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Exploring the Core ofExploring the Core of
Biblical FaithBiblical Faith
“A Catechetical Primer”“A Catechetical Primer”
IntroductionIntroduction
Q. What is the core-message of the Bible?Q. What is the core-message of the Bible?
GodGod
Jesus C...
Key insights:Key insights:
 HistoryHistory
 SalvationSalvation
 JusticeJustice
These do not constitute the entiretyThes...
The Bible . . .The Bible . . .
 Is not a book.Is not a book.
 It is a library.It is a library.
 A collection of books b...
Bible:Bible: Written product out ofWritten product out of
life, experience and faithlife, experience and faith
 The Bibli...
In touch with a Living FaithIn touch with a Living Faith
 The lived faith is much bigger andThe lived faith is much bigge...
Basic insights and core intuitions:Basic insights and core intuitions:
To read the Bible from a Third WorldTo read the Bib...
Why commitment to the oppressed andWhy commitment to the oppressed and
participation in the justice-struggleparticipation ...
What do we need?What do we need?
 OpennessOpenness andand willingnesswillingness to re-discoverto re-discover
the origina...
Bible, good news of life, justice andBible, good news of life, justice and
the kingdom for everyone who is inthe kingdom f...
Our help …Our help …
 It does not attempt to produce a biblically-basedIt does not attempt to produce a biblically-based
...
Our hope . . .Our hope . . .
 Will allow the authentic insights of biblical faith toWill allow the authentic insights of ...
What is the Bible really all about?What is the Bible really all about?
First and foremost about HISTORY.First and foremost...
The history stretches from…The history stretches from…
 The creation of heaven and earth inThe creation of heaven and ear...
There is no author or set of authorsThere is no author or set of authors
who tell the whole story . . .who tell the whole ...
The Bible then is …The Bible then is …
 NOT primarily a collection of a-NOT primarily a collection of a-
historical truth...
What kind of history does the BibleWhat kind of history does the Bible
speaks about?speaks about?
It is a “salvific histor...
What is salvation for the Bible then?What is salvation for the Bible then?
Our AverageOur Average
CatechesisCatechesis
Bib...
Salvation inSalvation in
this lifethis life
(here-and-(here-and-
now)now)
Our AverageOur Average
CatechesisCatechesis
Bibl...
Summary comment:Summary comment:
 For the Hebrew Scriptures, futureFor the Hebrew Scriptures, future
salvation means:salv...
b) In the Christian Scripturesb) In the Christian Scriptures
Lk 20:35Lk 20:35
But those who are accountedBut those who are...
But according to his promise we waitBut according to his promise we wait
for new heavens and new earth infor new heavens a...
The Basic Faith-The Basic Faith-
Statement of IsraelStatement of Israel
Part 1Part 1
Creed is a religion’s basic faith-statementCreed is a religion’s basic faith-statement
Q.Q. What is our official creed tod...
We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker ofWe believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of
heaven and earth,...
 Creed presents a story of salvationCreed presents a story of salvation
consisting of three phases:consisting of three ph...
Biblical Formulation:Biblical Formulation:
My father was a wandering Aramean, who wentMy father was a wandering Aramean, w...
‘‘Isang pagala-galang Arameo ng aming ninuno.Isang pagala-galang Arameo ng aming ninuno.
Maliit ang kanyang sambahayan nan...
The “articles of faith” that an Israelite confessed were the followingThe “articles of faith” that an Israelite confessed ...
Gen 47:5-12; Ex 1:1-7Gen 47:5-12; Ex 1:1-7
2. The first part of the sojourn in2. The first part of the sojourn in
Egypt, m...
Ex 1:8-14; 3:1-10; 15:1-19Ex 1:8-14; 3:1-10; 15:1-19
3. The struggle against their Egyptian3. The struggle against their E...
Deut 26:5-10Deut 26:5-10
4. Their formation into a community4. Their formation into a community
with their own legal code....
5. Their coming into possession of the5. Their coming into possession of the
land of Canaan. (“And bringing usland of Cana...
1
PATRIARCHAL MIGRATION
2
PROSPERITY IN EGYPT
5
ACQUIRING OF LAND
4
FORMATION OF A PEOPLE
3
LIBERATION FROM SLAVERY
The content of the Israelite act ofThe content of the Israelite act of
faith isfaith is events.events.
 Events or a serie...
Q. How can one characterize this history which theQ. How can one characterize this history which the
Israelite “creed” cel...
Q.Q. How did the Israelite faith look upon theseHow did the Israelite faith look upon these
saving event and this saving h...
EVENTSEVENTS
(in the area of human history(in the area of human history
SAVING DEEDS OF GODSAVING DEEDS OF GOD
(through th...
Q.Q. Besides the “creed”, are there other recitationsBesides the “creed”, are there other recitations
of salvation history...
Q.Q. What is “salvation history” in its mostWhat is “salvation history” in its most
comprehensive form?comprehensive form?...
Besides “history” and “salvation” another keyBesides “history” and “salvation” another key
reality in the Israelitereality...
JUSTICE is central to IsraeliteJUSTICE is central to Israelite
religion and its “creed”religion and its “creed”
 ““I am Y...
What’s the effect on their religiousWhat’s the effect on their religious
tradition?tradition?
 Given the centrality of th...
General ConclusionGeneral Conclusion
 The Israelite creed is a recitation ofThe Israelite creed is a recitation of histor...
The Prophets and TheirThe Prophets and Their
Hope for FutureHope for Future
SalvationSalvation
Part 2Part 2
The Prophets of IsraelThe Prophets of Israel
and their Messageand their Message
 Two aspects:Two aspects:
a. their messag...
Greater stress: prophetic hope forGreater stress: prophetic hope for
future salvationfuture salvation
 Prophets –Prophets...
How the prophets looked forward to that definitiveHow the prophets looked forward to that definitive
salvation in the futu...
Sample Case:Sample Case:
ISAIAH (8ISAIAH (8thth
century B.C.E.)century B.C.E.)
““Situationer” of the times of theSituatio...
Sinasabi ni Yahweh ang kanyang paratangSinasabi ni Yahweh ang kanyang paratang
laban sa matatanda at sa mga pinuno nglaban...
““Kawawa kayo na mga lagingKawawa kayo na mga laging
naghahangad ng maraming bahay atnaghahangad ng maraming bahay at
dagd...
The Leaders make unjust laws andThe Leaders make unjust laws and
issue oppressive decrees, which robissue oppressive decre...
Courts and judges are corrupt. TheCourts and judges are corrupt. The
rich can pay bribes. The innocentrich can pay bribes....
The rights of the weak and the defenselessThe rights of the weak and the defenseless
people –widows and the fatherless– ar...
Yahweh expected justice and right.Yahweh expected justice and right.
Instead he found blood and the cry ofInstead he found...
A picture of luxury and “consumerist”A picture of luxury and “consumerist”
consumption of the elite. The women-folk:consum...
The men-folk of the upper strata:The men-folk of the upper strata:
 Kawawa ang mga maagang bumangon atKawawa ang mga maag...
There is idolatry in the land, i.e. they worshipThere is idolatry in the land, i.e. they worship
god other than the “God o...
This was the historical context in which
Isaiah and the other prophets lived during
the period of the monarchy.
It was a s...
The Inter-TestamentalThe Inter-Testamental
HopeHope
Historical BackgroundHistorical Background
Inter-Testamental PeriodInter-Testamental Period
150 years or so years between...
 An important period:An important period:
 Palestine during these 1500-Palestine during these 1500-
200 years was a tax ...
Structure of Society (who controlled wealth andStructure of Society (who controlled wealth and
power and/or prestige in Pa...
From the writings of the periodFrom the writings of the period
 Various sectors of PalestinianVarious sectors of Palestin...
Who are apocalyptic writers?Who are apocalyptic writers?
 Within Jewish religious tradition,Within Jewish religious tradi...
Names given forNames given for final andfinal and
definitive salvationdefinitive salvation
A. Age-to-comeA. Age-to-come
B....
Age-to-comeAge-to-come
2 “ages” or epochs or eras:2 “ages” or epochs or eras:
 this agethis age -- the present evil-ridde...
Reign-Kingdom of GodReign-Kingdom of God
Kingdom - Hebrew word, “malkuth”Kingdom - Hebrew word, “malkuth”
a.a. Reign or ki...
New Heaven and New EarthNew Heaven and New Earth
Final salvation isFinal salvation is new heaven andnew heaven and
new ear...
 About total and integral salvation:About total and integral salvation:
joy, justice, harmony, peace,joy, justice, harmon...
etc MIGRATION
SOJOURNEXODUS
DAVID etcLAND
COVENANT
AGE-TO-COME
KINGDOM OF GOD
NEW HEAVEN/EARTH
CREATION
Summary LearningsSummary Learnings
 Israelite “Israelite “creedcreed” celebrated” celebrated great savinggreat saving
eve...
Summary LearningsSummary Learnings
 Prophets and inter-testamental writersProphets and inter-testamental writers, they, t...
Jesus and theJesus and the
First ChristiansFirst Christians
What about JESUS?What about JESUS?
 Continued the tradition in its broadContinued the tradition in its broad
perspectives...
 SalvationSalvation in terms of:in terms of:
- as kingdom (of justice) for the poor- as kingdom (of justice) for the poor...
Q. What was different from theQ. What was different from the
message of Jesus?message of Jesus?
 For the tradition - the ...
Message and Mission of JesusMessage and Mission of Jesus
 Starting point - Jesus proclaimed the theStarting point - Jesus...
And he we nt abo ut allG alile e ,And he we nt abo ut allG alile e , te achingte aching
in the ir synag o g ue s andin the...
Jesus’ first followers has theJesus’ first followers has the
same message to declare:same message to declare:
And he calle...
Reign-Kingdom of God: Concrete andReign-Kingdom of God: Concrete and
TangibleTangible
““As my father appointed a kingdom f...
Background for Understanding Jesus’Background for Understanding Jesus’
MinistryMinistry
1. The reign of Satan be destroyed...
2. One Isaianic image of the Time of2. One Isaianic image of the Time of
SalvationSalvation
Ho w be autifulupo n the m o u...
