<ul><li>That </li></ul><ul><li>was </li></ul><ul><li>the </li></ul><ul><li>work </li></ul><ul><li>Of </li></ul><ul><li>A R enaissance Man </li></ul>Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
St. Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel by Jerry Camarillo Dunn Jr. The front entrance to St. Peter's Basilica is an enormous piazza framed by two long, curving colonnades -- a design that symbolizes the arms of the Roman Catholic Church reaching out to embrace the faithful. The piazza can hold some 300,000 people with room to spare.
<ul><li>The facade of St. Peter's during a canonization </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Carlo Maderno, 1608-1614 116m wide, 53m high On February 10, 1608 the first stone was laid and on July 21, 1612 most of the work was completed. It took another two years for the ornamentattion. </li></ul><ul><li>The inscription (1m high) states: "Paul V Borghese, Roman, Pontiff, in the year 1612, the seventh of his pontificate, [erected] in honour of the Prince of Apostles". </li></ul><ul><li>From the central balcony, called the Loggia of the Blessings, the new pope is announced with "Habemus Papum", and gives the Urbi et Orbi blessing. The relief under the balcony, by Buonvicino, represents Christ giving the keys to St. Peter. </li></ul>
<ul><li>From there the crowds enter the basilica, whose sumptuously decorated interior sprawls under a towering dome designed by Michelangelo. The huge edifice, the worldwide center of the Roman Catholic faith, was erected on what is believed to be the site of the tomb of Saint Peter, replacing a ruined basilica built by Constantine in the fourth century. Work on the new building began in 1506 and continued for well over a century. </li></ul><ul><li>To prove that this is the "world's biggest church," the nave is laid with gilded bronze markers to indicate the lengths of other cathedrals. The interior extends 615 feet, with 11 chapels and 45 altars. </li></ul>
<ul><li>At the center of the church a canopy of gilded bronze, resting atop 66-foot-high spiraling columns, shelters the high altar where only the Pope may celebrate mass. Bernini designed the canopy -- a curlicued Baroque extravaganza. </li></ul><ul><li>A highlight among the basilica's artistic treasures, Michelangelo's Pietà is a heartbreakingly expressive portrayal of Mary with the lifeless body of Jesus draped across her lap. Michelangelo sculpted the marble statue when he was just 25 years old, and it was the only piece he ever signed. </li></ul>
Renaissance Architecture Compiled by Arch. Maria Mynn Porciuncula-Alfonso
No, it was not started by a magical fingers of Michalangelo
But , through the skillful hands of Brunelleshi In 1401, Brunelleschi entered a competition to design a new set of bronze doors for the baptistery in Florence. Along with another young goldsmith, Lorenzo Ghiberti , he produced a gilded bronze panel, depicting the Sacrifice of Isaac. His entry made reference to a classical statue, known as the 'thorn puller', whilst Ghiberti used a naked torso for his figure of Isaac. In 1403, Ghiberti was announced the victor, largely because of his superior technical skill: his panel showed a more sophisticated knowledge of bronze-casting; it was completed in one single piece. Brunelleschi's piece, by contrast, was comprised of numerous pieces bolted to the back plate. Ghiberti went on to complete a second set of bronze doors for the baptistery, whose beauty Michelangelo extolled a hundred years later, saying "surely these must be the " Gates of Paradise ."
Ghiberti first became famous when he won the 1401 competition for the first set of bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral in Florence. Brunelleschi was the runner up. The original plan was for the doors to depict scenes from the Old Testament , and the trial piece was the sacrifice of Isaac . However, the plan was changed to depict scenes from the New Testament , instead.
<ul><li>Filippo Brunelleschi </li></ul><ul><li>(b. Florence, Italy 1377; d. Florence, Italy 1446) </li></ul><ul><li>Filippo Brunelleschi was born in Florence in 1377. He began his training in Florence as an apprentice goldsmith, gaining status as a master in 1404. He was active as a sculptor for most of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Brunelleschi began his architectural career in 1404 when he acted as an advisor for the Santa Maria Novella, but his involvement with the cupola for the Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence marked his first foray as a practicing architect. He worked on this project off and on from 1417 until 1434. All of Brunelleschi's works indicate that he possessed inventiveness as both an engineer and as an architect. </li></ul><ul><li>Brunelleschi was the first architect to employ mathematical perspective to redefine Gothic and Romanesque space and to establish new rules of proportioning and symmetry. Although Brunelleschi was considered the main initiator of stylistic changes in Renaissance architecture, critics no longer consider him the "Father of the Renaissance". </li></ul><ul><li>Brunelleschi died in Florence in 1446. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Brunelleschi's design was based on both Italian Romanesque and late Gothic architecture . </li></ul><ul><li>The loggia was a well known building type, such as the Loggia dei Lanzi . </li></ul><ul><li>But the use of round columns with classically correct capitals , in this case of the Composite Order , in conjunction with a dosserets (or impost blocks) was novel. </li></ul><ul><li>So too, the circular arches and the segmented spherical domes behind them. </li></ul><ul><li>The architectural elements were also all articulated in grey stone and set off against the white of the walls. This motif came to be known as pietra serena (Italian: dark stone). </li></ul><ul><li>Also novel was the proportional logic. The heights of the columns, for example, was not arbitrary. If a horizontal line is drawn along the tops of the columns, a square is created out of the height of the column and the distance from one column to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>This desire for regularity and geometric order was to become an important element in Renaissance architecture .  </li></ul>
Few men have left a legacy as monumental as Filippo Brunelleschi. He was the first modern engineer and a problem-solver with unorthodox methods. He solved one of the greatest architectural puzzles and invented his way to success. Only now is he receiving deserved recognition as the greatest architect and engineer of the Renaisssance.
Soon other commissions came, the most important of which were the designs for the dome of the Cathedral of Florence (1419-1436) and the Sagrestia Vecchia , or Old Sacristy of S. Lorenzo (1421-1440).
<ul><li>The complex history of Santa Maria del Fiore need not be recounted except to state that by 1418 all that was left to finish was the dome . The problem was that when the building was designed in the previous century, no one had any idea about how such a dome was to be built, given that it was to be even larger than the Pantheon 's dome in Rome and that no dome of that size had been built since Antiquity. Because buttresses were forbidden by the city fathers, and clearly was impossible to obtain rafters for scaffolding long and strong enough (and in sufficient quantity) for the task, it was unclear how a dome of that size could be built, or just avoid collapse. It must be considered also that the stresses of compression were not clearly understood at the time, and the mortars used in the periods would only set after several days, keeping the strain on the scaffolding for a very long time. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1419, the Arte della Lana, the wool merchant’s guild, held a competition to solve the problem. The two main competitors were Ghiberti and Brunelleschi, with Brunelleschi winning and receiving the commission. </li></ul>
Dome Building <ul><li>As Brunelleschi began to build the dome, most people in Florence shook their heads and said it was impossible. There was no conceivable way to build a dome that size that would be self-supporting. Brunelleschi was undaunted, and his plans began to take form. </li></ul>
Dome Building Brunelleschi's design contained two shells for the dome , an inner shell made of a lightweight material, and an outer shell of heavier wind-resistant materials. By creating two domes, Brunelleschi solved the problem of weight during construction because workers could sit atop the inner shell to build the outer shell of the dome.
<ul><li>To support the dome Brunelleschi devised an ingenius ring and rib support from oak timbers. Although this type of support structure is common in modern engineering, his idea and understanding about the forces needed to sustain the dome was revolutionary. The rings hug both shells of the dome, and the supports run through them. Other than a few modifications to remove rotted wood, the supports still hold up the entire dome. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Another fear that a lot of people observing the construction had was how to actually get the bricks on the dome to stay up in the dome , and not fall to the ground during the construction. Once again, Brunelleschi had an ingenious idea that is common practice today, but revolutionary in its time. He created a herringbone pattern with the bricks that redirected the weight of the bricks outwards towards the dome's supports , instead of downwards to the floor. By observing carefully the curve of the dome as it took shape, Brunelleschi was able to place this bricks in key areas. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Brunelleschi’s first architectural commission was the Ospedale degli Innocenti (1419-ca.1445), or Foundling Hospital. Its long loggia would have been a rare sight in the tight and curving streets of Florence, not to mention its impressive arches, each about 8 m high . The building was dignified yet sober. There were no displays of fine marble and decorative inlays.  It was also the first building in Florence to make clear reference - in its columns and capitals - to classical antiquity . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Brunelleschi </li></ul><ul><li>Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence. </li></ul><ul><li>The person generally credited with bringing about the Renaissance view of architecture is Filippo Brunelleschi , (1377–1446).  The underlying feature of the work of Brunelleschi was "order". </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1400s Brunelleschi began to look at the world to see what the rules were that governed ones way of seeing. He observed that the way one sees regular structures such as the Baptistery of Florence and the tiled pavement surrounding it follows a mathematical order— linear perspective . </li></ul><ul><li>The buildings remaining among the ruins of ancient Rome appeared to respect a simple mathematical order in the way that Gothic buildings did not. One incontrovertible rule governed all Ancient Roman architecture —a semi-circular arch is exactly twice as wide as it is high. A fixed proportion with implications of such magnitude occurred nowhere in Gothic architecture . A Gothic pointed arch could be extended upwards or flattened to any proportion that suited the location. Arches of differing angles frequently occurred within the same structure. No set rules of proportion applied. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The dome of Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore . </li></ul><ul><li>From the observation of the architecture of Rome came a desire for symmetry and careful proportion in which the form and composition of the building as a whole and all its subsidiary details have fixed relationships, each section in proportion to the next, and the architectural features serving to define exactly what those rules of proportion are.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Besides accomplishments in architecture, Brunelleschi is also credited with inventing one-point linear perspective , revolutionized painting and allowed for naturalistic styles to develop as the Renaissance digressed from the stylized figures of medieval art. </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of linear perspective </li></ul><ul><li>The first known perspective picture was made by Brunelleschi in about 1415. His biographer, Antonio Manetti , described this famous experiment, in which Brunelleschi painted the Baptistery in Florence from the front gate of the unfinished cathedral. The painted panel was constructed with a hole at the vanishing point. It was observed from the unpainted side and the reflection of the image was viewed in a mirror through the hole, giving the illusion of depth. Unfortunately, the painted panel has since been lost.  Soon after, many Italian artists used linear perspective in their paintings. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Renaissance architecture </li></ul><ul><li>is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, in which there was a conscious revival and development of certain elements of Classical Greek and Roman thought and material culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The Renaissance style places emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>on symmetry , proportion , geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of Classical antiquity and in particular, the architecture of Ancient Rome , of which many examples remained. </li></ul><ul><li>Orderly arrangements of columns , pilasters and lintels , as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes , niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. </li></ul>
Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death. Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As the most important temple of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto.
