sufficient level of brand awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of exposures on audience awareness depends on the exposures’ reach , frequency and impact . </li></ul>
  18. 18. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>Reach: The no. of different persons or households exposed to a particular media schedule at least once during a specified time period. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency: The number of times within the specified time period that an average person or household is exposed to the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: The qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Relationship among Trial, Awareness and the Exposure function
  20. 20. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Place advertising <ul><li>Billboards </li></ul><ul><li>Public spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Product placement </li></ul><ul><li>Point-of-purchase </li></ul>Measures of audience size <ul><li>Circulation: no. of physical units carrying the advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>Audience: no. of people exposed to the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective audience: no. people with target audience characteristics exposed to the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective ad-exposed audience: Above who actually saw the ad. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Media timing and allocation <ul><li>In choosing media, advertiser faces micro and macro-scheduling problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Macro-scheduling problem involves scheduling the ad w.r.t. to seasons and business cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-scheduling calls for allocating ad expenditures within a short period to obtain maximum impact. </li></ul><ul><li>The most effective pattern of advertising depends on product, target customers and distribution channels. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Classification of advertising timing patterns
  23. 23. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>The timing pattern should consider three factors: Buyer turnover , purchase frequency and forgetting rate . </li></ul><ul><li>Buyer turnover expresses the rate at which new buyers enter the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase frequency is the number of times during the period that the average buyer purchases the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting rate is the rate at which the buyer forgets the brand. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>In launching the new product the advertiser chooses among continuity , concentration, flighting and pulsing . </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity is achieved by scheduling exposures evenly throughout a given period. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration calls for spending all ad budget in a single period. </li></ul><ul><li>Flighting calls for advertising for a period followed by a period with no ad, followed by a second period of ad activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulsing is continuous advertising at low-weight levels reinforced by waves of heavier activity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Sales Promotion Collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade.
  26. 26. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Sales Promotion Tactics <ul><li>Consumer-directed </li></ul><ul><li>Samples </li></ul><ul><li>Coupons </li></ul><ul><li>Cash refund offers </li></ul><ul><li>Price offs </li></ul><ul><li>Premiums </li></ul><ul><li>Prizes </li></ul><ul><li>Patronage rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Free trials </li></ul><ul><li>Tie-in promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-directed </li></ul><ul><li>Price offs </li></ul><ul><li>Allowances </li></ul><ul><li>Free goods </li></ul><ul><li>Sales contests </li></ul><ul><li>Spiffs </li></ul><ul><li>Trade shows </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty advertising </li></ul>
  27. 27. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Establish objectives Select tools Develop program Pretest Implement and control Evaluate results Using Sales Promotions
  28. 28. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>To identify with a particular target market or life style. </li></ul><ul><li>To increase brand awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>To create or reinforce consumer perceptions of key brand image associations. </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance corporate image. </li></ul><ul><li>To create experiences and evoke feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>To express commitment to community. </li></ul><ul><li>To entertain key clients or reward employees. </li></ul><ul><li>To permit merchandising or promotional opportunities. </li></ul>Why Sponsor Events?
  29. 29. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications Public Relations Functions <ul><li>Press relations: Presenting news and info about company in positive light. </li></ul><ul><li>Product publicity: Sponsoring efforts to publicize specific products. </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate communications: Promoting understanding of the organization through internal and external communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbying: Dealing with government to promote or defeat legislation and regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling: Advising management about public issues and company positions and image during good and bad times. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>Assist in product launches. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in repositioning mature products. </li></ul><ul><li>Build interest in a product category. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence specific target groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Defend products. </li></ul><ul><li>Build corporate image. </li></ul>Marketing Public Relations Functions
  31. 31. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi Managing Mass Communications <ul><li>Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Events. </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorships. </li></ul><ul><li>News. </li></ul><ul><li>Speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Service Activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Media. </li></ul>Major tools in Marketing PR
  32. 32. 02/27/12 20:41 Prof. U.M. Amin, CMS, JMI University, New Delhi <ul><li>Recap: </li></ul><ul><li>What steps are involved in developing an advertising program. </li></ul><ul><li>How sales promotion decisions should be made. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the guidelines for effective brand-building events </li></ul><ul><li>and experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>How companies can exploit the potential of public relations </li></ul><ul><li>and publicity. </li></ul>Managing Mass Communications

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