An Important Note on “Poor”An Important Note on “Poor”
 The Hebrew word ‘anawim’ orThe Hebrew word ‘anawim’ or
‘aniyyim’ ...
Complete listing of the ‘anawim-Complete listing of the ‘anawim-
aniyyim’ in the Book of Isaiahaniyyim’ in the Book of Isa...
Isaiah 35: 5-7Isaiah 35: 5-7
The n theThe n the eyes of theblindshall beeyes of theblindshall be
openedopened
and theand t...
Isaiah 29:18-21Isaiah 29:18-21
In that day theIn that day the deaf shallheardeaf shallhear
in the wo rds o f a bo o k;in t...
Isaiah 40:9Isaiah 40:9
Go up unto a high mountain,Go up unto a high mountain,
Zion, herald of glad tidings;Zion, herald of...
Isaiah 42: 1-4Isaiah 42: 1-4
Here is my servant whom I upholdHere is my servant whom I uphold
my chosen one with whom I am...
Isaiah 25: 8Isaiah 25: 8
They dead will live, their bodies shall rise.They dead will live, their bodies shall rise.
O dwel...
Picture of the Time of Final SalvationPicture of the Time of Final Salvation
1. Good news1. Good news
2. Coming of God’s r...
OT passages as “background” forOT passages as “background” for
key Gospel statementskey Gospel statements
…… Jesus came in...
Luke 6:20; Mt 11:5Luke 6:20; Mt 11:5
““BlessedBlessed are youare you poorpoor, for yours is the, for yours is the
kingdom ...
Whose poor? Really poor andWhose poor? Really poor and
oppressedoppressed
 ““Poor” -Poor” - ptochosptochos oror ptochoipt...
An example:An example:
““Go, sell what you have, and give toGo, sell what you have, and give to
thethe poorpoor . . .come ...
Good news ‘gospel’ to the poorGood news ‘gospel’ to the poor
consists . . .consists . . .
 Good news of theirGood news of...
Isaiah 61:1Isaiah 61:1
The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me,The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me,
because the Lord has a...
Luke 4: 18-19Luke 4: 18-19
The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me...
Matthew 11: 4-5Matthew 11: 4-5
““Go and tell John what youGo and tell John what you
hear and see: the blind receivehear an...
Death of Jesus: Historical CauseDeath of Jesus: Historical Cause
The Pharisees went out, and immediately heldThe Pharisees...
 ScribesScribes - learned teachers who had the expertise- learned teachers who had the expertise
to interpret their relig...
Who handed Jesus to beWho handed Jesus to be
killed?killed?
 It wasIt was people from this elitepeople from this elite --...
Lenski’s Model of Agrarian SocietyLenski’s Model of Agrarian Society
Upper ClassUpper Class (10% of the population)(10% of...
Lower Class (90% of the population)Lower Class (90% of the population)
- Peasant classPeasant class (majority of the popul...
Why Jesus was killed?Why Jesus was killed?
 The historical cause for his death were in someThe historical cause for his d...
Intensity of conflict and struggleIntensity of conflict and struggle
 ““Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!Woe...
 Pontio PilatoPontio Pilato
–““inflexible, merciless, obstinate”inflexible, merciless, obstinate”
–““So, the manner of Je...
Death of JESUS, whose historical causes were:
- his kingdom praxis
- mortal conflict with tradition, religion and
elite
wa...
THEOLOGY AND CATECHESIS- have long focused
on the atoning aspect of Jesus’
death to the near exclusion of
the historical r...
Typical Filipino thinking:
“Jesus came down to earth to die for me, to atone
for my sins. His cross gained merits for me s...
DO NOT LIMIT OUR UNDERSTANDING OF
JESUS’ DEATH:
For the HUMAN HISTORY of JESUS, HE DID NOT
set out on a mission “to die fo...
Jesus’ death was a death
because of the KINGDOM and its
JUSTICE, which was
subsequently understood as an
atoning death for...
Therefore, Jesus’ resurrection for the early
Christians is in one way or another
connected with the ‘kingdom or the new
wo...
JESUS’ RESURRECTION
is GOD’S ‘YES’ TO
JESUS AND HIS
(KINGDOM) WORK.
The great SALVIFIC EVENTS of FINAL SALVATION
are therefore, not jut the death (and resurrection)
of Jesus, as standard cat...
ANG HAMON NG EBANGHELYO
Ang hamon ng ebanghelyo para sa atin
Mahalin ang kapatid at sila’y kilalanin
Ngunit kung taos sa p...
Thank you!
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Short version core message of the bible

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Short version core message of the bible

  1. 1. Exploring the Core ofExploring the Core of Biblical FaithBiblical Faith “A Catechetical Primer”“A Catechetical Primer”
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction Q. What is the core-message of the Bible?Q. What is the core-message of the Bible? GodGod Jesus ChristJesus Christ SinSin GraceGrace LoveLove Promise and FulfillmentPromise and Fulfillment RedemptionRedemption Each of these belongs to the core message….Each of these belongs to the core message….
  3. 3. Key insights:Key insights:  HistoryHistory  SalvationSalvation  JusticeJustice These do not constitute the entiretyThese do not constitute the entirety of the core message, but withoutof the core message, but without them, the biblical message cannot bethem, the biblical message cannot be understood.understood.
  4. 4. The Bible . . .The Bible . . .  Is not a book.Is not a book.  It is a library.It is a library.  A collection of books by different authorsA collection of books by different authors who wrote with different purposes and forwho wrote with different purposes and for different readers in the span ofdifferent readers in the span of approximately 2000 years (approximatelyapproximately 2000 years (approximately 1500 BCE to 100 CE)1500 BCE to 100 CE)  Often within a given book there are, inOften within a given book there are, in turn, different layers of traditions.turn, different layers of traditions.
  5. 5. Bible:Bible: Written product out ofWritten product out of life, experience and faithlife, experience and faith  The Biblical people lived their religion withinThe Biblical people lived their religion within the drama of life long before there was athe drama of life long before there was a written Bible.written Bible.  From lived faith, some inspired writers putFrom lived faith, some inspired writers put together their traditions and wrote books = Oldtogether their traditions and wrote books = Old TestamentTestament  Early Christians lived out their faith in JesusEarly Christians lived out their faith in Jesus for about a generationfor about a generation  Some inspired writers like Paul and Mark, out ofSome inspired writers like Paul and Mark, out of the faith of the early Christian communities, beganthe faith of the early Christian communities, began to write literature which we not call the Newto write literature which we not call the New TestamentTestament
  6. 6. In touch with a Living FaithIn touch with a Living Faith  The lived faith is much bigger andThe lived faith is much bigger and more exciting than the written Bible,more exciting than the written Bible, as life is much bigger and moreas life is much bigger and more exciting than a book.exciting than a book. Attitude:Attitude:  When we “study the Bible” we shouldWhen we “study the Bible” we should really be in touch with the life andreally be in touch with the life and faith of our religious ancestors.faith of our religious ancestors.
  7. 7. Basic insights and core intuitions:Basic insights and core intuitions: To read the Bible from a Third WorldTo read the Bible from a Third World perspective, we nee the following:perspective, we nee the following:  Commitment to our fellow poor andCommitment to our fellow poor and oppressed brothers and sistersoppressed brothers and sisters 2. Participation for justice and full2. Participation for justice and full humanityhumanity
  8. 8. Why commitment to the oppressed andWhy commitment to the oppressed and participation in the justice-struggleparticipation in the justice-struggle 1. Biblical religion, in its most ancient and1. Biblical religion, in its most ancient and authentic form, was a religion that wasauthentic form, was a religion that was forcefully committed to the poor and oppressed.forcefully committed to the poor and oppressed. e.g. the centrality of the exodus event in thee.g. the centrality of the exodus event in the Hebrew Scriptures)Hebrew Scriptures) 2. At the bed-rock of biblical religion, both Hebrew2. At the bed-rock of biblical religion, both Hebrew and Christian, is the concern for full humanityand Christian, is the concern for full humanity and justice. e.g.the centrality of justice andand justice. e.g.the centrality of justice and liberation in the original mission of Jesus (Mtliberation in the original mission of Jesus (Mt 11:5; Lk 4:16-20)11:5; Lk 4:16-20)
  9. 9. What do we need?What do we need?  OpennessOpenness andand willingnesswillingness to re-discoverto re-discover the original and authentic message of thethe original and authentic message of the Bible.Bible.  This demandsThis demands couragecourage because one mustbecause one must be prepared to confront a disturbingbe prepared to confront a disturbing message.message. The Bible, much as it is a good news, is alsoThe Bible, much as it is a good news, is also a “hard saying.”a “hard saying.”
  10. 10. Bible, good news of life, justice andBible, good news of life, justice and the kingdom for everyone who is inthe kingdom for everyone who is in search of it…search of it… Also a “hard saying” for those whoAlso a “hard saying” for those who are not in search of justice, life,are not in search of justice, life, kingdom, or who, in their search,kingdom, or who, in their search, find out that they must go and sellfind out that they must go and sell what they have, give to the poor inwhat they have, give to the poor in order to come and follow Jesus.order to come and follow Jesus.
  11. 11. Our help …Our help …  It does not attempt to produce a biblically-basedIt does not attempt to produce a biblically-based Filipino theologyFilipino theology  Simply providesSimply provides help for re-discovering somehelp for re-discovering some of the authentic and basic insights of biblicalof the authentic and basic insights of biblical religion.religion.  Wants toWants to assistassist inin re-readingre-reading the Bible today.the Bible today. ‘‘re-reading’ taking a second look at the Scripturere-reading’ taking a second look at the Scripture and attempting to re-discover what it was tryingand attempting to re-discover what it was trying to say all along.to say all along.