<ul><li>Historiography </li></ul><ul><li>The word "Renaissance " derived from the term "la rinascita" (meaning re-birth) which first appeared in Giorgio Vasari 's Vite de' più eccellenti architetti , pittori , et scultori Italiani (The Lives of the Artists, 1550–68). </li></ul><ul><li>Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet , it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt , whose book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien 1860,  was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance. The folio of measured drawings Édifices de Rome moderne; ou, Recueil des palais, maisons, églises, couvents et autres monuments (The Buildings of Modern Rome), first published in 1840 by Paul Letarouilly , also played an important part in the revival of interest in this period.  The Renaissance style was recognized by contemporaries in the term "all'antica" , or "in the ancient manner" (of the Romans). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Principal phases </li></ul><ul><li>Historians often divide the Renaissance in Italy into three phases.  Whereas art historians might talk of an "Early Renaissance" period, in which they include developments in 14th century painting and sculpture, this is usually not the case in architectural history. The bleak economic conditions of the late 14th century did not produce buildings that are considered to be part of the Renaissance. As a result, the word "Renaissance" among architectural historians usually applies to the period 1400 to ca. 1525, or later in the case of non-Italian Renaissances. </li></ul><ul><li>Historians often use the following designations: </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance (ca. 1400–1500); also known as the </li></ul><ul><li>Quattrocento and sometimes Early Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>High Renaissance (ca.1500–1525) </li></ul><ul><li>Mannerism (ca. 1520–1600) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Quattrocento </li></ul><ul><li>In the Quattrocento , concepts of architectural order were explored and rules were formulated. Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture. The study of classical antiquity led in particular to the adoption of Classical detail and ornamentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Space, as an element of architecture, was utilised differently to the way it had been in the Middle Ages . Space was organised by proportional logic, its form and rhythm subject to geometry , rather than being created by intuition as in Medieval buildings. The prime example of this is the Basilica di San Lorenzo in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446).  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>The plans of Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module. Within a church the module is often the width of an aisle. The need to integrate the design of the plan with the façade was introduced as an issue in the work of Filippo Brunelleschi , but he was never able to carry this aspect of his work into fruition. The first building to demonstrate this was St. Andrea in Mantua by Alberti . The development of the plan in secular architecture was to take place in the 16th century and culminated with the work of Palladio . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence </li></ul><ul><li>The Basilica di San Lorenzo ( Basilica of St Lawrence ) is one of the largest churches of Florence , Italy , situated at the centre of the city’s main market district, and the burial place of all the principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III . It is one of several churches that claim to be the oldest in Florence; when it was consecrated in 1393  it stood outside the city walls. For three hundred years it was the city's cathedral before the official seat of the bishop was transferred to Santa Reparata . San Lorenzo was also the parish church of the Medici family. In 1419, Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici offered to finance a new church to replace the eleventh-century Romanesque rebuilding. Filippo Brunelleschi , the leading Renaissance architect of the first half of the fifteenth century, was commissioned to design it, but the building, with alterations, was not completed until after his death. The church is part of a larger monastic complex that contains other important architectural works: the Old Sacristy by Brunelleschi; the Laurentian Library by Michelangelo ; the New Sacristy based on Michelangelo's designs; and the Medici Chapels by Matteo Nigetti . </li></ul>
<ul><li>High Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>During the High Renaissance , concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety. The most representative architect is Bramante (1444–1514) who expanded the applicability of classical architecture to contemporary buildings. His San Pietro in Montorio (1503) was directly inspired by circular Roman temples . He was, however, hardly a slave to the classical forms and it was his style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the 16th century.  </li></ul>
The church of San Pietro in Montorio was built on the site of an earlier ninth-century church dedicated to St. Peter on Rome's Janiculum hill. Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, it marks a traditional location of St. Peter's crucifixion. The church currently has no Cardinal-Protector since the death of its last Cardinal Priest , Aloísio Cardinal Lorscheider .
<ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Church interior </li></ul><ul><li>The church is decorated with artworks by prominent sixteenth and seventeenth-century masters. </li></ul><ul><li>The first chapel on the right contains Sebastiano del Piombo's Flagellation and Transfiguration (1516–1524). Michelangelo , who had befriended Sebastiano in Rome, supplied figure drawings that were incorporated into the Flagellation . </li></ul><ul><li>The second chapel has a fresco by Niccolo Circignani (1654) (il Pomarancio), some Renaissance frescoes from the school of Pinturrichio, and an allegorical sibyl and virtue attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi . </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth chapel has a ceiling fresco by Giorgio Vasari . Although there is no grave marker, tradition has it that Beatrice Cenci —executed in 1599 for the murder of her abusive father and made famous by Percy Bysshe Shelley , among others—is buried either in this chapel or below the high altar. </li></ul><ul><li>The ceiling of the fifth chapel contains another fresco, the Conversion of St. Paul , by Vasari. The altarpiece is attributed to Giulio Mazzoni , while the funerary monument of Cardinal del Monte and Roberto Nobili are by Bartolomeo Ammannati . </li></ul><ul><li>Till 1797, Raphael 's final masterpiece, the Transfiguration graced the high altar; it is now in the Vatican pinacoteca. The altar currently displays a copy by Cammuccini of Guido Reni's Crucifixion of St. Peter (also now in Vatican museum). </li></ul><ul><li>The last chapel on the left contains a Baptism of Christ , attributed to Daniele da Volterra , and stucco-work and ceiling frescoes by Giulio Mazzoni . </li></ul>
<ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>The church of San Pietro in Montorio was built on the site of an earlier ninth-century church dedicated to St. Peter on Rome's Janiculum hill. Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, it marks a traditional location of St. Peter's crucifixion. </li></ul><ul><li>The church currently has no Cardinal-Protector since the death of its last Cardinal Priest , Aloísio Cardinal Lorscheider . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Francesco Baratta. "Saint Francis in Ecstasy", c. 1640. Raimondi Chapel, San Pietro in Montorio. </li></ul><ul><li>Church interior </li></ul><ul><li>The church is decorated with artworks by prominent sixteenth and seventeenth-century masters. </li></ul><ul><li>The first chapel on the right contains Sebastiano del Piombo's Flagellation and Transfiguration (1516–1524). Michelangelo , who had befriended Sebastiano in Rome, supplied figure drawings that were incorporated into the Flagellation . </li></ul><ul><li>The second chapel has a fresco by Niccolo Circignani (1654) (il Pomarancio), some Renaissance frescoes from the school of Pinturrichio, and an allegorical sibyl and virtue attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi . </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth chapel has a ceiling fresco by Giorgio Vasari . Although there is no grave marker, tradition has it that Beatrice Cenci —executed in 1599 for the murder of her abusive father and made famous by Percy Bysshe Shelley , among others—is buried either in this chapel or below the high altar. </li></ul><ul><li>The ceiling of the fifth chapel contains another fresco, the Conversion of St. Paul , by Vasari. The altarpiece is attributed to Giulio Mazzoni , while the funerary monument of Cardinal del Monte and Roberto Nobili are by Bartolomeo Ammannati . </li></ul><ul><li>Till 1797, Raphael 's final masterpiece, the Transfiguration graced the high altar; it is now in the Vatican pinacoteca. The altar currently displays a copy by Cammuccini of Guido Reni's Crucifixion of St. Peter (also now in Vatican museum). </li></ul><ul><li>The last chapel on the left contains a Baptism of Christ , attributed to Daniele da Volterra , and stucco-work and ceiling frescoes by Giulio Mazzoni . </li></ul>
Donato Bramante ( 1444 – March 11 , 1514 ) was an Italian architect , who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome , where his most famous design was St. Peter's Basilica .
