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Vulture status in the world and in pakistan

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Vulture status in the world and in pakistan

  1. 1. Roll No. 11933 Name: Muhammad Usman Topic: Status of Vultures in the World and In Pakistan My Presentation: Introduction BS Hons. Chemistry Evening 4th Semester Assignment Zoology
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION • Kingdom………………………. Animalia • Phylum…………………………. Chordata • Class……………………………. Aves • Families…………………………accipitridae ……………………………………(Aegypiinae) • …………………………..cathartidae
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Vultures are birds and play an important role in the environment as scavengers. They eat/consume the decayed and dead carcasses of animals and thus recycle the environment. There are two groups of the vultures found in the world. • Old world vultures: The Old World vultures found in in continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe • The New World vultures and condors found in continents of North and South America. • Vultures are not found in Australia and Antarctic. • These scavenger also save the spread of diseases from rotting carcasses which include rabies, anthrax, plague etc. and are stopping human deaths indirectly.
  4. 4. VULTURES OF PAKISTAN There are eight Vulture species in Pakistan. Seven are Native to Pakistan. • One (King/ Indian Black vulture) is vagrant. • Cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus • Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus • White-rumped vulture, Gyps bengalensis • ‘Indian vulture, Gyps indicus • Himalayan vulture, Gyps himalayensis • Red-headed vulture, Sarcogyps calvus • Bearded vulture (Lammergeier), Gypaetus barbatus • Griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus •
  5. 5. FEEDING • Vultures mostly eat wounded or sick animals. They do not eat healthy animals. Vultures are vital scavengers. They consumed the dead or decayed animal carcasses thus are recyclers of ecosystem.
  6. 6. Status • A decrease in the vultures’ populations was noticed in 1990’s. by Dr. Vibhu Parakash who belongs to Bombay Natural History Society as a principal scientist. He observed this status at Keoladeo National Park. As the issue was critical so international scientific societies focussed on the issue and searched for the possible responsible cause. There were many problems while searching for the cause like low availability of freshly dead carcass and extremely hot weather near about 40 °C. Some causes were not as largely responsible for the issue such as pesticide poisoning, bacteria or industrial pollutants. This was revealed by a search brought about by Zoological Society of London. So it was clear that there was some new cause behind the decline of vultures species.
  7. 7. CAUSES • After extensive research the main cause responsible for decline was found to be DICLOFENAC. A discovery made by Dr. Lindsey Oaks and his team in 2003. The main cause behind the large scale decline of vulture’s populations was diclofenac sodium. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal , anti-inflammatory drug. It was commonly used in South Asia to treat livestock fever or pain. This drug was extremely dangerous for the vultures. Vultures were affected when they consumed the carcass of the animal treated with diclofenac. Gyps species were particularly sensitive to diclofenac. White-rumped vultures populations Gyps bengalensis decreased by 99.7% from 1993-2003. Indian vulture Gyps indicus populations decreased by 97.4% and the same percentage decrease were found for slender- billed vultures Gyps tenuirotris. These three species were severely affected. The other species were less affected as compared to these three Gyps species. In South Asia populations of vultures are decreasing 20% to 40% each year since 2007.
  8. 8. Some other purposed causes of vulture decline include: Food shortage Food shortage has also contributed to some extent. It might not be as bigger reason as diclofenac. Persecution: Persecution means deliberate or accidental poisoning of the food that birds eat. It is an important cause of African vultures decline. Contaminants: Extensive use of agricultural chemicals such as DDT, Pesticides, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and heavy metals etc. might have also contributed towards the decline. Infectious disease: Renal and visceral gout presence, crystallization of the Uric acid in the tissues etc suggest the possibility of infectious diseases.
  9. 9. IUCN declared four species of vultures critically endangered in Asia currently 2008. These species include: • Oriental white-backed vulture or (White-rumped vulture)[Gyps bengalensis] on IUCN red list • Long-billed vulture [Gyps indicus] on IUCN red list • Slender-billed vulture [Gyps tenuirostris] on IUCN red list • Red-headed vulture or / [Sarcogyps calvus] on IUCN red list
  10. 10. Oriental white-backed vulture Red-headed vulture
  11. 11. Long-billed vulture Slender-billed vulture
  12. 12. Status of four species has been changed in IUCN Red list 2015 ▫ Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus: • status changed from Endangered to CRITICALLY ENDANGERED ▫ White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus: • status changed from Endangered to CRITICALLY ENDANGERED ▫ White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis: • status changed from Vulnerable to CRITICALLY ENDANGERED ▫ Rüppell's Vulture Gyps rueppellii: • status changed from Endangered to CRITICALLY ENDANGERED
  13. 13. The Solution - Vulture Safe Zones Definition of Vulture Safe Zones A zone where there is no diclofenac poisoning or very low risk of poisoning is called a vulture safe zone. In other words a diclofenac free area is called a safe zone. For sharp recovery of vultures it is required to protect and retain the remaining key birds in a vulture safe zone created in the wild. These sites are very important for the recovery of the birds since these are first release sites. Vulture Safe Zones and Vulture Conservation Breeding Centers are two parallel programs for the conservation of vultures and both are very important.
  14. 14. STATUS IN AFRICA Ruppells vulture…………………..97% declined White-headed…………………….96% declined Egyptian…………………………...92%declined Cape ………………………………92% declined White –backed…………………….90% declined Hooded…………………………..83% declined Lappet faced……………….…….80% declined Bearded…………………………..70% declined CAUSES 1) DICLOFENAC 2) Infectious disease: 3) Food shortage: 4) Persecution 5) Contaminants
  15. 15. REFERENCES • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_vulture_crisis • http://www.save-vultures.org/ • http://www.slideshare.net/ImadUlDinZangi/vulture-of-pakistan?qid=d62bd7db- 68f3-41ef-9b87-b8001d2a7efe&v=&b=&from_search=1 • http://www.birdlife.org/worldwide/news/2015-red-list-vultures-shorebirds-and- other-iconic-species
  16. 16. THANK YOU…….

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