  12. 12. Our hope . . .Our hope . . .  Will allow the authentic insights of biblical faith toWill allow the authentic insights of biblical faith to pronounce judgment on the way we live out faithpronounce judgment on the way we live out faith today.today.  The face of the biblical God that we will encounter inThe face of the biblical God that we will encounter in studying the Bible will have been familiar to many ofstudying the Bible will have been familiar to many of us, as a face we have encountered in the livingus, as a face we have encountered in the living history of our people.history of our people.  Help to win back into our catechesis and theology,Help to win back into our catechesis and theology, into our pastoral practices and spirituality theinto our pastoral practices and spirituality the following forgotten truths:following forgotten truths: 1. The dimension of history1. The dimension of history 2. The understanding of salvation as integral,2. The understanding of salvation as integral, 3. The passion for social justice3. The passion for social justice
  13. 13. What is the Bible really all about?What is the Bible really all about? First and foremost about HISTORY.First and foremost about HISTORY. The Bible’s most basic and over-The Bible’s most basic and over- arching “theme” is HISTORY.arching “theme” is HISTORY. - history of the Israelite people- history of the Israelite people (e.g. Gen 12-50, Exodus to Deuteronomy, 1 Samuel to(e.g. Gen 12-50, Exodus to Deuteronomy, 1 Samuel to 2Kings, Nehemiah and Ezra, the prophetic books as critical2Kings, Nehemiah and Ezra, the prophetic books as critical comments on Israelite history)comments on Israelite history) - history of humankind and of the- history of humankind and of the worldworld (e.g. Gen 1-11, Isaiah 40-66, Jewish Apocalyptic writings,(e.g. Gen 1-11, Isaiah 40-66, Jewish Apocalyptic writings, Romans, Ephesians, Revelations, the Kingdom-message ofRomans, Ephesians, Revelations, the Kingdom-message of the Gospels)the Gospels)
  14. 14. The history stretches from…The history stretches from…  The creation of heaven and earth inThe creation of heaven and earth in the beginningthe beginning (Gen 1-3)(Gen 1-3)  to the coming of a new heaven and ato the coming of a new heaven and a new earth at the end of this humannew earth at the end of this human historyhistory (Rev 21),(Rev 21),  and the center of this history is Jesusand the center of this history is Jesus Christ, his works, his death, hisChrist, his works, his death, his resurrection and his “coming again” inresurrection and his “coming again” in glory.glory.
  15. 15. There is no author or set of authorsThere is no author or set of authors who tell the whole story . . .who tell the whole story . . .  but the cumulative message of thebut the cumulative message of the Bible adds up to a message aboutBible adds up to a message about human history as seen through thehuman history as seen through the eyes of biblical faith.eyes of biblical faith.  The meaning of human history withThe meaning of human history with Jesus Christ in its center—this is theJesus Christ in its center—this is the most over-arching “theme: of themost over-arching “theme: of the entire biblical literature.entire biblical literature.
  16. 16. The Bible then is …The Bible then is …  NOT primarily a collection of a-NOT primarily a collection of a- historical truths to believe in, e.g. thehistorical truths to believe in, e.g. the Trinity, the divinity-humanity ofTrinity, the divinity-humanity of Jesus, etc.Jesus, etc.  NOT primarily a collection of moralNOT primarily a collection of moral laws to follow in order to find personallaws to follow in order to find personal salvationsalvation The Bible is largely…The Bible is largely…  ABOUT the history and the meaningABOUT the history and the meaning of historyof history
  17. 17. What kind of history does the BibleWhat kind of history does the Bible speaks about?speaks about? It is a “salvific history” or “history of salvation”It is a “salvific history” or “history of salvation” - history of salvation of Israel- history of salvation of Israel - of human kind (personally and collectively)- of human kind (personally and collectively) - of the world- of the world In effect: speaks about the drama of salvation,In effect: speaks about the drama of salvation, from the perspective of faith, beginning withfrom the perspective of faith, beginning with the creation of humankind and the world, andthe creation of humankind and the world, and concluding with the coming of the final andconcluding with the coming of the final and definitive kingdom of God at the close of ourdefinitive kingdom of God at the close of our present history.present history.
  18. 18. What is salvation for the Bible then?What is salvation for the Bible then? Our AverageOur Average CatechesisCatechesis Biblical UnderstandingBiblical Understanding Seeing God face toSeeing God face to faceface Fullness of life, resurrectionFullness of life, resurrection destruction of all evils,destruction of all evils, justice, joy, feasting, seeingjustice, joy, feasting, seeing God, Divine filiation,God, Divine filiation, transformation of all things,transformation of all things, God being all in allGod being all in all For the soulFor the soul For the totalFor the total tao,tao, for the human communityfor the human community For the whole of createdFor the whole of created realityreality In heavenIn heaven In a new world wit a newIn a new world wit a new historyhistory SalvationSalvation inin thethe here-afterhere-after
  19. 19. Salvation inSalvation in this lifethis life (here-and-(here-and- now)now) Our AverageOur Average CatechesisCatechesis BiblicalBiblical UnderstandingUnderstanding Sanctifying graceSanctifying grace Life-giving blessingsLife-giving blessings (health, justice,(health, justice, bread, rain,bread, rain, forgiveness of sin,forgiveness of sin, God’s Spirit in ourGod’s Spirit in our hearts)hearts) For the soulFor the soul For the people,For the people, Individually andIndividually and collectivelycollectively
  20. 20. Summary comment:Summary comment:  For the Hebrew Scriptures, futureFor the Hebrew Scriptures, future salvation means:salvation means: - the blessing of light (for the nation)the blessing of light (for the nation) - breaking of oppressionbreaking of oppression - cessation of warscessation of wars - JusticeJustice - RightRight - joy for a new Israel that willjoy for a new Israel that will experience a new history.experience a new history.
  21. 21. b) In the Christian Scripturesb) In the Christian Scriptures Lk 20:35Lk 20:35 But those who are accountedBut those who are accounted worthy to attain to that age andworthy to attain to that age and to the resurrection from the deadto the resurrection from the dead neither marry not are given inneither marry not are given in marriage . . .marriage . . . Explanation: “That age” refers to a new era orExplanation: “That age” refers to a new era or history where humankind will attain salvation.history where humankind will attain salvation. And in that future history, one of the blessings ofAnd in that future history, one of the blessings of salvation is the resurrection from death, i.e., thesalvation is the resurrection from death, i.e., the total person vanquishes death in a physicaltotal person vanquishes death in a physical resurrection.resurrection.
  22. 22. But according to his promise we waitBut according to his promise we wait for new heavens and new earth infor new heavens and new earth in which justice dwells (2 Pet 3:13)which justice dwells (2 Pet 3:13) Comment: Salvation in the hereafterComment: Salvation in the hereafter is a new creation in which justiceis a new creation in which justice dwells.dwells.
  23. 23. The Basic Faith-The Basic Faith- Statement of IsraelStatement of Israel Part 1Part 1
  24. 24. Creed is a religion’s basic faith-statementCreed is a religion’s basic faith-statement Q.Q. What is our official creed today?What is our official creed today? A.A. Either the so-called Apostolic CreedEither the so-called Apostolic Creed (composed sometime in the 4(composed sometime in the 4thth century AD) or the longer, Nicene-century AD) or the longer, Nicene- ConstantinopleConstantinople Creed (composed in 325 and 381Creed (composed in 325 and 381 AD)AD)
  25. 25. We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker ofWe believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible.heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son ofAnd in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, born of the Father before all ages, Light of Light,God, born of the Father before all ages, Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten, not made, of onetrue God of true God, begotten, not made, of one substance with the Father, through whom all thingssubstance with the Father, through whom all things were made. For us men and for our salvation He camewere made. For us men and for our salvation He came down from heaven, and became flesh from the Holydown from heaven, and became flesh from the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and was made man. ForSpirit and the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake too He was crucified under Pontius Pilate,our sake too He was crucified under Pontius Pilate, suffered and was buried. On the third day He rosesuffered and was buried. On the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures, He ascended intoagain according to the Scriptures, He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He shall come again in glory to judge the living and theHe shall come again in glory to judge the living and the dead; of his Kingdom there will be no end. And in thedead; of his Kingdom there will be no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceedsHoly Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and thefrom the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, who has spokenSon is worshipped and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets. And in one Holy Catholic andthrough the prophets. And in one Holy Catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for theapostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We expect the resurrection of theforgiveness of sins. We expect the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen.dead and the life of the world to come. Amen.