<ul><li>Donato Bramante </li></ul><ul><li>Urbino and Milan </li></ul><ul><li>Bramante was born in Monte Asdrualdo (now Fermignano ), near Urbino : here, in the 1467 Luciano Laurana was adding to the Palazzo Ducale an arcaded courtyard and other features that seemed to have the true ring of a reborn antiquity to Federico da Montefeltro 's ducal palace. </li></ul><ul><li>Bramante's architecture has eclipsed his painting skills: he knew the painters Melozzo da Forlì and Piero della Francesca well, who were interested in the rules of perspective and illusionistic features in Mantegna 's painting. Around 1474, Bramante moved to Milan , a city with a deep Gothic architectural tradition, and built several churches in the new Antique style. The Duke, Ludovico Sforza , made him virtually his court architect, beginning in 1476, with commissions that culminated in the famous trompe-l'oeil choir of the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro ( 1482 – 1486 ). Space was limited, and Bramante made a theatrical apse in bas-relief , combining the painterly arts of perspective with Roman details. There is an octagonal sacristy, surmounted by a dome . </li></ul><ul><li>In Milan, Bramante also built Santa Maria delle Grazie (1492-99); other early works include the cloisters of Sant'Ambrogio, Milan ( 1497 – 1498 ), and some other smaller constructions in Pavia and Legnano . However, in 1499, with his Sforza patron driven from Milan by an invading French army, Bramante made his way to Rome, where he was already known to the powerful Cardinal Riario . </li></ul>
Piazza Navona is a square in Rome , Italy . The piazza follows the plan of an ancient Roman circus , the 1st century Stadium of Domitian ,  where the Romans came to watch the agones ("games"): It was known as 'Circus Agonalis' (competition arena). It is believed that over time the name changed to 'in agone' to 'navone' and eventually to 'navona'.
<ul><li>Piazza Navona is a square in Rome , Italy . The piazza follows the plan of an ancient Roman circus , the 1st century Stadium of Domitian , where the Romans came to watch the agones ("games"): It was known as 'Circus Agonalis' (competition arena). It is believed that over time the name changed to 'in agone' to 'navone' and eventually to 'navona'. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as a square in the last years of 15th century , when the city market was transferred here from the Campidoglio , Piazza Navona is now the pride of Baroque Rome. It has sculptural and architectural creations: by Gian Lorenzo Bernini , the famous Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers, 1651 ) in the center; by Francesco Borromini and Girolamo Rainaldi , the church of Sant'Agnese in Agone ; and by Pietro da Cortona , who painted the gallery in the Pamphilj palace . </li></ul>
<ul><li>High Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 15th century and early 16th century architects such as Bramante , Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and others showed a mastery of the revived style and ability to apply it to buildings such as churches and city palazzo which were quite different to the structures of ancient times. The style became more decorated and ornamental, statuary, domes and cupolas becoming very evident. The architectural period is known as the "High Renaissance" and coincides with the age of Leonardo , Michelangelo and Raphael . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sangallo </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio da Sangallo the Younger , (1485–1546), was one of a family of military engineers. His uncle, Giuliano da Sangallo was one of those who submitted a plan for the rebuilding of St Peter’s and was briefly a co-director of the project, with Raphael .  </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio da Sangallo also submitted a plan for St Peter’s and became the chief architect after the death of Raphael, to be succeeded himself by Michelangelo. </li></ul>The Palazzo Farnese , Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo .
Raphael Raphael , (1483–1520), Urbino , trained under Perugino in Perugia before moving to Florence, was for a time the chief architect for St. Peter’s , working in conjunction with Antonio Sangallo. He also designed a number of buildings, most of which were finished by others. His single most influential work is the Palazzo Pandolfini in Florence with its two stories of strongly articulated windows of a " tabernacle " type, each set around with ordered pilasters, cornice and alternate arched and triangular pediments. 
Mannerism Mannerism was marked by widely diverging tendencies in the work of Michelangelo , Giulio Romano , Peruzzi and Andrea Palladio , that led to the Baroque style in which the same architectural vocabulary was used for very different rhetoric.
<ul><li>Mannerism </li></ul><ul><li>During the Mannerist period, architects experimented with using architectural forms to emphasize solid and spatial relationships . The Renaissance ideal of harmony gave way to freer and more imaginative rhythms. The best known architect associated with the Mannerist style was Michelangelo (1475–1564), who is credited with inventing the giant order , a large pilaster that stretches from the bottom to the top of a facade. He used this in his design for the Campidoglio in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the 20th century, the term Mannerism had negative connotations, but it is now used to describe the historical period in more general non-judgemental terms.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Façade </li></ul><ul><li>Façades are symmetrical around their vertical axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Church facades are generally surmounted by a pediment and organized by a system of pilasters, arches and entablatures. The columns and windows show a progression towards the center. One of the first true Renaissance facades was the Cathedral of Pienza (1459–62), which has been attributed to the Florentine architect Bernardo Gambarelli (known as Rossellino ) with Alberti perhaps having some responsibility in its design as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice . There is a regular repetition of openings on each floor, and the centrally placed door is marked by a feature such as a balcony, or rusticated surround. An early and much copied prototype was the façade for the Palazzo Rucellai (1446 and 1451) in Florence with its three registers of pilasters </li></ul>
Sant'Agostino, Rome, Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483
<ul><li>Columns and Pilasters </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman orders of columns are used:- Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system. One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was in the Old Sacristy (1421–1440) by Brunelleschi. </li></ul>
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
The Basilica di Sant'Andrea is a Renaissance church in Mantua , Lombardy ( Italy ). Commissioned by Ludovico II Gonzaga , the church was begun in 1472 according to designs by Leon Battista Alberti on a site occupied by a Benedictine monastery, of which the bell tower (1414) remains. The building, however, was finished only 328 years later. Though later changes and expansions altered Alberti’s design, the church is still considered to be one of Alberti's most complete works.
<ul><li>Vaults at St Andrea </li></ul><ul><li>Vaults do not have ribs. They are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault which is frequently rectangular. The barrel vault , is returned to architectural vocabulary as at the St. Andrea in Mantua. </li></ul>Basilica Maxentius
<ul><li>Domes </li></ul><ul><li>The dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally. Domes had been used only rarely in the Middle Ages, but after the success of the dome in Brunelleschi’s design for the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore and its use in Bramante’s plan for St. Peter's Basilica (1506) in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in church architecture and later even for secular architecture, such as Palladio's Villa Rotonda . </li></ul>
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome. photo- Wolgang Stuck, 2004
Ceilings Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated. Doors Door usually have square lintels. They may be set within an arch or surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment. Openings that do not have doors are usually arched and frequently have a large or decorative keystone. Windows Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch. They may have square lintels and triangular or segmental pediments, which are often used alternately. Emblematic in this respect is the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, begun in 1517.
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence In the Mannerist period the “Palladian” arch was employed, using a motif of a high semi-circular topped opening flanked with two lower square-topped openings. Windows are used to bring light into the building and in domestic architecture, to give views. Stained glass, although sometimes present, is not a feature.
<ul><li>Walls </li></ul><ul><li>External walls are generally of highly-finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses. The corners of buildings are often emphasised by rusticated “ quoins”. Basements and ground floors were often rusticated, as modeled on the Palazzo Medici Riccardi (1444–1460) in Florence. Internal walls are smoothly plastered and surfaced with white-chalk paint. For more formal spaces, internal surfaces are decorated with frescoes. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Details </li></ul><ul><li>Courses, moldings and all decorative details are carved with great precision . Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory. The different orders each required different sets of details. Some architects were stricter in their use of classical details than others, but there was also a good deal of innovation in solving problems, especially at corners . </li></ul><ul><li>Moldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths. They are not integral to the building as in Medieval architecture.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Influences on the development of Renaissance architecture in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Italy of the 15th century, and the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance. It is in Florence that the new architectural style had its beginning, not slowly evolving in the way that Gothic grew out of Romanesque , but consciously brought to being by particular architects who sought to revive the order of a past " Golden Age ". The scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Architectural </li></ul><ul><li>Italy had never fully adopted the Gothic style of architecture. Apart from the Cathedral of Milan , largely the work of German builders, few Italian churches show the emphasis on vertically, the clustered shafts, ornate tracery and complex ribbed vaulting that characterise Gothic in other parts of Europe. Italian architects had always preferred forms that were clearly defined and structural members that expressed their purpose.  The presence, particularly in Rome, of architectural remains showing the ordered Classical style provided an inspiration to artists at a time when philosophy was also turning towards the Classical. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>In the 15th century, Florence , Venice and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them, making the movement of artists possible. This enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan , and through Milan, France . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1377, the return of the Pope from Avignon and re-establishment of the Papal court in Rome, brought wealth and importance to that city, as well as a renewal in the importance of the Pope in Italy, which was further strengthened by the Council of Constance in 1417. Successive Popes, especially Julius II , 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>In the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East. The large towns of Northern Italy were prosperous through trade with the rest of Europe, Genoa providing a seaport for the goods of France and Spain; Milan and Turin being centers of overland trade, and maintaining substantial metalworking industries. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, the industry on which its wealth was founded. By dominating Pisa , Florence gained a seaport, and also maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the lucrative business of money-lending. The Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming virtually princes themselves as they did so, by reason of both wealth and influence. Along the trade routes, and thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but also artists, scientists and philosophers. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><li>The return of the Pope from Avignon in 1377 and the resultant new emphasis on Rome as the center of Christian spirituality, brought about a boom in the building of churches in Rome such as had not taken place for nearly a thousand years. This commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the Baroque period. The construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peter's, one of Christendom's most significant churches, was part of this process. </li></ul><ul><li>In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual. The unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city under her patronage. However, as the technology and finance were found to complete it, the rising dome did credit not only to the Blessed Virgin, its architect and the Church but also the Signoria, the Guilds and the sectors of the city from which the manpower to construct it was drawn. The dome inspired further religious works in Florence. </li></ul>
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace .
<ul><li>Philosophic </li></ul><ul><li>The development of printed books, the rediscovery of ancient writings, the expanding of political and trade contacts and the exploration of the world all increased knowledge and the desire for education. </li></ul><ul><li>The reading of philosophies that were not based in Christian theology led to the development of Humanism through which it was clear that while God had established and maintained order in the Universe, it was the role of Man to establish and maintain order in Society. </li></ul>
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino , Cristoforo Landino , Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles . Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio .
<ul><li>Civil </li></ul><ul><li>Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Fresco by Bronzino . </li></ul><ul><li>Through Humanism , civic pride and the promotion of civil peace and order were seen as the marks of citizenship. This led to the building of structures such as Brunelleschi's Hospital of the Innocents with its elegant colonnade forming a link between the charitable building and the public square, and the Laurentian Library where the collection of books established by the Medici family could be consulted by scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>Some major ecclesiastical building works were also commissioned, not by the church, but by guilds representing the wealth and power of the city. Brunelleschi’s dome at Florence Cathedral , more than any other building belonged to the people of the city because the construction of each of the eight segments was achieved by a different sector of the city. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Patronage </li></ul><ul><li>As in the Platonic academy of Athens , it was seen by those of Humanist understanding that those people who had the benefit of wealth and education ought to promote the pursuit of learning and the creation of that which was beautiful. To this end, wealthy families:- the Medici in Florence, the Gonzaga family of Mantua, the Farnese in Rome, the Sforzas in Milan, gathered around them people of learning and talent, promoting the skills and creating employment for the most talented artists and architects of their day. </li></ul>Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici ( April 10 , 1389 – August 1 , 1464 ), was the first of the Medici political dynasty, rulers of Florence during most of the Italian Renaissance ; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'" ("il Vecchio") and "Cosimo Pater Patriae ."
Architectural Theory During the Renaissance, architecture became not only a question of practice, but also a matter for theoretical discussion. Printing played a large role in the dissemination of ideas.
The first treatise on architecture was De re aedificatoria (English: On the Art of Building) by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450. It was to some degree dependent on Vitruvius ' De architectura , a manuscript of which was discovered in 1414 in a library in Switzerland. De re aedificatoria in 1485 became the first printed book on architecture.
<ul><li>Sebastiano Serlio </li></ul><ul><li>Sebastiano Serlio ( September 6 , 1475 – c. 1554 ) was an Italian Mannerist architect , who was part of the Italian team building the Palace of Fontainebleau . Serlio helped canonize the classical orders of architecture in his influential treatise, "I sette libri dell'architettura" (aka "Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospettiva"). </li></ul><ul><li>Serlio's model of church façade of 1537 crystallized a format that lasted into the 18th century. </li></ul>
Sebastiano Serlio (1475 – c. 1554) produced the next important text, the first volume of which appeared in Venice in 1537; it was entitled "Regole generali d'architettura” (or "General Rules of Architecture"). It is known as Serlio's "Fourth Book" since it was the fourth in Serlio's original plan of a treatise in seven books. In all, five books were published.
The first volume of his treatise appeared in Venice in 1537, titled "Regole generali d'architettura [...]" (or "General Rules of Architecture"). It is also known as Serlio's "Fourth Book" (albeit published first) because it was the fourth in Serlio's original plan of a treatise in seven books. Serlio never brought this plan to completion. Serlio' model of church façade was a regularized version , cleaned up and made more classical, of the innovative method of providing a facade to a church with a high vaulted nave flanked by low side aisles, a classical face to a Gothic form, first seen in Alberti 's Santa Maria Novella in Florence (c. 1458). The idea was in the air in the 1530s: several contemporary churches compete for primacy: but Serlio's woodcut put the concept in every architect's hands. Serlio's "Third Book", on the antiquities of Rome, followed in 1540, also in Venice. Serlio's publications, rather than any spectacular executed work, attracted the attention of Francois I. Serlio's career took off when he was invited to France by Francis I , to advise on the construction and decoration of the Château of Fontainebleau , where a team of Italian designers and craftsmen were assembled. Serlio took several private commissions, but the only one that has survived in any recognizable way is the Chateau of Ancy-le-Franc built about 1546 near Tonnerre in Burgundy.
<ul><li>Leon Battista Alberti ( February 14 , 1404 – April 25 , 1472 ) </li></ul><ul><li>He was an Italian author, artist, architect , poet , linguist , philosopher , and cryptographer , and general Renaissance humanist polymath . In Italy , his first name is usually spelled " Leon ". Alberti's life was described in Giorgio Vasari 's Vite . </li></ul>
He took great interest in studying the ruins of classical architecture in Rome and elsewhere. At Rome he was employed by Pope Nicholas V in the restoration of the papal palace and of the restoration of the Roman aqueduct of Acqua Vergine , which debouched into a simple basin designed by Alberti, which was swept away later by the Baroque Trevi Fountain . At Mantua he designed the church of Sant'Andrea , and at Rimini the church of San Francesco . On a commission from the Rucellai family he completed the principal facade of the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence which had been begun in the previous century. He also built the facade for the family palace in the Via della Vigna Nuova, known as the Palazzo Rucellai , though it is not exactly clear what his role as designer was. facade of the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence
In 1570, Andrea Palladio (1508 –1580) published I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) in Venice . This book was widely printed and responsible to a great degree of spreading the ideas of the Renaissance through Europe. All these books were intended to be read and studied not only by architects, but also by patrons.
I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura ( The Four Books of Architecture ) was published in 1570 , in four volumes written by the architect Andrea Palladio ( 1508 - 1580 ), whose name is identified with an architectural movement named after him known as Palladian architecture .
