Energy engineering

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Energy engineering

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore Energy Engineering Lab
  2. 2. Introduction Energy is often defined as the capacity to do work. Several different forms of energy, such as kinetic, potential, thermal, electromagnetic, chemical, and nuclear have been defined to explain all known natural phenomena. Energy is converted from one form to another, but it is never created or destroyed. This principle is called the conservation of energy. Energy engineering is a broad field of engineering dealing with energy efficiency, energy services, facility management, plant engineering, environmental compliance and alternative energy technologies. Chemical engineers work on process plants, where mass and energy are inputs to get product as an output. Engineers have to find ways to get product economically. So, they have to play with mass and energy so that good quality product is obtained in an economical manner with minimum and efficient use of energy. So, energy engineering is a very important field for chemical engineers and the lab of this subject provide the necessary practical knowledge to the students.
  3. 3. List of Equipment 1. Softening Point Apparatus 2. Swelling Index Apparatus 3. Carbon Residue Apparatus 4. Distillation Apparatus 5. Cleveland Open Cup Flash Point Apparatus 6. Close Cup Flash Point Apparatus (Pensky Marten’s Apparatus) 7. Saybolt Viscometer 8. Redwood Viscometer 9. Engler Viscometer 10. Aniline Point Apparatus 11. Cloud & Pour Point Apparatus 12. Solar Energy Minilab Apparatus
  4. 4. Details of Equipment Softening Point Apparatus This apparatus is used to measure softening point of bituminous coal. Softening point is the temperature degrees C at which a bitumen attains a particular degree of softness with reference to test conditions. Softening point will tell us that at what temperature the coal starts to soften. So, it will help us to know that at what temperature deterioration of roads started. Swelling Index Apparatus This apparatus is used to measure swelling index of coal. Swelling index indicates that how much the given amount of fuel swells after burning. It tells us an indication of the caking characteristics of the coal.
  5. 5. Carbon Residue Apparatus This apparatus is used to find carbon residue of an oil sample. The carbon residue of a fuel is the tendency to form carbon deposits under high temperature conditions in an inert atmosphere. High carbon residue can cause knocking and affect engine performance. Distillation Apparatus This apparatus is used to study the general process of distillation which is an important mass transfer operation in industry.
  6. 6. Cleveland Open-Cup Flash Point Apparatus This apparatus is used to measure the flash point and fire point of an oil sample in an open environment. The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture in air. The fire point is defined as the temperature at which the vapor continues to burn after being ignited. These are important temperatures in fuel storing. Close-Cup Flash Point Apparatus (Pensky Marten’s Apparatus) This apparatus is used to measure the flash point of an oil sample in close environment. This temperature is also important in fuel storing.
  7. 7. Saybolt Viscometer This equipment is used to study the variation of viscosity with respect to temperature. Because viscosity is used for various design calculations in chemical engineering. Redwood Viscometer This equipment is used to study the variation of viscosity with respect to temperature. Because viscosity is used for various design calculations in chemical engineering.
  8. 8. Engler Viscometer This equipment is used to study the variation of viscosity with respect to temperature. Because viscosity is used for various design calculations in chemical engineering. Aniline Point Apparatus This apparatus is used to measure aniline pint of oil sample. Aniline point is the temperature at which fuel and aniline become immiscible with each other. Aniline point is used in the determination of cetane number which tells us about the anti-knocking properties of diesel fuel.
  9. 9. Cloud & Pour Point Apparatus This equipment is used to measure cloud and pour point of oil sample. Cloud Point is the temperature at which waxy crystals in an oil or fuel form a cloudy appearance. The pour point can be defined as the minimum temperature of a liquid, particularly a lubricant, after which, on decreasing the temperature, the liquid ceases to flow. These temperatures are important for transportation and storage of fuels. Solar Energy Minilab Apparatus Solar energy is energy directly from the Sun. This energy is in the form of heat and light. This energy drives the climate, weather and supports virtually all life on Earth. This equipment is used to study solar energy as an environmental friendly source of energy as other fossil fuels are causing serious environmental problems and the behavior of different solar cells connected in series and parallel arrangements.
  10. 10. List of Experiments 1. To find out the softening point of pitch bituminous. 2. To determine the swelling index of coal. 3. To determine the carbon residue in the given samples of oil. 4. To carry out the distillation of gasoline. 5. To determine the flash point of a given sample of petroleum by open cup apparatus. 6. To determine the flash point of given sample of petroleum products by "Pensky Martens" apparatus. 7. To report the effect of temperature on the viscosity of the given sample by Saybolt Viscometer. 8. To report the effect of the temperature on the viscosity of given sample by Redwood Viscometer. 9. To report the effect of temperature on viscosity of the given sample of Engler Viscometer. 10. To determine aniline point of a petroleum product. 11. Determination of cloud and pour point of petroleum products 12. To measure the electric characteristics (voltage current curves) of a silicon solar cell. 13. To study how voltage current curves varies by: • Series connection of solar cells. • Parallel connection of solar cells.

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