  26. 26.  Creed presents a story of salvationCreed presents a story of salvation consisting of three phases:consisting of three phases: - creation through the Father- creation through the Father - redemption through the Son- redemption through the Son - sanctification through the Holy Spirit- sanctification through the Holy Spirit ““Articles of Faith” are abstract, metaphysicalArticles of Faith” are abstract, metaphysical truthstruths e.g. trinity of persons in one divine nature,e.g. trinity of persons in one divine nature, the divinity of Christ and the divinity of thethe divinity of Christ and the divinity of the Holy spirit, the universality andHoly spirit, the universality and apostolicity of the Churchapostolicity of the Church
  27. 27. Biblical Formulation:Biblical Formulation: My father was a wandering Aramean, who wentMy father was a wandering Aramean, who went down to Egypt with a small household and liveddown to Egypt with a small household and lived there as an alien. But there he became a nation,there as an alien. But there he became a nation, great strong and numerous. When the Egyptiansgreat strong and numerous. When the Egyptians maltreated us and oppressed us, imposing hardmaltreated us and oppressed us, imposing hard labor upon us, we cried to the Lord, the God of ourlabor upon us, we cried to the Lord, the God of our fathers, and he heard our cry and saw ourfathers, and he heard our cry and saw our affliction, our toil and our oppression. He broughtaffliction, our toil and our oppression. He brought us out to Egypt with his strong hand andus out to Egypt with his strong hand and outstretched arms, with terrifying power, withoutstretched arms, with terrifying power, with signs and wonders; and bringing us into thissigns and wonders; and bringing us into this country, he gave us this land flowing with milk andcountry, he gave us this land flowing with milk and honey. (Therefore I have now brought you thehoney. (Therefore I have now brought you the first fruits of the products of the soil which you, Ofirst fruits of the products of the soil which you, O Lord, have given me.)Lord, have given me.) Dt 26:5-10Dt 26:5-10
  28. 28. ‘‘Isang pagala-galang Arameo ng aming ninuno.Isang pagala-galang Arameo ng aming ninuno. Maliit ang kanyang sambahayan nang magpunta silaMaliit ang kanyang sambahayan nang magpunta sila sa Egipto upang doon makipamayan. Ngunitsa Egipto upang doon makipamayan. Ngunit dumating ang panahon na ang angkan niya’y nagingdumating ang panahon na ang angkan niya’y naging malaki at makapangyarihang bansa. Hindi mabutimalaki at makapangyarihang bansa. Hindi mabuti ang ginawang pakikitungo sa amin ng mga Egipcio.ang ginawang pakikitungo sa amin ng mga Egipcio. Pinahirapan nila kami at inalipin. Kaya, dumulogPinahirapan nila kami at inalipin. Kaya, dumulog kami sa inyo Yahweh, diyos ng aming mga ninuno.kami sa inyo Yahweh, diyos ng aming mga ninuno. At dininig ninyo kami. Nakita ninyo ang amingAt dininig ninyo kami. Nakita ninyo ang aming pagdurusa, ang kahirapan at kaapihang dinaranas.pagdurusa, ang kahirapan at kaapihang dinaranas. Sa pamamagitan ng inyong kapangyarihan, ng mgaSa pamamagitan ng inyong kapangyarihan, ng mga kakila-kilabot na gawa at mga kababalaghan, inialiskakila-kilabot na gawa at mga kababalaghan, inialis ninyo kami sa Egipto at dinala sa lupaing itongninyo kami sa Egipto at dinala sa lupaing itong sagana sa lahat ng bagay. Kaya, narito ang unangsagana sa lahat ng bagay. Kaya, narito ang unang bunga ng aming mga panananim sa lupaing ibinigaybunga ng aming mga panananim sa lupaing ibinigay mo sa amin.’mo sa amin.’ Deut 26: 5-10Deut 26: 5-10
  29. 29. The “articles of faith” that an Israelite confessed were the followingThe “articles of faith” that an Israelite confessed were the following great events in their people’s history, particularly those eventsgreat events in their people’s history, particularly those events associated with the founding of their people and nation:associated with the founding of their people and nation: 1.1. The migration of the patriarch (s),The migration of the patriarch (s), Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, fromAbraham, Isaac and Jacob, from Mesopotamia and Aram to CanaanMesopotamia and Aram to Canaan and Egypt. (Gen 12:1-5; 15:1-7)and Egypt. (Gen 12:1-5; 15:1-7) ““My father was a wanderingMy father was a wandering Aramean, who went down toAramean, who went down to Egypt . . .”Egypt . . .”
  30. 30. Gen 47:5-12; Ex 1:1-7Gen 47:5-12; Ex 1:1-7 2. The first part of the sojourn in2. The first part of the sojourn in Egypt, marked with prosperity andEgypt, marked with prosperity and peace, under the leadership ofpeace, under the leadership of Joseph, (“…and lived there as anJoseph, (“…and lived there as an alien. But there he became a nation,alien. But there he became a nation, great strong and numerous."great strong and numerous."
  31. 31. Ex 1:8-14; 3:1-10; 15:1-19Ex 1:8-14; 3:1-10; 15:1-19 3. The struggle against their Egyptian3. The struggle against their Egyptian oppressors and their liberation from slavery.oppressors and their liberation from slavery. (“When the Egyptians maltreated us and(“When the Egyptians maltreated us and oppressed us, imposing hard labor upon us,oppressed us, imposing hard labor upon us, we cried to the Lord, the God of our fathers,we cried to the Lord, the God of our fathers, and he heard our cry and saw our affliction,and he heard our cry and saw our affliction, our toil and our oppression. He brought usour toil and our oppression. He brought us out of Egypt with his strong hand andout of Egypt with his strong hand and outstretched arm, with terrifying power, withoutstretched arm, with terrifying power, with signs and wonders.”)signs and wonders.”)
  32. 32. Deut 26:5-10Deut 26:5-10 4. Their formation into a community4. Their formation into a community with their own legal code. This eventwith their own legal code. This event is called the “covenant” with Yahweh,is called the “covenant” with Yahweh, by which Israel becomes God’sby which Israel becomes God’s people, with whom God has formedpeople, with whom God has formed as alliance or covenant, and onas alliance or covenant, and on whom God’s statutes and ordinanceswhom God’s statutes and ordinances are binding.are binding.
  33. 33. 5. Their coming into possession of the5. Their coming into possession of the land of Canaan. (“And bringing usland of Canaan. (“And bringing us into this country, he gave us thisinto this country, he gave us this land flowing with milk and honey.”)land flowing with milk and honey.”)
  34. 34. 1 PATRIARCHAL MIGRATION 2 PROSPERITY IN EGYPT 5 ACQUIRING OF LAND 4 FORMATION OF A PEOPLE 3 LIBERATION FROM SLAVERY
  35. 35. The content of the Israelite act ofThe content of the Israelite act of faith isfaith is events.events.  Events or a series of events make up theEvents or a series of events make up the stuff out of which their “creed” is made.stuff out of which their “creed” is made.  In their “creed” they celebrated eventsIn their “creed” they celebrated events -- socialsocial -- politicalpolitical -- economiceconomic -- religious happeningsreligious happenings ““Creed” was about history, not abstract a-Creed” was about history, not abstract a- historical truths.historical truths.
  36. 36. Q. How can one characterize this history which theQ. How can one characterize this history which the Israelite “creed” celebrated?Israelite “creed” celebrated?  It is a salvific history or history ofIt is a salvific history or history of salvation.salvation. The migration, properity, exodusThe migration, properity, exodus from Egypt, formation of the peoplefrom Egypt, formation of the people and acquisition of the land . . . theand acquisition of the land . . . the Israelites celebratedIsraelites celebrated saving eventssaving events andand saving history.saving history.
  37. 37. Q.Q. How did the Israelite faith look upon theseHow did the Israelite faith look upon these saving event and this saving history?saving event and this saving history?  From theFrom the point of view of faithpoint of view of faith, as, as God’s saving actionsGod’s saving actions their people’stheir people’s history.history.  The saving events of their historyThe saving events of their history were God’s saving deeds.were God’s saving deeds.
  38. 38. EVENTSEVENTS (in the area of human history(in the area of human history SAVING DEEDS OF GODSAVING DEEDS OF GOD (through the eyes of faith(through the eyes of faith  Patriarch’s MigrationPatriarch’s Migration  Peace and prosperity inPeace and prosperity in EgyptEgypt  Escape or revolt of liberationEscape or revolt of liberation  Formation into aFormation into a community withcommunity with their own legal codetheir own legal code  Their possession of the landTheir possession of the land God’s call and God’s promiseGod’s call and God’s promise of land, children and blessingof land, children and blessing God’s protection andGod’s protection and guidanceguidance God’s act of liberation with aGod’s act of liberation with a mighty hand and outstretchedmighty hand and outstretched arm, with signs and wondersarm, with signs and wonders CovenantCovenant with Yahweh: “I amwith Yahweh: “I am your God and you are myyour God and you are my people.”people.” ““God gave us this landGod gave us this land flowing with milk and honey.”flowing with milk and honey.”
  39. 39. Q.Q. Besides the “creed”, are there other recitationsBesides the “creed”, are there other recitations of salvation history?of salvation history? YES: - Psalm 135YES: - Psalm 135 - Davidic era – Psalm 78: 67 ff- Davidic era – Psalm 78: 67 ff - Creation of the world and- Creation of the world and humanityhumanity (e.g. Psalm 136; Neh 9:66ff;(e.g. Psalm 136; Neh 9:66ff; SirSir 42:15-50:31; Acts 7:1ff))42:15-50:31; Acts 7:1ff)) - Final saving event in the future- Final saving event in the future andand the final Kingdom of Godthe final Kingdom of God
  40. 40. Q.Q. What is “salvation history” in its mostWhat is “salvation history” in its most comprehensive form?comprehensive form?  History of humankind from creation in theHistory of humankind from creation in the past to the final kingdom of God in thepast to the final kingdom of God in the future between Gen 1:1 and Rev. 211-future between Gen 1:1 and Rev. 211- 22.22.  Key realities in Israel’s “creed”Key realities in Israel’s “creed” - history- history - salvation: blessing that bring integral life- salvation: blessing that bring integral life (not just grace or beatific vision) to the total(not just grace or beatific vision) to the total tao and the community (not just to the soul)tao and the community (not just to the soul)
  41. 41. Besides “history” and “salvation” another keyBesides “history” and “salvation” another key reality in the Israelitereality in the Israelite “creed” is “JUSTICE”“creed” is “JUSTICE”  The most important event in the “OldThe most important event in the “Old Testament” is anTestament” is an event of liberation andevent of liberation and justice.justice. -- testimony of the whole range of Hebrewtestimony of the whole range of Hebrew biblical literaturebiblical literature - the Bible: different authors, different- the Bible: different authors, different layers of religious traditions, coming fromlayers of religious traditions, coming from different periods = EXODUS –different periods = EXODUS – the eventthe event ofof national historynational history
  42. 42. JUSTICE is central to IsraeliteJUSTICE is central to Israelite religion and its “creed”religion and its “creed”  ““I am Yahweh, who brought you out ofI am Yahweh, who brought you out of Egypt.” (e.g. Ex 20:2; Lev 25:38)Egypt.” (e.g. Ex 20:2; Lev 25:38) The Israelite must believe first andThe Israelite must believe first and foremost that God “delivered his peopleforemost that God “delivered his people out of the slavery of Egypt.”out of the slavery of Egypt.” The most primitive article of faith is aboutThe most primitive article of faith is about JUSTICE and a GOD of JUSTICE.JUSTICE and a GOD of JUSTICE.
