Information Architecture (Breakfast Edition) Ross Philip – Principal UX Consultant
Good Morning…
What we will cover…•   What is Information Architecture?•   Core Tools & Techniques•   Applying these approaches•   Relate...
Information Architecture                    • Definition – “The art and science of                    organizing and label...
IA: Where Does Fit in the Design Process?                           Iterative process                              Discov...
A User-Centred Design (UCD) process Concept/Plan                Design • Contextual Analysis       •   Wireframing • User ...
IA & Findability• The ‘backbone’ of a website• Critical for a good user experience• Navigation labels can be seen as stepp...
How Users Look for Information 1• Finding known items e.g. What is/who was…    Supported by: Search/A –Z• Exploring – “It...
How Users Look for Information 2• The broad picture    Support: High level overviews• In detail    Broad overview and th...
Benefits•   Reduced search times/increased task success•   Reduced frustration and increased customer satisfaction•   Decr...
What we will cover…•   What is Information Architecture?•   Core Tools & Techniques•   Applying these approaches•   Relate...
Core Tools & Techniques• Card Sorting      Bottom Up      Classification and similarity/proximity      Open vs. Closed ...
#1 Card Sorting - Offline                                                                                                 ...
#2 – Card Sorting - OnlineWebsort/Optimal Sort/UserZoom   Best use: Smaller Studies, Limited time and Budget, Back up Offl...
Categorisation Exercise Proof1.   Select a specific item / destination2.   Offer set of categories where it may be located...
#3 Tree/Category Testing - Offline  Best use: Best Approach if time and budget allow (Validation)  Advantages: Detailed An...
#4 Tree/Category Testing - OnlineNaviewApp/Tree Jack/UserZoom  Best use: Quick testing with many users online (Best as bac...
#5 Heuristic Evaluations  Best use: Limited time and budget  Advantages: Fast, relatively cheap, expert method, useful for...
IA Best Practice Principles – Some Heuristics• Collocation | Is similar content placed together? Is it easy for users to u...
What we will cover…•   What is Information Architecture?•   Core Tools & Techniques•   Applying these approaches•   Relate...
The (Ideal) IA Design ProcessUser Research                                                                                ...
The Problem of Large Sites 1• How to carry out analysis?    Potential Challenges• Lots of content (000’s of lines/items)•...
The Problem of Large Sites 2• Solutions    Limit Depth e.g. L1-L3    Limit Scope: Exclude lower priority areas and/or fo...
What we will cover…•   What is Information Architecture?•   Core Tools & Techniques•   Applying these approaches•   Relate...
Some Related Concepts/Methods• Content Inventory/Audit• Controlled Vocabularies• Faceted Navigation   Content Inventory/A...
Controlled Vocabulary / Thesaurus                                                                         Communications i...
Faceted Navigation/Search 1• Traditionally two search models    Navigational - based on hierarchical taxonomy    Direct ...
Faceted Navigation/Search 2• Info sought has multiple different dimensions    Book – Author, Subject, Publisher    Now C...
Faceted IA Examples - Comet
Faceted IA Examples – E-bay
Faceted IA Examples – Top Gear Car Chooser
How to make a Faceted IA – Quick Overview• Domain Sampling - Collect a representative sample of all  entities e.g. Books.•...
Some Useful ResourcesWeb Resources:• IA Institute - http://iainstitute.org/• Boxes & arrows - http://www.boxesandarrows.co...
Eye trackingQuestions?
Thank You Ross Philip Principal User Experience Consultant User Vision 55 North Castle Street Edinburgh EH2 3QA T: 0131 22...
