Unit FourBy: Jasmine M., Demi C., Brandon A., Veronica A.
Question: From 1775 to 1830, many African Americans gained freedom from slavery, yet during the same period the institution of slavery expanded. Explain why BOTH of these changes took place. Analyze the ways that BOTH free African Americans and enslaved African Americans responded to the challenges confronting them.
Document A: Lord Dunmore was a Scottish Royal governor that offered the first large- scale emancipation of slave and servant labor in the history of colonial British America. Dunmore’s proclamation offered freedom to those who would rebel from their masters and serve the crown. Its purpose was to disable rebellion yet its effect was rather the reverse.
Document B:Paul Cuffe was a born free African American who is best known for his work in assisting free blacks who wanted to emigrate to Sierra Leone. Document B is a petition by Cuffe asking the Massachusetts government to either give African Americans and Native Americans voting rights or stop taxing them.
Document c Document C is two maps showing the difference from 1790 to 1830 of the expansion of slavery in the south Many areas that had the population of slavery under 10% became areas of 10-30% or 30-50% populated by slavery
Document D: Document D is a picture of African American Methodists showing Emotional exuberance for their religion.
Document E: Absalom Jones and Richard Allen were free African Americans who were removed from their seats during a Sunday mass due to the new decisions from the Methodist members that black members should sit only in the balcony. This event motivated Jones and Allen to establish the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Document E is a speech giving by Jones and Allen that is thanking the white people, such as their previous slave owners, for their goodness. It also advises the African Americans to show strength and not be lazy or otherwise their freedom will be taken away.
Document F: Venture Smith was an enslaved African American who in Document F is asking his master if he could purchase his freedom. His life was documented when he gave his narrative to a school teacher and she wrote it down and published it. This document gives an example of how some African Americans gained their freedom and how not all slave- owners were unfair and cruel.
Document G: “Ben” was a conspirator in Gabriel Posser’s Rebellion who in his confessions spoke of Posser’s plan to make the attack as soon as possible due to the country being unguarded. This is considered a reaction from the enslaved African Americans because many were afraid to rebel against their owners.
Document H: The Vermont Colonization Society was formed in the year of 1819 at the State House in Montpelier, Vermont. This document is about a letter written by the Vermont Colonization Society in regards to send all the African Americans to Africa. Their objectives of the Society were to: ◦ remove all African Americans, free and enslaved, from the United States to Liberia. ◦ introduce civilization into Africa. ◦ eradicate the slave trade. ◦ Extending the Christian religion
Document I: David Walker was an African American activist who was born to a free mother and an enslaved father in Wilmington, North Carolina. In 1829, while living in Boston, Massachusetts, Walker published Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, in which the purpose was a call to awaken other African Americans to the power of black unity and struggle. . In the document, Walker argues that African Americans are still not treated like Americans despite their hard labor and contributions they had made. He also points out that in spite of all the jobs that are bombarding the slaves, they will overcome those hardships and will eventually obtain their freedom by fighting with the guidance of God.
Document J: David Walker was the son of a slave and a free black mother, David Walker was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, perhaps in 1796 or 1797. In accordance with existing laws, since his mother was a free black, David Walker was also free. Walker began to associate with prominent black activists. He joined institutions that denounced slavery in the South and discrimination in the North. David Walker’s appeal was arguably the most radical of all anti-slavery documents, it was published in September 1829 to call slaves to revolt against their masters. David Walker was a free slave originally from the South, this document was to install pride to black slaves and give hope that it would someday change.
Thesis: From 1775 to 1830, slavery in the North decreased because of the formation of moral groups and slavery increased in the South because of agricultural expansion. Both free and enslaved African Americans responded to the challenges confronting them through different forms of resistance such running away, rebelling, and advertising the conflicts.
Body Paragraph #1: Gainedfreedom Outside information ◦ Transcendalists ◦ The Foreign Slave Trade ◦ Abolitionist ◦ Underground Railroad ◦ American Colonization Society Documents: A, F, and H
Body paragraph #2: Expansion ofSlavery Outside Information ◦ Cotton gin ◦ Slave codes ◦ Foreign slave trade ◦ Anti-abolitionists Document: C
Body paragraph #3: Free AfricanAmericans’ Responses Outside information: ◦ Frederick Douglass (The North Star) ◦ Harriet Tubman ◦ Underground railroad ◦ Abolitionists Document: B, D, E, I
Body paragraph #4: EnslavedAfrican Americans’ responses Outside information ◦ Running away ◦ “Sambo” pattern ◦ Nat Turner’s rebellion ◦ Denmark Vesey’s rebellion ◦ “Pidgin” Document: J, G