  43. 43. What’s the effect on their religiousWhat’s the effect on their religious tradition?tradition?  Given the centrality of the exodusGiven the centrality of the exodus and justice, the spirit of exodus andand justice, the spirit of exodus and justice pervades in the literature,justice pervades in the literature, prayers, psalms, poems, propheciesprayers, psalms, poems, prophecies and laws of this religious tradition.and laws of this religious tradition. e.g. Ex 22:21-24e.g. Ex 22:21-24
  44. 44. General ConclusionGeneral Conclusion  The Israelite creed is a recitation ofThe Israelite creed is a recitation of history.history. It is aIt is a proclamation of the great saving deeds of Yahweh in theproclamation of the great saving deeds of Yahweh in the event’s of Israel’s history. It isevent’s of Israel’s history. It is salvation history.salvation history.  SalvationSalvation here meanshere means promise of land, children andpromise of land, children and blessing; peace and prosperity; justice and deliveranceblessing; peace and prosperity; justice and deliverance from slavery; covenant with God; possession of land;from slavery; covenant with God; possession of land; these arethese are life blessingslife blessings for thefor the taotao andand people.people.  In this recitation of saving history, the exodus, which isIn this recitation of saving history, the exodus, which is an experience of justice and liberation of oppressedan experience of justice and liberation of oppressed slaves, is the principal event.slaves, is the principal event.
  45. 45. The Prophets and TheirThe Prophets and Their Hope for FutureHope for Future SalvationSalvation Part 2Part 2
  46. 46. The Prophets of IsraelThe Prophets of Israel and their Messageand their Message  Two aspects:Two aspects: a. their message regarding thea. their message regarding the presentpresent b. Their message regarding theb. Their message regarding the futurefuture
  47. 47. Greater stress: prophetic hope forGreater stress: prophetic hope for future salvationfuture salvation  Prophets –Prophets – initiated a hope for futureinitiated a hope for future saving event,saving event, - a future saving deed of- a future saving deed of GodGod The hope for a final, definitive futureThe hope for a final, definitive future salvation (“eschatology”) startedsalvation (“eschatology”) started with the prophets.with the prophets.
  48. 48. How the prophets looked forward to that definitiveHow the prophets looked forward to that definitive salvation in the future?salvation in the future?  Pictured in terms ofPictured in terms of - a new history- a new history - where salvation was total and- where salvation was total and integralintegral - justice was a vital component- justice was a vital component
  49. 49. Sample Case:Sample Case: ISAIAH (8ISAIAH (8thth century B.C.E.)century B.C.E.) ““Situationer” of the times of theSituationer” of the times of the prophetsprophets e.g. Isaiah chapters 1-5;e.g. Isaiah chapters 1-5; Amos 1:4-11; 8:4-6;Amos 1:4-11; 8:4-6; chapters 3-6chapters 3-6
  50. 50. Sinasabi ni Yahweh ang kanyang paratangSinasabi ni Yahweh ang kanyang paratang laban sa matatanda at sa mga pinuno nglaban sa matatanda at sa mga pinuno ng bayan:bayan: ““Kayo ang naninira ng ubasan, ang laman ngKayo ang naninira ng ubasan, ang laman ng inyong bahay ay puro nakaw sa mahihirap:inyong bahay ay puro nakaw sa mahihirap: Bakit ninyo inaapi ang aking bayan at sinisikilBakit ninyo inaapi ang aking bayan at sinisikil ang mahihirap?”ang mahihirap?” (Isa 3:14)(Isa 3:14) Society where heads of the noble families and theSociety where heads of the noble families and the princess amass wealth by looting the fields of theprincess amass wealth by looting the fields of the poor and stock their mansions with the producepoor and stock their mansions with the produce from the labor of the poor.from the labor of the poor.
  51. 51. ““Kawawa kayo na mga lagingKawawa kayo na mga laging naghahangad ng maraming bahay atnaghahangad ng maraming bahay at dagdag na bukirin hanggang sadagdag na bukirin hanggang sa makuha ang lahat ng lupain.”makuha ang lahat ng lupain.” (Isa 5:8)(Isa 5:8) The rich expropriate the lands of the indebtedThe rich expropriate the lands of the indebted poor and thus multiply their mansions andpoor and thus multiply their mansions and lands until the whole countryside is theirs alonelands until the whole countryside is theirs alone
  52. 52. The Leaders make unjust laws andThe Leaders make unjust laws and issue oppressive decrees, which robissue oppressive decrees, which rob the poor of justice.the poor of justice. ““Kawawa ang mga gumagawa ng diKawawa ang mga gumagawa ng di makatarungang batas at ang mgamakatarungang batas at ang mga nagbibigay ng maling kautusan. Pagkatnagbibigay ng maling kautusan. Pagkat iyan ang nagkakait ng katarungan sa mgaiyan ang nagkakait ng katarungan sa mga api at nag-aalis ng karapatan saapi at nag-aalis ng karapatan sa mahihirap. Kawawa ang mgamahihirap. Kawawa ang mga nagsasamantala sa mga babaing balo atnagsasamantala sa mga babaing balo at sa mga ulila”sa mga ulila” (Isa 10:1 -2)(Isa 10:1 -2)
  53. 53. Courts and judges are corrupt. TheCourts and judges are corrupt. The rich can pay bribes. The innocentrich can pay bribes. The innocent poor is deprived of their right.poor is deprived of their right. (Kawawa kayo) pinakakawalan ang may(Kawawa kayo) pinakakawalan ang may kasalanan nang dahil sa suhol at angkasalanan nang dahil sa suhol at ang katarunga’y ipinagkakait sa taongkatarunga’y ipinagkakait sa taong matuwid.”matuwid.” (Isa 5:23)(Isa 5:23)
  54. 54. The rights of the weak and the defenselessThe rights of the weak and the defenseless people –widows and the fatherless– arepeople –widows and the fatherless– are trampled upon and not defended.trampled upon and not defended.  Naging suwail ang inyong mga pinuno,Naging suwail ang inyong mga pinuno, kasabwat ng mga magnanakaw;kasabwat ng mga magnanakaw; matatakaw sa suhol at nanghihingi ngmatatakaw sa suhol at nanghihingi ng regalo; pinagkakaitan ng katarungan angregalo; pinagkakaitan ng katarungan ang ulila; walang malasakit sa mga balo.”ulila; walang malasakit sa mga balo.” (Isa 1:23)(Isa 1:23)
  55. 55. Yahweh expected justice and right.Yahweh expected justice and right. Instead he found blood and the cry ofInstead he found blood and the cry of the oppressed.the oppressed.  ““Ano’t nagumon ka sa kahalayan, lunsodAno’t nagumon ka sa kahalayan, lunsod na dating tapat, dati’y luklukan ngna dating tapat, dati’y luklukan ng katarungan!katarungan! (“justice” - misphat)!(“justice” - misphat)! Noon, angNoon, ang naghahari sa iyo’y ang katuwirannaghahari sa iyo’y ang katuwiran (“righteousness” -sedek)(“righteousness” -sedek),, ngayon, tirahan ka ngngayon, tirahan ka ng mga mamamatay-tao. (Isa 1:21)mga mamamatay-tao. (Isa 1:21)  And he (God) looked for justice (mishpat),And he (God) looked for justice (mishpat), but behold blodshed; for righteousnessbut behold blodshed; for righteousness (sedakah), but behod, a cry.(sedakah), but behod, a cry. (Isa 5:7)(Isa 5:7)
  56. 56. A picture of luxury and “consumerist”A picture of luxury and “consumerist” consumption of the elite. The women-folk:consumption of the elite. The women-folk:  At sinabi ni Yahweh, “Palalo antg mga anak naAt sinabi ni Yahweh, “Palalo antg mga anak na habae ng Jerusalem, matigas ang leeg, pasulyap-habae ng Jerusalem, matigas ang leeg, pasulyap- sulyap, pakendeng-kendeng kung lumakad,sulyap, pakendeng-kendeng kung lumakad, pinapakalansing pa ang mga pahiyas sa paa.”pinapakalansing pa ang mga pahiyas sa paa.” Dahil diyan, kakalbuhin sila ni Yahweh atDahil diyan, kakalbuhin sila ni Yahweh at iiwanang hubad. Sa araw na iyon, aalisin niiiwanang hubad. Sa araw na iyon, aalisin ni Yahweh ang mga pahiyas sa paa, ulo at leeg; angYahweh ang mga pahiyas sa paa, ulo at leeg; ang mga kuwintas, pulseras at bandana;ang mgamga kuwintas, pulseras at bandana;ang mga pahiyas sa buhok, braso, baywang, mga sisidlanpahiyas sa buhok, braso, baywang, mga sisidlan ng pabango at mga agimat; ang mga singsing atng pabango at mga agimat; ang mga singsing at pahiyas sa ilong, ang mamahaling damit, balabal,pahiyas sa ilong, ang mamahaling damit, balabal, kapa, pitaka; maninipis na bupanda, kasuutangkapa, pitaka; maninipis na bupanda, kasuutang lino, turbante, at belo.lino, turbante, at belo. (Isa 3:16-23)(Isa 3:16-23)
  57. 57. The men-folk of the upper strata:The men-folk of the upper strata:  Kawawa ang mga maagang bumangon atKawawa ang mga maagang bumangon at inumin agad ang kanilang habol;inumin agad ang kanilang habol; hanggang sa makalampas ang dapit-hanggang sa makalampas ang dapit- hapon alak pa ri’t alak yaong iniinom.hapon alak pa ri’t alak yaong iniinom. Tugtog ng kudyapi sa saliw ng alpa, tunogTugtog ng kudyapi sa saliw ng alpa, tunog ng tamburin at himig ng plauta, atng tamburin at himig ng plauta, at saganang alak ang libangan nila. Ginawasaganang alak ang libangan nila. Ginawa ni Yahweh’y hindi alintana.ni Yahweh’y hindi alintana. (Isa 5:11-12)(Isa 5:11-12)
  58. 58. There is idolatry in the land, i.e. they worshipThere is idolatry in the land, i.e. they worship god other than the “God of justice.”god other than the “God of justice.” (Isa 30:18)(Isa 30:18)  Puno ng diyus-diyusan ang kanilangPuno ng diyus-diyusan ang kanilang lupain. Sila’y lumuluhod sa idolong sila nalupain. Sila’y lumuluhod sa idolong sila na rin ang gumawa.rin ang gumawa. (Isa 2:8)(Isa 2:8)
  59. 59. This was the historical context in which Isaiah and the other prophets lived during the period of the monarchy. It was a society of idolatry and social injustice, oppression and exploitation.