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Breakfast Briefing – Information Architecture

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Breakfast Briefing – Information Architecture

  1. 1. Information Architecture (Breakfast Edition) Ross Philip – Principal UX Consultant
  2. 2. Good Morning…
  3. 3. What we will cover…• What is Information Architecture?• Core Tools & Techniques• Applying these approaches• Related Approaches/Methods
  4. 4. Information Architecture • Definition – “The art and science of organizing and labelling information spaces (including web sites, intranets, mobile apps, and software) to support findability and usability.” • Categorisation – the grouping / clumping of content • Labelling – how you label those categories • Navigation – providing users with a set of paths to help them find way through site, i.e. cross-linking to allow users to easily find information based on their own mental model • Search – allow the entry of user-defined query and present matching results, with special results highlighted
  5. 5. IA: Where Does Fit in the Design Process? Iterative process Discovery Definition/Conceptual Design IA Design Visual Design Handoff-Implementation Integrated with content development, interaction design, graphic design, usability The Elements of User Experience, Jesse James Garrett, http://jjg.net
  6. 6. A User-Centred Design (UCD) process Concept/Plan Design • Contextual Analysis • Wireframing • User Profiling/Persona • Prototyping development • Co-Design Workshops • User Needs Analysis • Competitive Design • IA Analysis Live Support Evaluate • Customer Surveys • Usability Testing • Analytics • Expert Evaluation • A/B Testing • Eye-tracking • Multi-variate Testing • Accessibility Audits
  7. 7. IA & Findability• The ‘backbone’ of a website• Critical for a good user experience• Navigation labels can be seen as stepping stones  Provide ‘Scent of Information’• Clear ‘scent’ gives users continued confidence• If not, they either search, give up, or assume the information is not there… Without a clearly labelled and meaningful IA, much of the work on the presentation and aesthetics will be unsuccessful
  8. 8. How Users Look for Information 1• Finding known items e.g. What is/who was…  Supported by: Search/A –Z• Exploring – “It’s kind of like this…”  Supported by: Concise and meaningful trigger words/related links• Refining and narrowing – “I want a recipe with smoked salmon in it…”  Supported by: Filters/Faceted Navigation• Comparing  Need a good understanding of what criteria are important and decision making process – tipping point
  9. 9. How Users Look for Information 2• The broad picture  Support: High level overviews• In detail  Broad overview and then increasing detail – layers of information• Discovering unknown things… “the unknown unknowns”  Things you didn’t know existed, but are interested in  Related to exploration, research and getting the broader picture  Serendipitous finding…  “You want X but need Y” or “You want X but need X, Y, Z and A, B and C too”  Support: Overviews, Related Links, Effective Trigger words/A-Z
  10. 10. Benefits• Reduced search times/increased task success• Reduced frustration and increased customer satisfaction• Decreased maintenance costs and longer website lifespan• Better alignment between your business goals and website• Fewer calls to customer service• Better search engine performance• Improved brand value, loyalty and repeat business• Enhanced competitive position
  11. 11. What we will cover…• What is Information Architecture?• Core Tools & Techniques• Applying these approaches• Related Approaches/Methods
  12. 12. Core Tools & Techniques• Card Sorting  Bottom Up  Classification and similarity/proximity  Open vs. Closed  Exploratory• Category Testing (Tree Testing)  Top Down  Browsing and recognition  More representative of users looking for information  Validation• Expert Methods  Heuristic Evaluation
  13. 13. #1 Card Sorting - Offline All epa gin l B ss ion R ana ocia sne lus H ua en ns a Ma nc ur +++ Financial Inclusion M ti-s les l Inc Eq esid tio and ena vio e nv nd inte s ub Ma D em ting nc ie +++ Homelessness R oca irs g T eha Fr IH P ing and olv let na An ome cia O lin Dow lica inte ers ent s +++ Anti-social Behaviour an Fin +++ Managing TenanciesSyncaps/Excel Spreadsheets +++ Repairs and Maintenance nc y H tio na it +++ Allocations and lettings e iv +++ Resident Involvement tI +++ Equality and Diversity Fr IH R e O ook ad s n C us lity +++ Housing Maintenance C ee es rde sto s +++ CIH Publications C IH p Pol ear r F re B nlo C IH P oli icy ch orm ns +++ Free Downloads o tio +++ Online Bookstore ca O ee bli +++ Offline Order Form ffli e