The New Left In the 1960s, many radical American college and university students formed the New Left, which embraced the cause of African Americans and other minorities, but its own ranks consisted largely of white people. The New Left drew from the writing of some social critics, including sociologist (C. Wright Mills, criticizing modern bureaucracies), communists, and the writing of Karl Marx and Marxist theorists. In 1962, a group of famous university students formed Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and declared the Port Huron Statement which expressed their disillusionment and their determination to build a new politics. 3
The New Left cont. In 1964, the Free Speech Movementcreated turmoil at UC Berkeley to challengecampus police, occupy administrativeoffices, and produce a strike.Its issue was the right of students to passout literature and recruit volunteers forpolitical causes on campus. This led to thewidespread of riots, demonstrations, andbuilding seizures by the students. In 1969, a battle over the efforts of students to build a “People’s Park” on a vacant lot the university planned to build a parking garage took place in UC Berkeley. In the end, the students won a referendum to leave the park alone.
The New Left cont. The “Weathermen” was a violent offshoot of SDS. It was responsible for few cases of arson and bombing. Many people supported SDS and other groups in the issue of war. October 1967, student activists march on the Pentagon, the “spring mobilization” of April 1968 and the Vietnam “moratorium” of 1969 thrust the issue of the war into American politics. Other opposition to the war was showed through the refusing and the escaping of the people from military drafts.
Counterculture The counterculture was a new youth culture who openly scornful of the values and convention of middle class society. The “Hippies” flaunted long hair, shabby or flamboyant clothing, and a rebellious disdain for traditional speech and decorum. Central to the counterculture was drug and more permissive view of sexual behavior. Rock music was popular in the new youth society, and caused the popularity of the Beatles. They used music to express the themes of the social and political unrest of the late 1960s. 6
• Seedsand 1970s, half of the Indians lived on the In the late 1960s of Indian Militancy reservations, where joblessness was high, and had limited education.• After the resignation of John Collier as Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1946, federal policy turned toward assimilation of Indians into American society.• Two laws passed in 1953 established a policy called termination, which made Indians subject to the same jurisdiction as whites.• It led to a mobilization of a new generation of Indian militants, who created, in 1944, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).• In 1958, Eisenhower barred the terminations.
The Indian Civil Rights Movement• American Indian Movement (AIM)-- In 1961, members of tribes gathered in Chicago, where they stressed the right to choose their own way of life. In 1968, the American Indian Movement (AIM) was created.• In 1968, Congress passed the Indian Civil Rights Act, which recognized the legitimacy of tribal laws, but the Indians were not satisfied.• The Indian Removal Act of 1830 characterized the US government policy of Indian removal, which called for the relocation of Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river.• In 1969, 1970, the Nixon administration appointed a Mohawk- Sioux to be Commissioner of Indian Affairs. He promised to increase tribal self-determination, and an increase in federal aid. In November 1972, protesters occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C.
The Indian Civil Rights Movement cont.• In United States v. Wheeler (1978), the Supreme Court ruled the tribes were legally independent and could not be terminated by Congress. In 1985, County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation, the Court supported Indian claims to the land in upstate New York.• The movement fell apart because it did not unite all Indians, but it did help the tribes to win a series of new legal rights and protections.
Hispanic Americans Latinos (Hispanic Americans) are the fastest growing minority group in the US. (the descendants of early Spanish settlers + immigrants during WWII) After the war, large numbers of immigrants continued to move to the US illegally. In 1953, Operation Wetback attempted to deport illegals, but it failed. Mexican Americans and others were slower to develop political influence because of their foreign language, family-centered culture and discrimination. One of the efforts to organize Mexican Americans occurred in CA, where Cesar Chavez created a union of farm workers. In 1965, his United Farm Workers (UFW) launched a strike to demand recognition of their union and increased wages and benefits.
Hispanic Americans cont. Another controversy was the issue of bilingualism. Supporters argued that non-English-speaking Americans were entitled to schooling in their own language. In 1974, the Supreme Court confirmed the right of non- English-speaking students to schooling in their native language. “Melting pot" -- came in 1960s, when more and more new immigrant groups wanted to maintain their culture and heritage and refused the idea of assimilation, which became successful and led to the creation of the multiculturalism in the U.S.