  60. 60. The Inter-TestamentalThe Inter-Testamental HopeHope
  61. 61. Historical BackgroundHistorical Background Inter-Testamental PeriodInter-Testamental Period 150 years or so years between the end of the150 years or so years between the end of the Old Testament era (around 16 BC) and theOld Testament era (around 16 BC) and the beginning of the New Testament era (around 4beginning of the New Testament era (around 4 BC).BC). The life of the Jews and the teachings of theThe life of the Jews and the teachings of the Jewish teachers, especially the Apocalyptists,Jewish teachers, especially the Apocalyptists, provide the bridge between the Old Testamentprovide the bridge between the Old Testament and the New Testament.and the New Testament.
  62. 62.  An important period:An important period:  Palestine during these 1500-Palestine during these 1500- 200 years was a tax paying200 years was a tax paying colony of foreign empires.colony of foreign empires.  From 333 BC to 63 BC, theFrom 333 BC to 63 BC, the imperial power was Greece.imperial power was Greece.  From 63 BC onwards, it wasFrom 63 BC onwards, it was Rome.Rome.
  63. 63. Structure of Society (who controlled wealth andStructure of Society (who controlled wealth and power and/or prestige in Palestine andpower and/or prestige in Palestine and constituted the upper pyramid of societyconstituted the upper pyramid of society 1. Foreign Greeks and Romans,1. Foreign Greeks and Romans, particularly the officialsparticularly the officials 2. Native Jewish aristocracy*2. Native Jewish aristocracy* a. Landed gentrya. Landed gentry b. Big merchantsb. Big merchants c. High priestly castec. High priestly caste *often the same people, or at least, belonged to*often the same people, or at least, belonged to families that interlock with one another.families that interlock with one another.
  64. 64. From the writings of the periodFrom the writings of the period  Various sectors of PalestinianVarious sectors of Palestinian society groaned under thesociety groaned under the heavyheavy burdens of life: the oppression,burdens of life: the oppression, toil, injustice, suffering, pain,toil, injustice, suffering, pain, sorrow.sorrow.  Jewish teachers during the inter-Jewish teachers during the inter- testamental period, especially thetestamental period, especially the apocalyptistsapocalyptists looked for salvationlooked for salvation..  Like the prophets before, theyLike the prophets before, they spoke about thespoke about the coming of finalcoming of final and definitive salvationand definitive salvation..
  65. 65. Who are apocalyptic writers?Who are apocalyptic writers?  Within Jewish religious tradition,Within Jewish religious tradition, “apocalyptic“apocalyptic traditiontradition””  Use literary forms known asUse literary forms known as “apocalypse“apocalypse”, a”, a revelation of some secret knowledgerevelation of some secret knowledge, usually, usually about history and the final salvation of Israelabout history and the final salvation of Israel and the world with its lavishand the world with its lavish use of symbolsuse of symbols and images, many of them bizarreand images, many of them bizarre (e.g.(e.g. Revelation, the seven seals, the dragons, etc)Revelation, the seven seals, the dragons, etc)  Anonymous writersAnonymous writers of this kind ofof this kind of literature, used as “pen-names” the namesliterature, used as “pen-names” the names of great men of the past: Moses, Adam, theof great men of the past: Moses, Adam, the 12 Patriarchs, Enoch, etc.12 Patriarchs, Enoch, etc.
  66. 66. Names given forNames given for final andfinal and definitive salvationdefinitive salvation A. Age-to-comeA. Age-to-come B. Reign-kingdom of GodB. Reign-kingdom of God C. New heaven and new earthC. New heaven and new earth
  67. 67. Age-to-comeAge-to-come 2 “ages” or epochs or eras:2 “ages” or epochs or eras:  this agethis age -- the present evil-ridden era inthe present evil-ridden era in which they livedwhich they lived  thethe age-to-comeage-to-come -- future era of salvationfuture era of salvation which would come after the close of thiswhich would come after the close of this present age, i.e. after this present humanpresent age, i.e. after this present human history will have ended.history will have ended. Another history in which all evils andAnother history in which all evils and wickedness, sorrow, pain, perils,wickedness, sorrow, pain, perils, oppression would cease and whereoppression would cease and where there would be justice, joy and life.there would be justice, joy and life.
  68. 68. Reign-Kingdom of GodReign-Kingdom of God Kingdom - Hebrew word, “malkuth”Kingdom - Hebrew word, “malkuth” a.a. Reign or kingship, withReign or kingship, with kingdomkingdom impliedimplied (e.g. OT- Book of Daniel 2:1 “In the second year of the(e.g. OT- Book of Daniel 2:1 “In the second year of the malkuthmalkuth (=reign kingship)(=reign kingship) of Nebuchadnezzar, he had dreams . . .”of Nebuchadnezzar, he had dreams . . .” Mk 1:14-15 - Now after John was arrested, Jesus came intoMk 1:14-15 - Now after John was arrested, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of God, and saying “The time isGalilee, preaching the gospel of God, and saying “The time is fulfilled, and thefulfilled, and the kingdom of Godkingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believeis at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel.”in the gospel.” b.b. Kingdom,Kingdom, with reign orwith reign or kingshipkingship impliedimplied (e.g. Daniel 9:1 “…Darius… became king over the(e.g. Daniel 9:1 “…Darius… became king over the malkuth(=kingdom)malkuth(=kingdom) of the Chaldeans.”of the Chaldeans.” Mk 9:47 - “And if your eyes causes you to sin, pluck it out; it isMk 9:47 - “And if your eyes causes you to sin, pluck it out; it is better for you to enter thebetter for you to enter the kingdom of Godkingdom of God with one eye thanwith one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell.”with two eyes to be thrown into hell.”
  69. 69. New Heaven and New EarthNew Heaven and New Earth Final salvation isFinal salvation is new heaven andnew heaven and new earth,new earth, ““a new world”a new world” oror “new creation”“new creation” e.g.e.g. Book of EnochBook of Enoch Isa 65:17-25Isa 65:17-25 Jer 22:13Jer 22:13
  70. 70.  About total and integral salvation:About total and integral salvation: joy, justice, harmony, peace,joy, justice, harmony, peace, authentic prayer, God amongauthentic prayer, God among people.people.  Blessings are forBlessings are for flesh-and-bloodflesh-and-blood (transformed) people.(transformed) people.  JusticeJustice is written in big letters inis written in big letters in the story of this new world (Thethe story of this new world (The peasant plants. The peasantpeasant plants. The peasant eats.”)eats.”)
  71. 71. etc MIGRATION SOJOURNEXODUS DAVID etcLAND COVENANT AGE-TO-COME KINGDOM OF GOD NEW HEAVEN/EARTH CREATION
  72. 72. Summary LearningsSummary Learnings  Israelite “Israelite “creedcreed” celebrated” celebrated great savinggreat saving events, great saving deeds of Godevents, great saving deeds of God.. They celebratedThey celebrated historyhistory..  SalvationSalvation consisted of the concrete life-consisted of the concrete life- blessings for the Israelite and theblessings for the Israelite and the communitycommunity  ExodusExodus, a justice-liberation event, the, a justice-liberation event, the most important event in the historymost important event in the history  Israelite “creed” - history of salvation inIsraelite “creed” - history of salvation in which justice was central.which justice was central.
  73. 73. Summary LearningsSummary Learnings  Prophets and inter-testamental writersProphets and inter-testamental writers, they, they pointed to apointed to a future saving events, a futurefuture saving events, a future saving act of Godsaving act of God  Spoke ofSpoke of final and definitive salvationfinal and definitive salvation atat thethe culmination and climax of salvationculmination and climax of salvation historyhistory..  Inter-testamental writers called it:Inter-testamental writers called it: -- the age-to-comethe age-to-come - the kingdom of God- the kingdom of God - the new heaven and the new earth- the new heaven and the new earth
  74. 74. Jesus and theJesus and the First ChristiansFirst Christians
  75. 75. What about JESUS?What about JESUS?  Continued the tradition in its broadContinued the tradition in its broad perspectivesperspectives  He also differed from the tradition:He also differed from the tradition: - no attitude of vengeance against- no attitude of vengeance against Israel’sIsrael’s enemiesenemies - had different assessment of the laws of- had different assessment of the laws of purification in relation to thepurification in relation to the coming kingdom of Godcoming kingdom of God
  76. 76.  SalvationSalvation in terms of:in terms of: - as kingdom (of justice) for the poor- as kingdom (of justice) for the poor - laughter for those who mourn- laughter for those who mourn - food for the hungry- food for the hungry - the human person (not soul)- the human person (not soul) - seeing God,- seeing God, - being called sons and daughters of God.- being called sons and daughters of God. (Lk 6:20; Mt 5:3-10)(Lk 6:20; Mt 5:3-10)  Justice was at the heart of his teaching (MtJustice was at the heart of his teaching (Mt 23:23)23:23)  He announced --not “heaven” but theHe announced --not “heaven” but the ““kingdom of God/heaven.” (Mk 1:14-15)kingdom of God/heaven.” (Mk 1:14-15)
  77. 77. Q. What was different from theQ. What was different from the message of Jesus?message of Jesus?  For the tradition - the kingdom ofFor the tradition - the kingdom of God wasGod was still to come in the futurestill to come in the future  For Jesus - itFor Jesus - it had already begunhad already begun