True Palladianism" in Villa Godi by Palladio from the Quattro Libri dell'Architettura . The extending wings are agricultural buildings and are not part of the villa. In the 18th century they became an important part of Palladianism—
<ul><li>Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting. If on a hill, such as Villa Capra, facades were frequently designed to be of equal value so that occupants could have fine views in all directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, in such cases, porticos were built on all sides so that occupants could fully appreciate the countryside while being protected from the sun, similar to many American -style porches of today. Palladio sometimes used a loggia as an alternative to the portico. This can most simply be described as a recessed portico, or an internal single storey room, with pierced walls that are open to the elements. Occasionally a loggia would be placed at second floor level over the top of a loggia below, creating what was known as a double loggia. Loggias were sometimes given significance in a facade by being surmounted by a pediment. Villa Godi has as its focal point a loggia rather than a portico, plus loggias terminating each end of the main building. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Palladio would often model his villa elevations on Roman temple facades . The temple influence, often in a cruciform design, later became a trademark of his work. Palladian villas are usually built with three floors: a rusticated basement or ground floor, containing the service and minor rooms. Above this, the piano nobile accessed through a portico reached by a flight of external steps, containing the principal reception and bedrooms, and above it is a low mezzanine floor with secondary bedrooms and accommodation. </li></ul><ul><li>The proportions of each room within the villa were calculated on simple mathematical ratios like 3:4 and 4:5, and the different rooms within the house were interrelated by these ratios. Earlier architects had used these formulas for balancing a single symmetrical facade; however, Palladio's designs related to the whole, usually square, villa. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Palladio deeply considered the dual purpose of his villas as both farmhouses and palatial weekend retreats for wealthy merchant owners . These symmetrical temple-like houses often have equally symmetrical, but low, wings sweeping away from them to accommodate horses, farm animals, and agricultural stores. The wings, sometimes detached and connected to the villa by colonnades , were designed not only to be functional but also to complement and accentuate the villa. They were, however, in no way intended to be part of the main house, and it is in the design and use of these wings that Palladio's followers in the 18th century adapted to become an integral part of the building.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Palladian window </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The Palladian, or Serlian, arch or window, as interpreted by Palladio. </li></ul><ul><li>Detail of drawing from Quattro Libri dell'Architettura . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Palladian, Serlian, or Venetian window features largely in Palladio's work, almost a trademark in his early career. It consists of a central light with semicircular arch over, carried on an impost consisting of a small entablature , under which, and enclosing two other lights, one on each side, are pilasters . In the library at Venice, Sansovino varied the design by substituting columns for the two inner pilasters. To describe its origin as being either Palladian or Venetian is not accurate; the motif was first used by Donato Bramante (Ackerman) and later mentioned by Sebastiano Serlio (1475–1554) in his seven-volume architectural book Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospetiva expounding the ideals of Vitruvius and Roman architecture, this arched window is flanked by two lower rectangular openings, a motif that first appeared in the triumphal arches of ancient Rome. Palladio used the motif extensively, most notably in the arcades of the Basilica Palladiana in Vicenza . It is also a feature of his entrances to both Villa Godi and Villa Forni-Cerato . It is perhaps this extensive use of the motif in the Veneto that has given the window its alternative name of the Venetian window; it is also known as a Serlian window. Whatever the name or the origin, this form of window has probably become one of the most enduring features of Palladio's work seen in the later architectural styles, evolved from Palladianism. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Four Books of Architecture provided systematic rules and plans for buildings which were creative and unique at that time . </li></ul><ul><li>Palladio’s villa style is based on details applied to a structural system built of bricks. He offers two types of general rules in the corpus: design rules – those based on appearance, and construction rules – those based on the logic of villa construction . Here rules of the two types are identified in sets from which sub sets of identifiers and rules can be written. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the nine rule sets contains many sub identities of components and procedures for physical construction. A rule set such as “Walls,” that identifies five sub rules based on wall thickness only needs construction rules; there is no need for rules based on style. In contrast, rules for “Frames ” are based on a geometric style of curves and shape proportions . The results will yield clear identities for a shape grammar composition that can be based on physical construction and visual style. These identities are taken from the first book of architecture and a survey of built villas. These are the nine rule sets that define identity: </li></ul>
<ul><li>Walls - parametric formula </li></ul><ul><li>Ceilings - parametric formula </li></ul><ul><li>Stairs - parametric formula </li></ul><ul><li>Columns - parametric object </li></ul><ul><li>Doors - parametric formula </li></ul><ul><li>Windows - parametric formula </li></ul><ul><li>Frames - parametric object </li></ul><ul><li>Roof - parametric formula </li></ul><ul><li>Details - parametric object and formula </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric – having to do with any defining or characteristic factors, mathematics, a constant in a particular calculation or case that varies in other cases. </li></ul>Palladio’s nine rule sets:
Villa Capra "La Rotonda " in Vicenza is a Renaissance villa in Vicenza , northern Italy , designed by Andrea Palladio . The correct name is Villa Almerico-Capra. It is also known as La Rotonda, Villa Rotunda , Villa La Rotonda, and Villa Almerico. The name "Capra" derives from the Capra brothers, who completed the building after it was ceded to them in 1591. Like other work by Palladio in Vicenza , it is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list.
<ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>The site selected was a hilltop just outside the city of Vicenza. Then and for centuries to follow, it was fashionable to be what is today called "a gentleman farmer"; buoyed by arcadian values, prosperous Italians wished to enjoy 'the simple life.' As a single man, Almerico had no need of a vast Palazzo but wished for a sophisticated Villa, and this is exactly what Palladio produced for him. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Building began circa 1566 of a square building, completely symmetrical, as though an imaginary circle touched the walls of the square at any given point ( illustration, left ). La Rotonda refers to the central circular hall with its dome , describing the villa, as a whole, as a 'rotonda' is technically incorrect as the building is not circular but rather the intersection of a square with a cross . Each of the four facades was to have a portico with steps leading up and each of the four principal entrances was to lead via a small cabinet or corridor to the circular domed central hall. This and all other rooms were proportioned with mathematical precision according to Palladio's own rules of architecture which he ordained in the Quattro Libri dell'Architettura . </li></ul>
<ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The design reflected the humanist values of Renaissance architecture . In order for each room to have some sun, the design was rotated 45 degrees from each cardinal point of the compass. Each of the four porticos has pediments graced by statues of classical deities . The pediments were each supported by six Ionic columns. Each portico was flanked by a single window. All principal rooms were on the second floor or piano nobile . </li></ul><ul><li>Palladio, and the owner, Paolo Almerico, were not to see the completion of the villa. Palladio died in 1580 and a second architect, Vincenzo Scamozzi , was employed by the new owners to oversee the completion. One of the major changes he made to the original plan was to modify the two-storey centre hall. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>Landscape </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>One of the porticos </li></ul><ul><li>From the porticos wonderful views of the surrounding countryside can be seen; this is no coincidence as the Villa was designed to be in perfect harmony with the landscape. This was in complete contrast to such buildings as Villa Farnese of just 16 years earlier. Thus Villa Capra "La rotonda" while appearing completely symmetrical has certain deviations, designed in order for each facade to complement the surrounding landscape and topography; hence there are variations in the facades, in the width of steps, retaining walls, etc. Thus the symmetry of the architecture allows for the asymmetry of the landscape, and creates a seemingly symmetrical whole. The landscape is a panoramic vision of trees and meadows and woods, with the distant Vicenza on the horizon. </li></ul><ul><li>The northwest portico is set onto the hill as the termination of a straight carriage drive from the principal gates. This carriageway is an avenue between the service blocks, built by the Capra brothers who acquired the villa in 1591 ; they commissioned Vincenzo Scamozzi to complete the villa and construct the range of staff and agricultural buildings. As one approaches the villa from this angle one is deliberately made to feel one is ascending from some less worthy place to a temple on high. This same view, in reverse, from the villa, highlights the classical chapel on the edge of Vicenza itself, thus villa and town are united. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Alberti </li></ul><ul><li>Leon Battista Alberti , (1402–1472), was an important Humanist theoretician and designer whose book on architecture De re Aedificatoria was to have lasting effect. An aspect of Humanism was an emphasis of the anatomy of nature, in particular the human form, a science first studied by the Ancient Greeks. Humanism made man the measure of things. Alberti perceived the architect as a person with great social responsibilities.  </li></ul>
<ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sant'Andrea, Mantua , the facade. Photo- Frode Inge Helland </li></ul><ul><li>He designed a number of buildings, but unlike Brunelleschi, he did not see himself as a builder in a practical sense and so left the supervision of the work to others. Miraculously, one of his greatest designs, that of the Church of Sant'Andrea in Mantua , was brought to completion with its character essentially intact. Not so the church of San Francesco in Rimini , a rebuilding of a Gothic structure, which, like Sant'Andrea, was to have a façade reminiscent of a Roman triumphal arch. This was left sadly incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>Sant'Andrea is an extremely dynamic building both without and within. Its triumphal façade is marked by extreme contrasts. The projection of the order of pilasters that define the architectural elements, but are essentially non-functional, is very shallow. This contrasts with the gaping deeply recessed arch which makes a huge portico before the main door. The size of this arch is in direct contrast to the two low square-topped openings that frame it. The light and shade play dramatically over the surface of the building because of the shallowness of its mouldings and the depth of its porch. In the interior Alberti has dispensed with the traditional nave and aisles. Instead there is a slow and majestic progression of alternating tall arches and low square doorways, repeating the " triumphal arch " motif of the façade.  </li></ul>
<ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Façade of Santa Maria Novella , 1456–70. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of Alberti’s best known buildings are in Florence, the Palazzo Rucellai and at Santa Maria Novella . For the palace, Alberti applied the classical orders of columns to the façade on the three levels, 1446–51. At Santa Maria Novella he was commissioned to finish the decoration of the façade. He completed the design in 1456 but the work was not finished until 1470. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower section of the building had Gothic niches and typical polychrome marble decoration. There was a large ocular window in the end of the nave which had to be taken into account. Alberti simply respected what was already in place, and the Florentine tradition for polychrome that was well established at the Baptistry of San Giovanni , the most revered building in the city. The decoration, being mainly polychrome marble, is mostly very flat in nature, but a sort of order is established by the regular compartments and the circular motifs which repeat the shape of the round window.  For the first time, Alberti linked the lower roofs of the aisles to nave using two large scrolls. These were to become a standard Renaissance device for solving the problem of different roof heights and bridge the space between horizontal and vertical surfaces.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Peruzzi </li></ul><ul><li>Baldassare Peruzzi , (1481–1536), was an architect born in Siena , but working in Rome, whose work bridges the High Renaissance and the Mannerist. His Villa Farnesiana of 1509 is a very regular monumental cube of two equal stories, the bays being strongly articulated by orders of pilasters. The building is unusual for its frescoed walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Peruzzi’s most famous work is the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome. The unusual features of this building are that its façade curves gently around a curving street. It has in its ground floor a dark central portico running parallel to the street, but as a semi enclosed space, rather than an open loggia. Above this rise three undifferentiated floors, the upper two with identical small horizontal windows in thin flat frames which contrast strangely with the deep porch, which serving, from the time of its building, as a refuge to the city’s poor. </li></ul>
Façade of Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne. The Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne is an architecturally influential urban Renaissance palace in Rome . The palace was designed by Baldassarre Peruzzi in 1532 - 1536 on a site of three contiguous palaces owned by the old Roman Massimo family; built after arson of an earlier structure during the Sack of Rome (1527) . In addition the curved façade was dictated by foundations built upon the stands for the stadium ( odeon ) of the emperor Domitian . It fronts the now busy, Corso Vittorio Emanuele, a few hundred yards from the front of the church of Sant'Andrea della Valle .
The Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne The entrance is characterized by a central portico with the six Doric columns. Inside there are two courtyards, of which the first one has a portico with Doric columns as a basement for a rich loggia, which is also made of Doric columns. The column decorations gave name to the palace (alle Colonne). The façade is renown as one of the most masterful of its time, combining both elegance with stern rustication. The reccessed entrance portico differs from typical Palazzo models such as exemplified by the Florentine Palazzo Medici . In addition, there is a variation of size of windows for different levels, and the decorative frames of the windows of the third floor. Unlike the Palazzo Medici, there is no academic adherence to orders, depending on the floor On the opposite side of this palace, opening on to the Piazzetta dei Massimo, the palace connects with a frescoed façade of Palazzetto Massimi (or Istoriato). For many centuries, this used to be the central post office, a Massimo family occupation. To the left of the palace is the Palazzo di Pirro, built by a pupil of Antonio da Sangallo . The interior ceilings and vestibules are elaborately ornamented with rosettes and coffered roofs. The entrance ceiling is decorated with a fresco by Daniele da Volterra , who represented "Life of Fabio Massimo", the supposed classic founder of the Massimo family. The chapel on the 2nd floor was a room where the 14 year old Paolo Massimo, son of Fabrizio Massimo, was recalled briefly to life by Saint Philip Neri in March 16, 1583. The interior of the palace is open to public only on that day. Other notable events in the palace of the 16th century including various intrafamilial murders.
<ul><li>Giulio Romano </li></ul><ul><li>Giulio Romano (1499–1546), was a pupil of Raphael, assisting him on various works for the Vatican. Romano was also a highly inventive designer, working for Federico II Gonzaga at Mantua on the Palazzo Te , (1524–1534), a project which combined his skills as architect, sculptor and painter. In this work, combining garden grottoes and extensive frescoes, he uses illusionistic effects , surprising combination of architectural form and texture and the frequent use of features that seem somewhat disproportionate or out of alignment. The total effect is eerie and disturbing. Ilan Rachum cites Romano as “one of the first promoters of Mannerism” .  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Giacomo della Porta </li></ul><ul><li>Giacomo della Porta , (c.1533–1602), was famous as the architect who made the dome of St Peter’s Basilica a reality. The change in outline between the dome as it appears in the model and the dome as it was built, has brought about speculation as to whether the changes originated with della Porta or with Michelangelo himself. </li></ul><ul><li>Della Porta spent nearly all his working life in Rome, designing villas, palazzi and churches in the Mannerist style. One of his most famous works is the façade of the Church of the Gesù , a project that he inherited from his teacher Vignola . Most characteristics of the original design are maintained, subtly transformed to give more weight to the central section, where della Porta uses, among other motifs, a low triangular pediment overlaid on a segmental one above the main door. The upper storey and its pediment give the impression of compressing the lower one. The center section, like that of Sant'Andrea at Mantua, is based on the Triumphal Arch, but has two clear horizontal divisions like Santa Maria Novella . See Alberti above. The problem of linking the aisles to the nave is solved using Alberti’s scrolls, in contrast to Vignola’s solution which provided much smaller brackets and four statues to stand above the paired pilasters, visually weighing down the corners of the building. The influence of the design may be seen in Baroque churches throughout Europe. </li></ul>
Church of Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
<ul><li>Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), was one of the creative giants whose achievements mark the High Renaissance. He excelled in each of the fields of painting, sculpture and architecture and his achievements brought about significant changes in each area. His architectural fame lies chiefly in two buildings:- the interiors of the Laurentian Library and its lobby at the monastery of San Lorenzo in Florence, and the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>St Peter's was "the greatest creation of the Renaissance" ,  and a great number of architects contributed their skills to it. But at its completion, there was more of Michelangelo’s design than of any other architect, before or after him. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Capitoline Hill , between the Forum and the Campus Martius , is one of the most famous and highest of the seven hills of Rome . By the 16th century, Capitolino had become Campidoglio in the Roman dialect . In modern Italian , campidoglio also refers to any capitol building. Similarly, the English word capitol derives from Capitoline . </li></ul><ul><li>The Capitoline Hill cordonata leading from Via del Teatro di Marcello to Piazza del Campidoglio. </li></ul><ul><li>The Capitoline contains relatively few ancient ground-level ruins, as they are almost entirely covered up by Medieval palaces (now the Capitoline Museums ) that surround a piazza . A significant portion of the architecture in this area was designed by Michelange lo. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Balustrade </li></ul><ul><li>A balustrade punctuated by sculptures atop the giant pilasters capped the composition, one of the most influential of Michelangelo's designs. The two massive ancient statues of Castor and Pollux which decorate the balustrades are not the same posed by Michelangelo, which now are in front of the Palazzo del Quirinale . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>In Latin Capitolinus mons </li></ul><ul><li>Italian il Campidoglio or Monte Capitolino </li></ul><ul><li>Rione Campitelli </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings Capitoline Museums and Piazza del Campidoglio , Palazzo Senatorio , Palazzo dei Conservatori , Palazzo Nuovo , Tabularium </li></ul><ul><li>Churches Santa Maria in Aracoeli </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Roman religion </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Jupiter , Temple of Veiovis , Ludi Capitolini </li></ul><ul><li>Roman sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Colossus of Constantine </li></ul>
<ul><li>Michelangelo's systematizing of the Campidoglio, </li></ul><ul><li>engraved by Étienne Dupérac , 1568. </li></ul><ul><li>The existing design of the Piazza del Campidoglio and the surrounding palazzos was created by famed Renaissance artist and architect Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536 - 1546 . At the height of his fame he was commissioned by the Farnese Pope Paul III , who wanted a symbol of the new Rome to impress Charles V , who was expected in 1538 . </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo's first designs for the piazza and remodelling of the surrounding palazzos date from 1536 . He effectively reversed the classical orientation of the Capitoline, in a symbolic gesture turning Rome’s civic center to face away from the Roman Forum and instead in the direction of Papal Rome and the Christian church in the form of St. Peter’s Basilica . </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence, Cordonata piazza and the central palazzo are the first urban introduction of the "cult of the axis " that will occupy Italian garden plans and reach fruition in France (Giedion 1962). </li></ul><ul><li>Executing the design was slow work: little was actually completed in Michelangelo's lifetime (the ‘’Cordonata’’ was not in place when Emperor Charles arrived, and the imperial party had to scramble up the slope from the Forum to view the works in progress), but work continued faithfully to his designs and the Campidoglio was completed in the 17th century , except for the paving design, which was to be finished three centuries later. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Piazza </li></ul><ul><li>The bird's-eye view of the engraving by Étienne Dupérac shows Michelangelo's solution to the problems of the space in the Piazza del Campidoglio . Even with their new facades centering them on the new palazzo at the rear, the space was a trapezoid, and the facades did not face each other squarely. Worse still, the whole site sloped (to the left in the engraving). </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo's solution was radical. The three remodelled palazzi enclose a harmonious trapezoidal space, approached by the ramped staircase called the " Cordonata ". Since no "perfect" forms would work, his apparent oval in the paving is actually egg-shaped, narrower at one end than at the other. </li></ul><ul><li>The travertine design set into the paving is perfectly level: around its perimeter, low steps arise and die away into the paving as the slope requires. Its center springs slightly, so that one senses that one is standing on the exposed segment of a gigantic egg all but buried at the center of the city at the center of the world, as Michelangelo's historian Charles de Tolnay pointed out (Charles De Tolnay, 1930). An interlaced twelve-pointed star makes a subtle reference to the constellations, revolving around this space called Caput mundi , the "head of the world." This paving design was never executed by the popes, who may have detected a subtext of less-than-Christian import. Benito Mussolini ordered the paving completed to Michelangelo's design — in 1940 . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cordonata </li></ul><ul><li>Next to the older and much steeper stairs leading to the Aracoeli , Michelangelo devised a monumental wide ramped stair (the cordonata ), gently and gradually ascending the hill to reach the high piazza , so that the Campidoglio resolutely turned its back on the Roman Forum that it had once commanded. It was built to be wide enough for horse riders to ascend the hill without dismounting. The railings are topped by the statues of two Egyptian lions in black basalt at their base and the marble renditions of Castor and Pollux at their top. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>St Peter's was "the greatest creation of the Renaissance" ,  and a great number of architects contributed their skills to it. But at its completion, there was more of Michelangelo’s design than of any other architect, before or after him. </li></ul>
Old St. Peter's Basilica was the fourth century church begun by the Emperor Constantine between 326 and 333 AD. It was of typical basilical Latin Cross form with an apsidal end at the chancel, a wide nave and two aisles on either side. It was over 103.6 metres (350 feet) long and the entrance was preceded by a large colonnaded atrium . This church had been built over the small shrine believed to mark the burial place of St. Peter. It contained a very large number of burials and memorials, including those of most of the popes from St. Peter to the 15th century. Since the construction of the current basilica, the name Old St. Peter's Basilica has been used for its predecesor to distinguish the two buildings.