Gay Liberation Gay Liberation-- in the 1960s, homosexuals won political and economic rights and social acceptance. “Stonewall Riot”- On June 27, 1969, police raided the Stonewall Inn, a gay nightclub in New York City’s Greenwich Village. Gay onlookers taunted the police and attacked them. Rioting continued in Greenwich Village through the night ---the beginning of the movement. Impact- The movement helped gays and lesbians to express their preferences openly and to demand from society a recognition that gay relationships were as worthy as heterosexual ones.
Gay Liberation cont. In 1993, President Bill Clinton lifted the ban on gays serving in the military, but “Don’t ask, don’t tell” met with criticism from the Congress. In 2010, President Obama signed the repeal of “Don’t ask, don’t tell.”v George W. Bush proposed a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage
Women’s Liberation The 1963 publication of Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique played an important role in women’s liberation. Friedan stated that women didn’t have outlets for their intelligence, talent, and education. The Feminine Mystique was a book by Betty Friedan who traveled around the country and interviewed the women who had graduated with her from Smith College in 1947. The Feminine Mystique reflects the fact that during the 1960s, feminism tended to be a movement of middle -class women. John Kennedy established the President’s Commission on the Status of Women which brought national attention to sexual discrimination and helped to create important work of feminist activists. With this, in 1963, the Kennedy administration helped passage of the Equal Pay Act, which barred the pervasive practice of paying women less then men for equal work. And Title VII of Civil Rights Act, that extended to women many legal protections against discrimination.
Women’s Liberation cont. In 1966, Friedan and other feminists created the National Organization for Women (NOW) which became the largest and most influential feminist organization. It demanded greater educational opportunities for women and denounce the domestic ideal and the traditional concept of marriage.· Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics (1969) signaled the new direction of women’s movement by arguing that the answer to women’s problem was to band together to assault the male power structure.
Expanding Achievements By the early 1970s, Women got rapid progress in the economic and political mainstream. More educational institution began to accept women, so did women’s college. Women were also becoming an important force in business and the professions. many women refused to adopt their husbands’ names; women began to compete effectively with men for both elected and appointive positions. 17
Expanding Achievements cont. In professional athletics, women were beginning to compete with men both for attention and for an equal share of prize money. In 1972, Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). The ERA was in trouble because of the rising objections from people who feared that it would disrupt the social patterns..
The Abortion Controversy Abortion was allowed in much of the United States, but banned in most of the country in the early 20th century. Women’s movement created strong new pressure on behalf of legalizing abortion. Result: In 1973, the Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade, based on a relatively new theory of a constitutional “right to private”, invalidated all laws prohibiting abortion during the first three months of pregnancy.
The New Science of Ecology Ecology is the science of the interrelatedness of the natural world. All elements of the earth’s environment are intimately and delicately linked, and damage any one of those elements will risk damage all the others. Between 1945 and 1960, the number of ecologists in the United States grew rapidly, and that number double against between 1960 and 1970.
The New Science of Ecology cont. In 1949, the writer and naturalist Aldo Leopold published a classic of environmental literature, The Sand County Almanac, in which he argued that human have a responsibility to understand and maintain the balance of the nature, and it had the greatest contribution to popular knowledge of ecology. In 1962, the book called Silent Spring wrote by Rachel Carson had a large important in the emerging ideas of ecology. She found the damaging effect of DDT on the animals and inhibiting the ability of others to reproduce.
Environmental Advocacy, Degradation and Earth Day Among the most important environmental organizations of the late 20th and early 21st centuries were the Wilderness Society, the Sierra Club, the National Audubon Society, the Nature Conservancy, the National Wildlife Federation, and the National Parks and Conservation Association There was a new generation of professional environmental activists able to contribute to the legal and political battles of the movement, like scientists, lawyers, and lobbyists. Water and air pollution (like “smog” level) was becoming widespread around the world. Environmentalists also brought to public attention some longer-term dangers of unchecked industries development. Los Angeles, today, is one of the polluted cities in the nation, along with other cities in California, such as Bakerfield. 23
Environmental Advocacy, Degradation and Earth Day cont. The First “Earth Day” was on April 22, 1970, which was originally proposed by Wisconsin senator Gaylord Nelson as a series of teach-ins on college campuses In 1970, Congress passed and President Nixon signed the National Environmental Protection Act, which create the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enforce antipollution standards on business and consumers. The Clean Air Act, passed in 1970, and the Clean Water Act, passed in 1972, added tools to the government’s power against environmental degradation.