Pu n +++ CIH Research n +++ Free Policy Publications C ns rac y c Se onfe ult C tice +++ CIH policy C n H +++ CIH Practice I s ry ar ce +++ Consult CIH ha ing Ap en s D min re +++ Conferences t ain To g E en o H ous Of s ts Ev +++ Seminars ps g v ks inin +++ Diary Of Events C ec s N Co ly Sp es es t W - T s Fe urs lis ew rse p or ra +++ Housing Events ow in ia u ho +++ How To Apply H +++ Training Courses +++ Whats New - Training C IH C l L ffe ding Tr t ia +++ Specialist Workshops W un er eav rs Sp Sc ec & F +++ Courses N ork r C ifica ers O o G VQ ing ha tes +++ Fees & Funding ho ial H ers g sin +++ Special Offers In ng o t ou +++ School Leavers lif me n +++ CIH Certificates io te Me ies CI ua am d) e at de C W are +++ Career Changers ic At al Q ogr Pr ade ate Q C ply ers hip be mb es (Ad u V es n Pr +++ Working In Housing ra /S Va ofe rsh s Fe e Fe g ls Va nc ssio ip in +++ NVQ/SVQ na M em t M na ship us ip in H Le d sio sh +++ Graduates M nan atio ber Ho hip F rsh er es +++ Leadership Programme ss of U can s ie Pr r H ip re Pr +++ Professional Qualification n Ap em ber em l M c og R io +++ Vancies At CIH Te rn m hip o +++ Vacancies in Housing (Added) rs K be +++ UK Membership Fees nd T ilty em s In +++ International Membership Fees M ne fits Co tes gib uc o M Be ne Of ou Eli +++ Tenant Membership b Be de l R our +++ Membership For HR Professionals t C ec k Y +++ Membership Progression Sp hec Ad t In ho You ec e ts +++ Apply ia g Yo ve vo s W r A tory un D ka +++ Check Your Eligibilty D ur rtis lved ho cco C ana ers Pac ip et ns IH or rsh +++ Special Routes To Membership ir IH Sp ur C o M mb fits o +++ Code Of Conduct Su isto tory al C and Yo k o +++ Benefits In G IH W ge w e +++ Benefits Package N +++ Members Directory H ec Loc g in +++ Manage Your Accounts e e nc +++ CIH Whos Who na U onta Loc Pla d G rs +++ Get Involved In Your CIH er C ur ess An rtne Bu ruc gic ries ov +++ Advertising and Sponsorship St bs ry ir Yo sin ture Pa St rate ia +++ Your Local CIH Network id N sefu ct atio n +++ Directory n +++ History +++ Subsidiaries s Lin s U +++ Strategic Partners ks +++ Structure And Governance ew l A +++ Business Plan ed +++ Your Location iz rd +++ Contact Us da an +++ Useful Links St +++ News Best use: Best approach if time and budget allow (Formative) Advantages: Thorough, Detailed, Qualitative Feedback, Moderated Disadvantages: Cost, Time (Collection and Analysis) Caution - No Instant IA!
  14. 14. #2 – Card Sorting - OnlineWebsort/Optimal Sort/UserZoom Best use: Smaller Studies, Limited time and Budget, Back up Offline Studies. Advantages: Fast, cheap, online access, conducted remotely. Disadvantages: limited screen space, understanding process, no verbal feedback
  15. 15. Categorisation Exercise Proof1. Select a specific item / destination2. Offer set of categories where it may be located3. Record success / failure in placing the item4. Reasons for failure - Item name, group label/structure?  Level 2 Level 1 Level 3 Level 4  Can be tested in a number of ways:- Online – Naviewapp- Offline – Category Testing or through basic wireframes
  16. 16. #3 Tree/Category Testing - Offline Best use: Best Approach if time and budget allow (Validation) Advantages: Detailed Analysis for each level, Qualitative Feedback. Disadvantages: Cost, Time (Set-up and Data Collection).
  17. 17. #4 Tree/Category Testing - OnlineNaviewApp/Tree Jack/UserZoom Best use: Quick testing with many users online (Best as backup to Offline). Advantages: Fast, relatively cheap, online access, conducted remotely. Disadvantages: Software restrictions, understanding process, no verbal feedback.
  18. 18. #5 Heuristic Evaluations Best use: Limited time and budget Advantages: Fast, relatively cheap, expert method, useful for competitive studies Disadvantages: No user feedback
  19. 19. IA Best Practice Principles – Some Heuristics• Collocation | Is similar content placed together? Is it easy for users to understand how different areas are related?• Differentiation | Is different content placed apart? Do the navigation labels clearly indicate those differences?• Information scent | Are the labels and headings sufficiently descriptive for users– “What is this/Am I going in the right direction”?• Scope | Can the user understand the breadth and depth of content on a topic? Can users get a sense of how long their search for information may take?• Multiple access paths | Users think about content in different ways – does the IA support these different routes to the same content/related content?• Appropriate structure | Is the organising principle of the site obvious and useful ? Does it match user’s mental models? Does it support differences in information seeking behaviours?