  78. 78. Message and Mission of JesusMessage and Mission of Jesus  Starting point - Jesus proclaimed the theStarting point - Jesus proclaimed the the good news of the reign-kingdom of God:good news of the reign-kingdom of God: Jesus came into Galilee,Jesus came into Galilee, announcingannouncing the good news of Godthe good news of God, and saying,, and saying, ‘‘The time is fulfilled, and the reign-The time is fulfilled, and the reign- kingdom of Godkingdom of God is at hand.’is at hand.’ Mk 1:14-15Mk 1:14-15
  79. 79. And he we nt abo ut allG alile e ,And he we nt abo ut allG alile e , te achingte aching in the ir synag o g ue s andin the ir synag o g ue s and announcingannouncing thethe g o o d ne ws o f theg o o d ne ws o f the reign-kingdomreign-kingdomo f Go d.o f Go d. (Mt 4:17)(Mt 4:17) So o n afte rward he we nt o n thro ug hSo o n afte rward he we nt o n thro ug h citie s and villag e s,citie s and villag e s, announcingannouncing andand bring ing thebring ing the good news of the reign-good news of the reign- kingdomof Godkingdomof God.. (Lk 8:1)(Lk 8:1)
  80. 80. Jesus’ first followers has theJesus’ first followers has the same message to declare:same message to declare: And he calle d the twe lveAnd he calle d the twe lve to g e the r . . . and he he se ntto g e the r . . . and he he se nt the m o ut tothe m o ut to announce the reign-announce the reign- kingdomof Godkingdomof God.. (Lk 9:1-2; Mt 10:7)(Lk 9:1-2; Mt 10:7)
  81. 81. Reign-Kingdom of God: Concrete andReign-Kingdom of God: Concrete and TangibleTangible ““As my father appointed a kingdom for me, so do IAs my father appointed a kingdom for me, so do I appoint for you that you may eat and drink at myappoint for you that you may eat and drink at my tale in my kingdom, and sit on twelve thronestale in my kingdom, and sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” (Lk(Lk 22:29-30)22:29-30)  new world with new history in whichnew world with new history in which GodGod  God will exercise his definitive ruleGod will exercise his definitive rule  people will experience the definitivepeople will experience the definitive blessings of:blessings of:
  82. 82. Background for Understanding Jesus’Background for Understanding Jesus’ MinistryMinistry 1. The reign of Satan be destroyed by1. The reign of Satan be destroyed by the reign of Godthe reign of God ““If it is by the Spirit of God that IIf it is by the Spirit of God that I cast out demonscast out demons, then the, then the kingdom of God has come uponkingdom of God has come upon youyou.”.” (Mt 12:28)(Mt 12:28)
  83. 83. 2. One Isaianic image of the Time of2. One Isaianic image of the Time of SalvationSalvation Ho w be autifulupo n the m o untains are the fe e tHo w be autifulupo n the m o untains are the fe e t o f himo f him who bringwho bring glad tidingsglad tidings Anno uncing the pe ace , be aringAnno uncing the pe ace , be aring good newsgood news,, anno uncinganno uncing salvation,salvation, and saying to Je rusale m , “Yo urand saying to Je rusale m , “Yo ur God reigns!”God reigns!” (Isa 52:7)(Isa 52:7) TheThe ruah Spiritruah Spirit of the Lord God isof the Lord God is upon me,upon me,
  84. 84. An Important Note on “Poor”An Important Note on “Poor”  The Hebrew word ‘anawim’ orThe Hebrew word ‘anawim’ or ‘aniyyim’ ordinarily meant “poor‘aniyyim’ ordinarily meant “poor and oppressed, victims of theand oppressed, victims of the powerful and/or wealthy.”powerful and/or wealthy.”  The bottom-line meaning ofThe bottom-line meaning of ‘Anawim’ is “oppressed.”‘Anawim’ is “oppressed.”  In many Biblical texts, theIn many Biblical texts, the “oppressed” are in fact the“oppressed” are in fact the economically poor.economically poor.  ““Poor and oppressed” is ordinarilyPoor and oppressed” is ordinarily
  85. 85. Complete listing of the ‘anawim-Complete listing of the ‘anawim- aniyyim’ in the Book of Isaiahaniyyim’ in the Book of Isaiah  Isa 3:14, 15Isa 3:14, 15  Isa 10:2; 11:4Isa 10:2; 11:4  Isa 14:32; 22:16Isa 14:32; 22:16  Isa 16:6; 19:19Isa 16:6; 19:19  Isa 32:7; 41:17Isa 32:7; 41:17  Isa 51:21; 54:11Isa 51:21; 54:11  Isa 58:7; 61:1; 62:2Isa 58:7; 61:1; 62:2 Evidently, ‘poorand oppressed’ is the most appropriate translation in such passages.
  86. 86. Isaiah 35: 5-7Isaiah 35: 5-7 The n theThe n the eyes of theblindshall beeyes of theblindshall be openedopened and theand the ears of thedeaf unstoppedears of thedeaf unstopped and theand the tongueof thedumbsingtongueof thedumbsing fo r jo y.fo r jo y. Fo r wate rs shallbre ak fo rth in theFo r wate rs shallbre ak fo rth in the wilde rne ss,wilde rne ss, and stre am s in the de se rt;and stre am s in the de se rt; the burning sand shallbe co m e a po o l,the burning sand shallbe co m e a po o l,
  87. 87. Isaiah 29:18-21Isaiah 29:18-21 In that day theIn that day the deaf shallheardeaf shallhear in the wo rds o f a bo o k;in the wo rds o f a bo o k; And o ut o f the ir g lo o m and darkne ssAnd o ut o f the ir g lo o m and darkne ss thethe eyes of theblindshallsee.eyes of theblindshallsee. The ‘The ‘anawim’ willeverfindjoyanawim’ willeverfindjoyin the Lo rdin the Lo rd and theand the poorrejoicepoorrejoice in the Ho ly O ne o f Israe l.in the Ho ly O ne o f Israe l. Fo r the tyrant willbe no m o reFo r the tyrant willbe no m o re and the arro g ant willhave g o ne .and the arro g ant willhave g o ne . Allwho are ale rt to do e vilwillbe cut o ff,Allwho are ale rt to do e vilwillbe cut o ff, tho se who se m e re wo rd co nde m ns a m antho se who se m e re wo rd co nde m ns a m an Who e nsnare his de fe nde r at the g ate ,Who e nsnare his de fe nde r at the g ate , and le ave the just m an with an e m pty claim .and le ave the just m an with an e m pty claim .
  88. 88. Isaiah 40:9Isaiah 40:9 Go up unto a high mountain,Go up unto a high mountain, Zion, herald of glad tidings;Zion, herald of glad tidings; Cry out at the top of your voice.Cry out at the top of your voice. Jerusalem, herald of good news!Jerusalem, herald of good news! Fear not to cry outFear not to cry out and say to the cities of Judah:and say to the cities of Judah: Here is your GodHere is your God
  89. 89. Isaiah 42: 1-4Isaiah 42: 1-4 Here is my servant whom I upholdHere is my servant whom I uphold my chosen one with whom I am pleased,my chosen one with whom I am pleased, Upon whom I have put my Spirit;Upon whom I have put my Spirit; he shall bring forth justice to the nations,he shall bring forth justice to the nations, Not crying out, not shouting,Not crying out, not shouting, not making his voice heard in the street.not making his voice heard in the street. A bruised reed shall not breakA bruised reed shall not break and a smoldering wick he shall not quenchand a smoldering wick he shall not quench Until he establishes justice on the earth;Until he establishes justice on the earth; the coastlands will wait for his teaching.the coastlands will wait for his teaching.
  90. 90. Isaiah 25: 8Isaiah 25: 8 They dead will live, their bodies shall rise.They dead will live, their bodies shall rise. O dweller in the dust, awake and sing forO dweller in the dust, awake and sing for joy!joy!
  91. 91. Picture of the Time of Final SalvationPicture of the Time of Final Salvation 1. Good news1. Good news 2. Coming of God’s reign2. Coming of God’s reign 3. The blind seeing, deaf hearing, lame3. The blind seeing, deaf hearing, lame walking, dead returning to lifewalking, dead returning to life 4. Poor and oppressed receiving good news4. Poor and oppressed receiving good news of liberationof liberation 5. Justice to the earth and the nations5. Justice to the earth and the nations 6. The figure of a prophet anointed by the6. The figure of a prophet anointed by the ruahruah (spirit) of God(spirit) of God
  92. 92. OT passages as “background” forOT passages as “background” for key Gospel statementskey Gospel statements …… Jesus came into Galilee, announcing theJesus came into Galilee, announcing the good newsgood news ofof God, saying, “The time is fulfilled and theGod, saying, “The time is fulfilled and the reign of Godreign of God is atis at hand; repent, and believe in thehand; repent, and believe in the good newsgood news.”.” (Mk1:14-15)(Mk1:14-15) And Jesus answered them, “Go and tell John what you hearAnd Jesus answered them, “Go and tell John what you hear and see: the blindand see: the blind receive their sightreceive their sight and theand the lame walk,lame walk, lepers are cleansedlepers are cleansed and theand the deaf heardeaf hear, and the, and the dead aredead are raised upraised up, and the poor have, and the poor have good news announcedgood news announced toto them.”them.” (Mt(Mt 11: 4-5)11: 4-5)
  93. 93. Luke 6:20; Mt 11:5Luke 6:20; Mt 11:5 ““BlessedBlessed are youare you poorpoor, for yours is the, for yours is the kingdom of God.”kingdom of God.” Significant work of Jesus:Significant work of Jesus: PROCLAMING GOODPROCLAMING GOOD NEWS TO THE POOR,NEWS TO THE POOR, ‘ANAWIM’‘ANAWIM’ Lk4:18; Lk6:20Lk4:18; Lk6:20
  94. 94. Whose poor? Really poor andWhose poor? Really poor and oppressedoppressed  ““Poor” -Poor” - ptochosptochos oror ptochoiptochoi in Greekin Greek  Mt 11: 5 = Lk 7:22;Mt 11: 5 = Lk 7:22;  Mk 14:5-7 = Mt 26: 9-11;Mk 14:5-7 = Mt 26: 9-11;  Mk 10: 21 = Mt 19: 21 = Lk 18: 22;Mk 10: 21 = Mt 19: 21 = Lk 18: 22;  Lk 14: 13, 21; 16:20; 19:8; 21:3 =Lk 14: 13, 21; 16:20; 19:8; 21:3 = Mk 12:42;Mk 12:42;  Lk 6:20 = Mt 5:3Lk 6:20 = Mt 5:3
  95. 95. An example:An example: ““Go, sell what you have, and give toGo, sell what you have, and give to thethe poorpoor . . .come follow me.”. . .come follow me.” (Mk 10:21)(Mk 10:21) This ointment might have been soldThis ointment might have been sold for more than three hundred denarii,for more than three hundred denarii, and given to theand given to the poorpoor.. (Mk 14:5)(Mk 14:5)
  96. 96. Good news ‘gospel’ to the poorGood news ‘gospel’ to the poor consists . . .consists . . .  Good news of theirGood news of their liberation fromliberation from poverty and oppression.poverty and oppression.  It is theIt is the gospel of justice.gospel of justice.