Vietnamization Henry Kissinger was President Nixon’s national security adviser. Part of the new Vietnam policy was an effort to limit domestic opposition to the war. The administration devised a new “lottery” system, which only a limited group would be subject to conscription in the draft. More important in stifling dissent was the new policy of “Vietnamization” of the war – the training of the South Vietnamese military. In 1969, Pres.Nixon announced a slow reduction of 60,000 American ground troops from Vietnam which continued steadily. Vietnamization helped quiet domestic opposition to the war. But it didn’t break the stalemate in the negotiations with the North Vietnamese in Paris.
Escalation Nixon ordered the air force to bomb Cambodian territory to destroy the enemy sanctuaries. The invasion restored the antiwar movement in the US. Hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Washington, D.C. to denounce Pres. Nixon’s policies in the first days of May. On May 4, four college students were killed by the National Guard when trying to protest at Kent State University.∀ In June 1971, the New York Times began publishing excerpts from a secret study of the war prepared by the Defense Department known as the Pentagon Papers, which provided evidence of the government’s dishonesty in reporting military progress.
Escalation cont. By 1971, many urged American withdrawal from Vietnam. Nixon refused.The FBI and CIA intensified their surveillance and infiltration of antiwar and radical groups. In March 1972, American and South Vietnamese forces managed to halt the communist advance. Nixon ordered planes to bomb targets near Hanoi and Haiphong to stop the flow of supplies from China and the Soviet Union.
“Peace with Honor” In April 1972, Kissinger met privately in Paris with the North Vietnamese foreign secretary, Le Duc Tho, to work out terms for cease-fire. On Oct. 26, he announced that a “Peace with Honor” agreement was at hand. But on Dec. 16, talks broke off. December 17, American B-52 bombers began again the air raids on Hanoi, Haiphong and other North Vietnamese targets. Civilian casualties were high. On Dec. 30 Nixon terminated the “Christmas bombing.” The U.S. and North Vietnamese signed an agreement on ending the war on Jan. 27, 1973.
Defeat in Indochina In March 1975, the North Vietnamese launched a full- scale offensive against the weakened forces of the south. Pres.Thieu of South Vietnam appealed to Washington for assistance; the Congress refused. In April 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon. Pres.Thieu regime fled the country. The communist took over the capital, renaming it Ho Chi Minh City. In Cambodia, the Lon Nol regime fell to the communists of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. U.S. spent almost $150 billion in this war. 55,000 young Americans died. 300,000 more were injured. The nation suffered a heavy blow to its confidence and self-esteem.
China America had recognized Taiwan as the legitimate government of mainland China. In July 1971, Pres.Nixon sent Kissinger secretly to Beijing. That fall, the UN admitted the communist government of China and expelled the representatives of the Taiwan regime. In February 1972, Nixon went to China. He was the first American president to visit China. The US and China began diplomatic relations.
Soviet Unionv In 1969, American and Soviet diplomats talked on limiting nuclear weapons. Nixon’s visit to Soviet Union led to a series of agreements that reduced tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The most important agreements were: In 1972, they produced the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), which limited the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine launched missiles each superpower could have in its arsenal. “Detente,” the foreign policy of decreasing tensions with the Soviet Union, began in the first term of Nixon administration. There was also a series of agreements that expanded trade between the two superpowers.
The Problems of Multipolarity∀ The Nixon Doctrine (1969), was characterized by a decline of American interest in contributing to Third World development. The Nixon-Kissinger policy toward the Third World was to maintain a stable status quo without involving the US in local disputes. In 1970, the CIA helped support the established government in Chile against a communist challenge. When Salvador Allende, the Marxist, came to power, the US began helping the opposition forces to help destabilize the new government. In 1973, the government was overthrown by the army. The US developed friendly relationship with General Augusto Pinochet, a new leader of Chile.
The Problems of Multipolarity cont. In the Middle East, the 1967 “Six-Day War” increased the number of Palestinian refugees. Jordan’s ruler, King Hussein, was alarmed by the influx of Palestinians and by the activities of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), which would threaten the relationship with US. In Oct. 1973, on the Jewish Holiday of Yom Kippur, Egyptian and Syrian forces attacked Israel. The Israelis launched a counteroffensive against the forces in Sinai. The US intervened, pressuring Israel to accept a cease-fire. A painful embargo by the Arab governments on the sale of oil to supporters of Israel in 1973 provided warning of the costs of losing access to the region’s resources. It showed the growing dependence of the US and its allies on Arab oil. In 1973, the nations of the Third World could no longer be expected to be passive client states. The US could no longer depend on easy access to cheap raw materials.