  20. 20. What we will cover…• What is Information Architecture?• Core Tools & Techniques• Applying these approaches• Related Approaches/Methods
  21. 21. The (Ideal) IA Design ProcessUser Research Wireframing Identify Users Wireframes illustrating IAKey User Journeys and key journeys User Needs 1 - Card Sorting Validated IA 3 - Category Testing Offline Card Sort Refined Labels & Validate IA Grouping Online Card Sort Key User Journeys 2 - IA Workshop Consolidated Interim Interim IA Report & Discuss Card Sort IA Results & Interim IA Alignment with content and domain experts
  22. 22. The Problem of Large Sites 1• How to carry out analysis?  Potential Challenges• Lots of content (000’s of lines/items)• Deep hierarchies• Constraints  Card Sort: 100 Cards in an hour/Less Offline  Category Testing: 20-25 Topics in 30 mins.  Project Time and Budget
  23. 23. The Problem of Large Sites 2• Solutions  Limit Depth e.g. L1-L3  Limit Scope: Exclude lower priority areas and/or focus on areas supporting user journeys  Priority Content and known problem areas  Multiple Card Sorts – Lower Levels First  Multiple user groups? Focus on content for each group plus some general – overlap• Topics selected should ideally be 50-60% of the content at the levels selected for analysis  Increasing chance of spurious or invalid results if less.
  24. 24. What we will cover…• What is Information Architecture?• Core Tools & Techniques• Applying these approaches• Related Approaches/Methods
  25. 25. Some Related Concepts/Methods• Content Inventory/Audit• Controlled Vocabularies• Faceted Navigation  Content Inventory/Audit  Essential groundwork  Can be significant  Depending on requirements best carried out by client
  26. 26. Controlled Vocabulary / Thesaurus Communications industries UF: Video recording industry Broader term UF: Printing industry Employing UF: Publishing industry people UF: Sound recording industry UF: Telecommunications industry BT: Business sectors Hierarchical RT: Music Variant RT: AdvertisingVariant term Equivalence Preferred Equivalence term RT: Media and the press termEmployment RT: Visual arts legislation Employment Work RT: e-Commerce law regulations RT: Films and film making RT: Electronics industry Hierarchical RT: Information and communication technology Associative Associative RT: Internet Narrower Terms RT: Postal services Related Related RT: Telephone services term Disability discrimination term RT: Printing and copying services laws, dismissal & notice Industrial Wage Board From IPSV periods, employee UF = Used For tribunals rights, working hours, equal BT = Broader Term opportunities … RT = Related Term NT = Narrower Term
  27. 27. Faceted Navigation/Search 1• Traditionally two search models  Navigational - based on hierarchical taxonomy  Direct search• Faceted Search/Navigation  Elements classified on multiple dimensions  Access using multiple filters  Filter order flexible – not pre-determined
  28. 28. Faceted Navigation/Search 2• Info sought has multiple different dimensions  Book – Author, Subject, Publisher  Now Common in Online Shops• Simple Classifications  Ranganathan’s Colon: 5 facets – Personality, Matter, Energy, Space & Time  Bliss Bibliographic: 13 Facets – including Entity, Property, Material, Process, Operation, Product
  29. 29. Faceted IA Examples - Comet
  30. 30. Faceted IA Examples – E-bay
  31. 31. Faceted IA Examples – Top Gear Car Chooser
  32. 32. How to make a Faceted IA – Quick Overview• Domain Sampling - Collect a representative sample of all entities e.g. Books.• Entity Listing – Break down descriptions, sentences and phrases into basic concepts.• Facet Creation – Examine concepts and see what high level categories appear across all entities e.g. Publishing Date, Author, Publisher etc.• Facet Arrangement – What is order (terms within facets)? Test and decide CV.• Primary Facet – Select.• Revise, Test & Maintain – Terminology changes/New terminology/Research.
  33. 33. Some Useful ResourcesWeb Resources:• IA Institute - http://iainstitute.org/• Boxes & arrows - http://www.boxesandarrows.com/• Interaction Design Association - IXDA - http://www.ixda.org/
  34. 34. Eye trackingQuestions?
  35. 35. Thank You Ross Philip Principal User Experience Consultant User Vision 55 North Castle Street Edinburgh EH2 3QA T: 0131 225 0853 E: ross@uservision.co.uk W: www.uservision.co.uk

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