  97. 97. Isaiah 61:1Isaiah 61:1 The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me,The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed mebecause the Lord has anointed me toto bring good tidings to the ‘anawim’bring good tidings to the ‘anawim’:: he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives,to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those whoand the opening of the prison to those who are bound;are bound; to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.
  98. 98. Luke 4: 18-19Luke 4: 18-19 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me tobecause he has anointed me to preachpreach good news to the poor.good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to theHe has sent me to proclaim release to the captivescaptives and recovering of sight to the blind,and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed,to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of theto proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.Lord.
  99. 99. Matthew 11: 4-5Matthew 11: 4-5 ““Go and tell John what youGo and tell John what you hear and see: the blind receivehear and see: the blind receive their sight and the lame walk,their sight and the lame walk, lepers are cleansed and thelepers are cleansed and the deaf hear, and the dead aredeaf hear, and the dead are raised, and theraised, and the poorhave goodpoorhave good news preachednews preached to them.”to them.”
  100. 100. Death of Jesus: Historical CauseDeath of Jesus: Historical Cause The Pharisees went out, and immediately heldThe Pharisees went out, and immediately held counsel with the Herodians against him, how tocounsel with the Herodians against him, how to destroy him.destroy him. Mk 3:6Mk 3:6 And they (the chief priests, scribes, and elders)And they (the chief priests, scribes, and elders) tried to arrest him, but feared the multitude.tried to arrest him, but feared the multitude. Mk 12:12Mk 12:12 It was now two days before the Passover and theIt was now two days before the Passover and the feast of the Unleavened Bread. And the chief priestsfeast of the Unleavened Bread. And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to arrest him byand the scribes were seeking how to arrest him by stealth, and kill him . . .stealth, and kill him . . . Mk 14: 1Mk 14: 1
  101. 101.  ScribesScribes - learned teachers who had the expertise- learned teachers who had the expertise to interpret their religious and culturalto interpret their religious and cultural heritageheritage  PhariseesPharisees - considered paragons of faithful- considered paragons of faithful religious observancereligious observance  HerodiansHerodians - courtiers and followers of the- courtiers and followers of the native king of Galilee, Herod Antipasnative king of Galilee, Herod Antipas  EldersElders - heads of wealthy land-owning families- heads of wealthy land-owning families  Chief PriestsChief Priests - came from the wealthy landed- came from the wealthy landed familiesfamilies  SanhedrinSanhedrin - highest Jewish political body,- highest Jewish political body, composed of elders, chief priests andcomposed of elders, chief priests and scribesscribes
  102. 102. Who handed Jesus to beWho handed Jesus to be killed?killed?  It wasIt was people from this elitepeople from this elite ---- intellectual, cultural, economic,intellectual, cultural, economic, political, religious -- that handedpolitical, religious -- that handed Jesus over to theJesus over to the RomansRomans to beto be killed.killed.
  103. 103. Lenski’s Model of Agrarian SocietyLenski’s Model of Agrarian Society Upper ClassUpper Class (10% of the population)(10% of the population) WealthWealth - Ruler* (Roman)Ruler* (Roman) - not less than half- not less than half - Governing Class*Governing Class* (Nobility and members of courts,(Nobility and members of courts, lesser officials)lesser officials) - Retainer ClassRetainer Class – (5% of the population composed of– (5% of the population composed of Scribes and bureaucrats, military personnel)Scribes and bureaucrats, military personnel) - Merchant ClassMerchant Class - Priestly ClassPriestly Class *less than 1% of the population*less than 1% of the population Ranks of privileged, allied with the governing class
  104. 104. Lower Class (90% of the population)Lower Class (90% of the population) - Peasant classPeasant class (majority of the population; the engine of(majority of the population; the engine of production; deprived of all the basic necessities in life;production; deprived of all the basic necessities in life; approx -70% of the population)approx -70% of the population) - Artisan classArtisan class (5% of the population; includes carpenter had(5% of the population; includes carpenter had low median income than the peasants; lacking land,low median income than the peasants; lacking land, could not rely oncould not rely on steady supply of food)steady supply of food) - Unclean and degraded classUnclean and degraded class (separated from(separated from the massthe mass of peasants and artisans by circumstances birthof peasants and artisans by circumstances birth or occupations such asor occupations such as prostitution; approx- 5%)prostitution; approx- 5%) - Expendable classExpendable class (5-10% of the populations; petty(5-10% of the populations; petty criminals,criminals, outlaws, beggars, underemployed itinerantoutlaws, beggars, underemployed itinerant workers ; forced to live solely byworkers ; forced to live solely by their wits or by charity)their wits or by charity)
  105. 105. Why Jesus was killed?Why Jesus was killed?  The historical cause for his death were in someThe historical cause for his death were in some way connected with his kingdom-proclamationway connected with his kingdom-proclamation and his kingdom-praxisand his kingdom-praxis  Praxis included the strong (counter) positions hePraxis included the strong (counter) positions he took with regard to the:took with regard to the: - sabbath (Mk 3: 1-6)- sabbath (Mk 3: 1-6) - purification laws (Mk 7: 1-23)- purification laws (Mk 7: 1-23) - justice (Mt 23:23)- justice (Mt 23:23) - poverty-riches (Lk 6:24; Mt 6:24)- poverty-riches (Lk 6:24; Mt 6:24) - especially, the temple (Mk 13:1-2)- especially, the temple (Mk 13:1-2)
  106. 106. Intensity of conflict and struggleIntensity of conflict and struggle  ““Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because you shut the kingdom of heaven againstbecause you shut the kingdom of heaven against me; for you neither enter yourselves, not allowme; for you neither enter yourselves, not allow those who would enter to go in.” (Mt 23:14)those who would enter to go in.” (Mt 23:14)  ““What will the owner of the vineyard (God) do? HeWhat will the owner of the vineyard (God) do? He will come and destroy the tenants (the chief priests,will come and destroy the tenants (the chief priests, elders, scribes), and give the vineyard to others.”elders, scribes), and give the vineyard to others.” (Mk 12:9)(Mk 12:9) So they sought to destroy him, heSo they sought to destroy him, he was executed!was executed!
  107. 107.  Pontio PilatoPontio Pilato –““inflexible, merciless, obstinate”inflexible, merciless, obstinate” –““So, the manner of Jesus’ death, theSo, the manner of Jesus’ death, the legal system in force, the officiallegal system in force, the official charge against Jesus, the type ofcharge against Jesus, the type of persons crucified along with him, allpersons crucified along with him, all point to the conclusion that thepoint to the conclusion that the ultimate legal and moralultimate legal and moral responsibility for Jesus’ death lay withresponsibility for Jesus’ death lay with the Roman prefect, Pontius Pilate”the Roman prefect, Pontius Pilate” (Daniel Harrington, SJ)(Daniel Harrington, SJ)
  108. 108. Death of JESUS, whose historical causes were: - his kingdom praxis - mortal conflict with tradition, religion and elite was then understood and interpreted as an atoning death for sin: NOT MADE BY JESUS HIMSELF NOT MADE BY EARLY CHRISTIANS who understood his death in the light of the suffering servant of Isaiah 53
  109. 109. THEOLOGY AND CATECHESIS- have long focused on the atoning aspect of Jesus’ death to the near exclusion of the historical reason of Jesus death Q. What is the effect of the “atoning aspect of Jesus death” to the Filipinos: as individual, as a community and as a nation?
  110. 110. Typical Filipino thinking: “Jesus came down to earth to die for me, to atone for my sins. His cross gained merits for me so that after death I may go to heaven. TRUE: The atoning death of Jesus is a sure tenet of our faith. And today, we rightly make the faith- inspired assertion: “JESUS DIED FOR ME AND MY SINS.”
  111. 111. DO NOT LIMIT OUR UNDERSTANDING OF JESUS’ DEATH: For the HUMAN HISTORY of JESUS, HE DID NOT set out on a mission “to die for sins.” He set out for mission “TO PROCLAIM THE KINGDOM AND ITS JUSTICE.” It was this PROCLAMATION in WORD and ACTION which drew Jesus into mortal conflict with the social, economic, political and religious elite of his time and brought him to his cross.
  112. 112. Jesus’ death was a death because of the KINGDOM and its JUSTICE, which was subsequently understood as an atoning death for sin. Actually, Jesus was “murdered,” a victim of political injustice of his time. In many cultures, people naturally speak of a man dying for others. Jewish culture, moreover, believed that a just man’s death could have an atoning values for sins.
  113. 113. Therefore, Jesus’ resurrection for the early Christians is in one way or another connected with the ‘kingdom or the new world.’ •A new world has begun; we have the first- born; we have the first fruits of that new world. •The risen Lord, as Spirit, is the seed and guarantee of our own resurrection in the kingdom.
  114. 114. JESUS’ RESURRECTION is GOD’S ‘YES’ TO JESUS AND HIS (KINGDOM) WORK.
  115. 115. The great SALVIFIC EVENTS of FINAL SALVATION are therefore, not jut the death (and resurrection) of Jesus, as standard catechesis would seem to have it. RATHER, THE GREAT SALVIFIC MOMENTS AND DEEDS ARE: 1. The MINISTRY 2. The DEATH 3. The RESURRECTION 4. The PAROUSIA Each related to the FINAL KINGDOM OR THE NEW WORLD
  116. 116. ANG HAMON NG EBANGHELYO Ang hamon ng ebanghelyo para sa atin Mahalin ang kapatid at sila’y kilalanin Ngunit kung taos sa puso ang pagserbisyo Tatahakin na daan ay duon patungong kalbaryo Koro: Di madali ang pagsunod kay Kristo Maraming tinik ang daang lalakbayin mo Mabigat ang krus, na papasanin mo At kamatayan ang siyang haharap sa iyo. Si Kristo mismo ang nagwika at nagpaalala Mag-ingat baka hulihin kayo mga kasama Hahantong kayo sa madilim na bilangguan At duon sya hahatulan ng maykapangyarihan (Koro)
  117. 117. Thank you!

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