Domestic Initiatives Nixon’s domestic policies were a response to the demands of his people – the “silent majority”, conservative, middle class, who wanted to reduce federal “interference” in local. He began to reduce many of the social programs of the Great Society (Lyndon B. Johnson, two main goals: the elimination of poverty and racial injustice )and the New Frontier, (John F. Kennedy, looked for new opportunity in space, medicine, technology and social relations ) In 1973, he abolished the Office of Economic Opportunity, which is the center of the antipoverty program of the Johnson administration.
Domestic Initiatives cont. Nixon proposed to replaced the existing welfare system, with the Family Assistance Plan (FAP), which created a guaranteed annual income for all Americans Although Nixon proposed this plan, he presented it as something that would reduce the role of government and transfer to welfare recipients themselves daily responsibility for their own lives. It passed the House in 1970, but not the Senate.
From the Warren Court to the Nixon Court In Engel v. Vitale(1962), the Court ruled that prayers in public schools violated the constitutional separation of church and state. The Court greatly strengthened the civil rights of criminal defendants. For example, In Miranda v. Arizona, the Court confirmed the obligation of authorities to inform a criminal suspect of his or her rights. The Warren Court became the target of Americans who felt the balance of power had shifted too far toward the poor and dispossessed at the expense of the middle class, and toward criminal at the expense of law-abiding citizens.
From the Warren Court to the Nixon Court cont. In 1962, Baker v. Carr, the Court required state legislatures to distribute proportionally electoral districts so that all citizens votes would have equal weight. It strengthened the voting power of African Americans, Hispanics, and others concentrated in cities. Nixon replaced the Court with Warren Burger. The new Court become more committed. In Swann v. Charlotte-Meckelenburg Board of Education, Court ruled in favor of the use of forced busing to achieve racial balance in schools. Roe v. Wade, it struck down laws forbidding abortions. Bake v. Broad of Regents of California, ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for African American students.
The Election of 1972 In the election of 1972, Nixon’s reelection committee collected money to support the campaign. He himself used the powers of the president concentrating on highly publicized international decisions and state visits. George Wallace ran in the Democratic primaries. But Nixon feared that Wallace would launch a third- party campaign again.
The Election of 1972 cont. The Democrats nominated George McGovern, who profited greatly from party reforms that reduced the power of party leaders and gave increased influence to women, blacks and young people. Nixon won reelection. 60.7% vs 37.5%. 520 to 17.
The Troubled Economy For past three decades, the American economy had produced as much as the third of the worlds industrial goods and has dominated international trade, because of the absence of significant foreign competition and easy access to raw materials. Inflation was the most disturbing economic problem of the 1970s. That was caused by a significant increase in federal deficit spending which tried to fund the war in Vietnam without raising taxes. It was also caused by the harder access to cheap raw materials. Domestic petroleum reserves were no longer sufficient to meet demand, the nation was heavily dependent on imports from the Middle East and Africa.
The Troubled Economy cont. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Counties (OPEC) in the 1970s began to use its oil both as an economic tool and as a political weapon by cutting the ship of Petroleum to nations supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War. Another problem of American economy: the decline of nations manufacturing sector because the U.S manufacturing faced major competition from abroad and also at home. Deindustrialization: The result was a growing pool of unemployed and underemployed workers; the virtual disappearance of industrial jobs; the impoverishment of communities dependent on oracular industries.
The Nixon Response Nixon responded to this economic problems by focusing on the control of the currency to reduce the inflation. But his response didn’t solve the problem. The U.S. encountered a new dilemma: “stagflation,” a combination of rising prices and general economic stagnation. In the summer of 1971, Nixon imposed a 90 days freeze on all wages and prices. In November, he launched Phase II of his economic plan: mandatory guidelines for wage and price increases, to be administered by a federal agency.
The Nixon Response cont. In 1971, the administration reversed itself: interest rates were allowed to drop and government spending was increased. This helped revive the economy in the short term. The nation’s international trade continued to decline in the 1970s