Michelangelo's plan, extended with Maderna's nave and facade
<ul><li>As it stands today, St. Peter's has been extended with a nave by Carlo Maderna . It is the chancel end (the ecclesiastical "Eastern end") with its huge centrally placed dome that is the work of Michelangelo. Because of its location within the Vatican State and because the projection of the nave screens the dome from sight when the building is approached from the square in front of it, the work of Michelangelo is best appreciated from a distance. What becomes apparent is that the architect has greatly reduced the clearly defined geometric forms of Bramante's plan of a square with square projections, and also of Raphael's plan of a square with semi-circular projections.  Michelangelo has blurred the definition of the geometry by making the external masonry of massive proportions and filling in every corner with a small vestry or stairwell. The effect created is of a continuous wall-surface that is folded or fractured at different angles, but lacks the right-angles which usually define change of direction at the corners of a building. This exterior is surrounded by a giant order of Corinthian pilasters all set at slightly different angles to each other, in keeping with the everchanging angles of the wall's surface. Above them the huge cornice ripples in a continous band, giving the appearance of keeping the whole building in a state of compression.  </li></ul>
St. Peter's Basilica from Castel Sant'Angelo showing the dome rising behind Maderna's facade
Maderna's façade The façade designed by Maderna, is 114.69 metres (376.28 ft) wide and 45.55 metres (149.44 ft) high and is built of travertine stone, with a giant order of Corinthian columns and a central pediment rising in front of a tall attic surmounted by statues of Christ, John the Baptist , and eleven of the apostles.
<ul><li>St. Peter's Piazza </li></ul><ul><li>To the east of the basilica is the Piazza di San Pietro , ( St. Peter's Square ). The present arrangement, constructed between 1656 and 1667, is the Baroque inspiration of Bernini who inherited a location already occupied by an Egyptian obelisk of the 13th century BC, which was centrally placed, (with some contrivance) to Maderna's facade. The obelisk, at 25.5 metre (83.6 ft ) and a total height, including base and the cross on top, of 40 metres (131 ft), is the second largest standing obelisk, and the only one to remain standing since it removal from Egypt and re-erection at the Circus of Nero , where it had stood since AD 37. Its removal to its present location by order of Pope Sixtus V and engineered by Domenico Fontana on September 28 , 1586 , was an operation fraught with difficulties and nearly ending in disaster when the ropes holding the obelisk began to smoke from the friction. Fortunately this problem was noticed by a sailor, and for his swift intervention, his village was granted the priviledge of providing the palms that are used at the basilica each Palm Sunday . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>Two fountains form the axis of the piazza . </li></ul><ul><li>The other object in the old square with which Bernini had to contend was a large fountain designed by Maderna in 1613 and set to one side of the obelisk, making a line parallel with the facade. Bernini's plan uses this horizontal axis as a major feature of his unique, spacially dynamic and highly symbolic design. </li></ul><ul><li>The most obvious solutions were either a rectangular piazza of vast proportions so that the obelisk stood centrally and the fountain (and a matching companion) could be included, or a trapezoid piazza which fanned out from the facade of the basilica like that in front of the Palazzo Publicco in Siena. The problems of the square plan are that the necessary width to include the fountain would entail the demolition of numerous buildings, including some of the Vatican, and would minimise the effect of the facade. The trapezoid plan , on the other hand, would maximise the apparent width of the facade, which was already perceived as a fault of the design. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bernini's ingenius solution was to create a piazza in two sections. That part which is nearest the basilica is trapezoid, but rather than fanning out from the facade, it narrows. This gives the effect of countering the visual perspective. It means that from the second part of the piazza, the building looks nearer than it is, the breadth of the facade is minimised and its height appears greater in proportion to its width. The second section of the piazza is a huge eliptical circus which gently slopes downwards to the obelisk at its centre. The two distinct areas are framed by a colonnade formed by doubled pairs of columns supporting an entabulature of the simple Tuscan Order . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The part of the colonnade that is around the elipse does not entirely encircle it, but reaches out in two arcs , symbolic of the arms of "the Roman Catholic Church reaching out to welcome its communicants ".  </li></ul><ul><li>The obelisk and Maderna's fountain make the widest axis of the elipse. Bernini balanced the scheme with another fountain in 1675. The approach to the square used to be through a jumble of old buildings, which added an element of surprise to the vista that opened up upon passing through the colonnade. Nowadays a long wide street, the Via della Conciliazione , built by Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaties , leads from the River Tiber to the piazza and gives distant views of St. Peter's as the visitor approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Bernini's transformation of the site is entirely Baroque in concept . Where Bramante and Michelangelo concieved a building that stood in "self-sufficient isolation", Bernini made the whole complex "expansively relate to its environment". [ 21] </li></ul><ul><li>Banister Fletcher says "No other city has afforded such a wide-swept approach to its cathedral church, no other architect could have concieved a design of greater nobility...(it is) the greatest of all atriums before the greatest of all churches of Christendom."  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior of the Sistine Chapel </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior </li></ul><ul><li>The Sistine Chapel is a high rectangular brick building, its exterior unadorned by architectural or decorative details, as common in many Medieval and Renaissance churches in Italy. It has no exterior facade or exterior processional doorways as the ingress has always been from internal rooms within the Papal Palace. The internal spaces are divided into three stories of which the lowest is a robustly vaulted basement with several utilitarian windows and a doorway giving onto the exterior court. </li></ul><ul><li>Above is the main space, the Chapel, the internal measurements of which are 40.9 meters (134 feet) long by 13.4 meters (44 feet) wide, (the dimensions of the Temple of Solomon , as given in the Old Testament ). The vaulted ceiling rises to 20.7 meters (68 feet). The building had six tall arched windows down each side and two at either end. Several of these have been blocked, but the chapel is still accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>Above the vault rises a third storey with wardrooms for guards. At this level was constructed an open projecting gangway which encircled the building supported on an arcade springing from the walls. The gangway has been roofed as it was a continual source of water penetration to the vault of the Chapel. The building is roofed with pantile tiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidence and cracking of masonry such as must also have affected the Cappella Maggiore has necessitated the building of very large buttresses to brace the exterior walls. The accretion of other buildings has further altered the exterior appearance of the Chapel. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Sistine Chapel is best known for being the location of Papal conclaves , or the election of a new pope. More commonly, it is the physical chapel of the Papal Chapel . At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, this corporate body comprised about 200 persons, including clerics, officials of the Vatican and distinguished laity. </li></ul><ul><li>There were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet. Of these 50 occasions, 35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, generally St. Peters, and were attended by large congregations. These included the Christmas Day and Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, for which the Sistine Chapel was purpose built on the site of its predecessor, the Cappella Maggiore , which had served the same purpose. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel also in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V , which had been decorated by Fra Angelico . The Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. According to a communication from Andreas of Trebizond to Pope Sixtus IV, by the time of its demolition to make way for the present chapel the Cappella Maggiore was in a ruinous state with its walls leaning, .  </li></ul><ul><li>The present chapel, on the site of the Cappella Maggiore , was designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV , for whom it is named, and built under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci between 1473 and 1484 . The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original closely. After its completion, the chapel was decorated with frescoes by a number of the most famous artists of the late 15th century, including Botticelli , Ghirlandaio and Perugino .  </li></ul><ul><li>The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on August 9, 1483 , the Feast of the Assumption , at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, and continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir for whom much original music has been written, the most famous piece being Allegri's Miserere , a setting of the psalm for Maundy Thursday . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Papal Conclave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main article: Papal conclave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the most significant functions of the Sistine Chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. The 1492 papal conclave was the first to use the Sistine Chapel for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>On the occasion of a conclave, a chimney is installed in the roof of the chapel, from which smoke arises as a signal. If white smoke appears, created by burning the ballots of the election and some chemical additives, a new Pope has been elected. If the cardinals send up black smoke, created by burning the ballots along with wet straw or other chemical additives, it means that no successful election has yet occurred. This method has become somewhat unreliable at times, with mixed readings of the chimney smoke as recently as the conclaves electing Pope John Paul I and Pope John XXIII . </li></ul><ul><li>During present-day meetings of cardinals, the chapel is carefully searched for bugs, recorders and cameras. The floor is raised to accommodate the necessary equipment. The Cardinals themselves are also not permitted to use cellular phones, or even newspapers, while sequestered to ensure total liberty to vote without any undue outside influences. In previous times, the windows were even painted over. </li></ul><ul><li>Canopies for each cardinal-elector were once used during conclaves — a sign of equal dignity. After the new Pope accepts his election, he would give his new name; at this time, the other Cardinals would tug on a rope attached to their seats to lower their canopies. Until reforms instituted by Saint Pius X, the canopies were of different colours to designate which Cardinals had been appointed by which Pope. Paul VI abolished the canopies altogether, since under his papacy, the population of the College of Cardinals had increased so much to the point that they would need to be seated in rows of two against the walls, making the canopies obstruct the view of the cardinals in the back row. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Architectural scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Real </li></ul><ul><li>The Sistine Chapel is 40.5 metres long and 14 metres wide . The ceiling rises to 20 metres above the main floor of the chapel. The vault is of quite a complex nature and it is unlikely that it was originally intended to have such complex decoration. Pier Matteo d'Amelia provided a plan for its decoration with the architectural elements picked out and the ceiling painted blue and dotted with gold stars, similar to that of the Arena Chapel decorated by Giotto at Padua . </li></ul><ul><li>The chapel walls have three horizontal tiers with six windows in the upper tier down each side. There were also two windows at each end, but these have been closed up above the altar when Michelangelo's Last Judgement was painted. Between the windows are large pendentives which support the vault. Between the pendentives are triangularly shaped arches or spandrels cut into the vault above each window. Above the height of the pendentives, the ceiling slopes gently without much deviation from the horizontal. This is the real architecture. Michelangelo has elaborated it with illusionary or fictive architecture. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Interior of the Sistine Chapel </li></ul><ul><li>As with most buildings measured internally, absolute measurement is hard to ascertain. However, the general proportions of the chapel are clear to within a few centimetres. The length is the module of measurement and has been divided by three to get the width and by two to get the height. There is a ratio of 6:2:3 between the length, width and height. Maintaining the ratio, there were six windows down each side and two at either end. The screen which divides the chapel was originally placed half way from the altar wall, but this has changed. Clearly defined proportions were a feature of Renaissance architecture and reflected the growing interest in the Classical heritage of Rome. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><li>The ceiling of the chapel is a flattened barrel vault springing from a course that encircles the walls at the level of the springing of the window arches. This barrel vault is cut transversely by smaller vaults over each window, which divide the barrel vault at its lowest level into a series of large pendentives rising from shallow pilasters between each window. The barrel vault was originally painted brilliant blue and dotted with gold stars, to the design of Pier Matteo d'Amelia. The pavement is in opus alexandrinum , a decorative style using marble and coloured stone in a pattern that reflects the earlier proportion in the division of the interior and also marks the processional way form the main door, used by the Pope on important occasions such as Palm Sunday . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><li>The screen or transenna in marble by Mino da Fiesole , Andrea Bregno and Giovanni Dalmata divides the chapel into two parts. Originally these made equal space for the members of the Papal Chapel within the sanctuary near the altar and the pilgrims and townsfolk without. However, with growth in the number of those attending the Pope, the screen was moved giving a reduced area for the faithful laity. </li></ul><ul><li>The transenna is surmounted by a row of ornate candlesticks, once gilt, and has a wooden door, where once there was an ornate door of gilded wrought iron. The sculptors of the transenna also provided the cantoria or projecting choir gallery. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The main components of the design are nine scenes from the Book of Genesis , of which five smaller ones are each framed and supported by four naked youths or "ignudi". At either end, and beneath the scenes are the figures of twelve men and women who prophesied the birth of Jesus. On the cresent-shaped areas, or "lunettes", above each of the chapel's windows are the Ancestors of Christ , identified by name. In the triangular spandrels above them are a further eight groups of figures, the identity of which is not known and which is subject to speculation. </li></ul><ul><li>The scheme is completed by four large corner pendentives each showing a dramatic Biblical story. The iconography of the ceiling has had various interpretations in the past, some elements of which have been contradicted by modern scholarship  and others of which continue to defy interpretation. Of interest to some modern scholars is the question of how Michelangelo's own spiritual and psychological state is reflected in the iconography and the artistic expression of the ceiling. </li></ul>
<ul><li>llusionary </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The spandrel above the Ozias Lunette showing painted architectural details and monochrome figures </li></ul><ul><li>The first element in the scheme of painted architecture is the defining of the real architectural elements by painted decorative courses that look like stone moldings.  The decorative courses have two repeating motifs, a formula common to such decorations in Classical Roman buildings.  In this case one motif is the acorn, the symbol of the Pope's family, the Rovere.  The other motif is the scallop shell, one of the symbols of the Blessed Virgin Mary to whom the chapel is dedicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Michelangelo's painted design are broad architectural ribs of travertine which appear to cross the ceiling from one pendentive to another, further supported by similar architectural bands at either end of the chapel. The ten painted cross-ribs divide the ceiling into alternately wide and narrow pictorial spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>God separating the waters from the heavens , showing the architectural framework and ignudi . </li></ul><ul><li>Above the level of the spandrels, where the ceiling flattens, is painted a strongly-projecting cornice that runs right around the ceiling, enclosing the main pictorial areas. These fictive architectural elements form a grid in which all the figures have defined spaces. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Integrated with the painted architecture are a great number of small figures the purpose of which appears to be purely decorative. These include two seemingly-marble putti below the cornice on each rib, stone rams-heads above the spandrels, figures like animated book-ends hiding in the shadows of the ribs and little putti, both clothed and unclothed who strike a variety of poses as they support the name-plates of the prophets and sybils. </li></ul><ul><li>Above the cornice and to either side of the smaller scenes are an array of round shields. They are in part supported by twenty more figures, not part of the architecture, but sitting on inlaid plinths, their feet planted convincingly on the fictive cornice. They are the so-called ignudi .   </li></ul>
<ul><li>Precursors and features of Baroque architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo 's late Roman buildings , particularly St. Peter's Basilica , may be considered precursors of Baroque architecture, as the design of the latter achieves a colossal unity that was previously unknown. His pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome, particularly in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesu , which leads directly to the most important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna by Carlo Maderno . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The sacred architecture of the Baroque period had its beginnings in the Italian paradigm of the basilica with crossed dome and nave . One of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù , was the church of Santa Susanna , designed by Carlo Maderno and built in. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, still maintaining rigor. They had domed roofs. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the 17th century , the Baroque style spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was particularly promoted by the Jesuits. Important features of Baroque architecture include: </li></ul><ul><li>long, narrow naves are replaced by broader, occasionally circular forms </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic use of light, either strong light-and-shade contrasts, chiaroscuro effects (e.g. church of Weltenburg Abbey ), or uniform lighting by means of several windows (e.g. church of Weingarten Abbey ) </li></ul><ul><li>opulent use of ornaments ( puttos made of wood (often gilded ), plaster or stucco , marble or faux finishing ) </li></ul>
<ul><li>large-scale ceiling frescoes </li></ul><ul><li>the external façade is often characterized by a dramatic central projection </li></ul><ul><li>the interior is often no more than a shell for painting and sculpture (especially in the late Baroque) </li></ul>
<ul><li>illusory effects like trompe l'oeil and the blending of painting and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>in the Bavarian , Czech , Polish , and Ukrainian Baroque , pear domes are ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Marian and Holy Trinity columns are erected in Catholic countries, often in thanksgiving for ending a plague </li></ul>
<ul><li>Though the tendency has been to see Baroque architecture as a European phenomenon, one must not forget that it coincided with -- and is integrally enmeshed with -- the rise of European colonialism . Colonialisms required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction.[ </li></ul>
<ul><li>Probably the best known example of such an approach is trapezoidal Saint Peter's Square , which has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre. The square is shaped by two colonnades, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini on an unprecedented colossal scale to suit the space and provide emotions of awe. Bernini's own favourite design was the polychromatic oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale (1658), which, with its lofty altar and soaring dome, provides a concentrated sampling of the new architecture. His idea of the Baroque townhouse is typified by the Palazzo Barberini (1629) and Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (1664), both in Rome. </li></ul>
Façade of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, bearing cardinal Pamphili crest.
<ul><li>Sant'Andrea al Quirinale is the church of the Jesuit seminary on the Quirinal Hill in Rome . </li></ul><ul><li>It was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Giovanni de' Rossi over two decades (1658-1678). The site previously hosted a 16th century church, San Andrea a Montecavallo. The new building was commissioned by Pope Alexander VII and Cardinal Camillo Pamphilj. It is considered one of the finest examples of Roman Baroque architecture , embedding art into the structure in an often seamless combination. Bernini considered it his only perfect work. In his late years, his son recalls, he spent hours sitting in the interior and looking at the polychrome marbles, gilded and bleached stuccoes, and light plays. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bernini's chief rival in the papal capital was Francesco Borromini , whose designs deviate from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance even more dramatically . </li></ul><ul><li>Acclaimed by later generations as a revolutionary in architecture, Borromini condemned the anthropomorphic approach of the 16th century, choosing to base his designs on complicated geometric figures (modules). Borromini's architectural space seems to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the late style of Michelangelo . His iconic masterpiece is the diminutive church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane ), distinguished by a corrugated oval plan and complex convex-concave rhythms. A later work, Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza ), displays the same antipathy to the flat surface and playful inventiveness, epitomized by a corkscrew lantern dome. </li></ul>
Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza is a church in Rome . The church is considered a masterpiece of Roman Baroque church architecture, built in