Creating Game-like Engagement for Learning

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How to use common game mechanics in learning design (specifically e-Learning).

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Creating Game-like Engagement for Learning

  1. 1. Creating Game-like Engagement for Learning (without a Game Designer’s Budget) Learning Solutions 2010 Julie Dirksen – March 24, 2010 Image via CC license http://www.flickr.com/photos/amagill/3367543094/
  2. 2. Video Game Stare is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  3. 3. What’s your budget? - From www.gdmag.com/freeyear Available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  4. 4. Halo 3 Sold 8 million copies Take from http://www.bungie.net/images/Games/Halo3/Screenshots/Halo3_Valhalla-3rdperson-01.jpg is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  5. 5. What games do you play? • Adventure / Strategy • Role-playing (RPG) • Multiplayer Online Games (MOG/MMOG) • Sports / Racing Arcade • First Person Shooter (FPS) • Casual Games (Puzzle Games, Tetris, etc.) • Simulations is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  6. 6. What games do you play? • Platforms – Console games (Xbox, Playstation, Nintendo, Wii) – Online single player games – Online multiplayer games – Other PC or Mac games is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  7. 7. How many of you are using games for learning now? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  8. 8. Is this “educational gaming?” $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500 is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  9. 9. So what do we do about it? “It may sound trite, but for us educational games are first and foremost games. Whether a bona-fide contest with logical rules and a winning condition, or a Sim City-style sandbox playtoy, a game experience needs to have certain basic elements to be a meaningful experience for players.” - Eric Zimmerman So, what are those elements? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  10. 10. 1 2 3 4 Feedback Structure Attention Tools is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  11. 11. 1 Feedback is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  12. 12. Feedback in e-learning: Good Job! You correctly identified Option A as the correct answer. That is correct! is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  13. 13. Let’s play a game is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  14. 14. What types of Feedback did you see? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  15. 15. How games do feedback: Points is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  16. 16. How games do feedback: Collecting is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  17. 17. How games do feedback: Time is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  18. 18. How games do feedback: Sound is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  19. 19. How games do feedback: Events / Reactions is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  20. 20. Feedback Frequency How often do users get feedback in e- Learning? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  21. 21. Better than a Skinner Box • Positive Feedback • Negative Feedback • Reward • Punishment is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  22. 22. • Points can provide greater degree of ambiguity & determine outcomes • Multifaceted feedback (facial expressions, coaching, line graph, thoughts) is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  23. 23. • Different types of elements to be collected • Motivational element • Tracking progress • Completion is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  24. 24. Special Collecting: The Power-up Power-ups: Improves the abilities of the player is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  25. 25. What I really find interesting: • Gameify! is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  26. 26. 2 Structure is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  27. 27. The boss prize of e-learning • Familiarization • Comprehension • Conscious Effort • Conscious Action • Proficiency • Unconscious Competence - From Electronic Performance Support Systems by Gloria Gery is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  28. 28. Cycles of Expertise • Principle: Expertise is formed in any area by repeated cycles of learners practicing skills until they are nearly automatic, then having those skills fail in ways that cause the learners to have to think again and learn anew... • Games: Good games create and support the cycle of expertise...This is, in fact, part of what constitutes good pacing in a game. - James Paul Gee is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  29. 29. How games do feedback: Leveling is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  30. 30. Leveling • If you are not proficient enough, you don’t move on until you are proficient. • Completion = proficiency is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  31. 31. So, can we just put more levels into e-Learning? Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Module 6 TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST What does this get us? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  32. 32. What’s happening in the brain? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  33. 33. What is going on when you are learning something new? Well, areas like your frontal cortex gets busy. It starts burning a lot of fuel, and fills up pretty quickly. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  34. 34. What is going on when you using a regular pattern you already know? That leverages parts of the brain that can run without a lot of conscious attention. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  35. 35. Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  36. 36. How is most e-Learning structured? Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Module 6 Intro New Info More new Even Yet again Summary Whew Info more new with the ! Info new info is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  37. 37. How are most games structured? Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Some Stuff you Stuff Stuff Stuff Boss new stuff, know you you you Fight pretty plus a bit know, know know, easy more maybe a plus a kicked though little bit more up a faster notch is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  38. 38. It’s a lot like flow: Ability Challenge - Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  39. 39. It also allows you to pay attention to what’s different. Whew ! In this model, everything is new and everything is important (so nothing is). is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  40. 40. It also allows you to pay attention to what’s different. Whew ! In this model, the new material is mixed in with existing stuff, so the new material stands out. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  41. 41. We all need a rest sometimes: Whew ! If you don’t give people a break, they will take it anyway. Wait, this is Brain important dead, leaking Tuned out out the ears Kind of Uh huh. distracted Okay, I Uh huh... get it is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  42. 42. Goals, Goals and Goals • Immediate, Short-term and Long-term goals is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  43. 43. Goals in Diner Dash • Immediate Goal – Task / Level • Short-term Goal – Stage • Long-term Goal – Game Completion is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  44. 44. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  45. 45. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  46. 46. Long-term Goal: The boss fight When you put all the skills you’ve learned together to beat the BOSS. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  47. 47. The boss fight “On the boss fight, you are ready to fail 5-6 times until you get it. If I get a boss on the 1st try, I think it’s too easy.” - MS Hunter is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  48. 48. • Examples: Dialog Coach http://www.dialogcoach.com is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  49. 49. Leveling • Intermittent goals and overall goal • Variable mastery of levels • Gradual improvement of skills http://www.dialogcoach.com is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  50. 50. Evaluation is hard: is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  51. 51. What if completion was enough? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  52. 52. 3 Attention is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  53. 53. Why are brains like elephants? • Why is our brain like a child riding an elephant? Jonathan Haidt – The Happiness Hypothesis is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  54. 54. Child = conscious mind / executive function (prefrontal cortex) is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  55. 55. Elephant = everything else is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  56. 56. Sometimes the elephant is willing is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  57. 57. Other times... is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  58. 58. So, how do you train the elephant? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  59. 59. What are you using here? • How many people have had to take the written drivers test lately? Right of Way and Yielding Right-of-way and yielding laws help traffic flow smoothly and safely. They are based on courtesy and common sense. Violation of these laws is a leading cause of traffic crashes. When two vehicles reach an intersection at the same time, and there is no traffic light or signal, the driver of the vehicle on the left must yield to the vehicle on the right. -Minnesota Driver’s Manual • Think about how that feels. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  60. 60. Now, how about this? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  61. 61. If there’s no urgency... Most of the burden is on the executive function (e.g. frontal cortex). is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  62. 62. Learning without urgency: Relying solely on the executive function is like: Gasp! is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  63. 63. What happens when there is urgency? Mid-brain areas (e.g. limbic system / amygdala are saying: “PAY ATTENTION! This could be important.” is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  64. 64. Learning with urgency: Learning that engages the whole brain requires much less conscious effort: is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  65. 65. What makes it work? • Balanced gameplay – Expectation – Surprise – Reward is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  66. 66. Good surprises are good • Pleasant surprises cause a dopamine spike “PAY ATTENTION! If this is good, then you want more. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  67. 67. Even bad surprises are good • Unpleasant surprises cause a dopamine drop. “PAY ATTENTION! This is bad. Avoid in future.” is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  68. 68. No surprises are bad Hmm. I wonder what I should have for dinner... is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  69. 69. Games do this well Gold Gold Gold Gold Coin Coin Coin Coin Super Platinum Hammer of Death™ that lets you SQUASH evildoers!!! is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  70. 70. What else? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  71. 71. Narrative & Character is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  72. 72. is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  73. 73. Visual & Sound Effects is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  74. 74. Customization /Personalization is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  75. 75. Competition Leader Boards is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  76. 76. Now you try! • It’s your turn to try this out… – Points – Leveling – Collecting – Time – Surprise – Reward – Urgency is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  77. 77. So what’s the catch? • So this is all great, but what’s the catch? is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  78. 78. What’s the catch? • Games are good at teaching you how to play games (not necessarily how to actually do things) is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  79. 79. What’s the catch? Low Fast Budget Easy is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  80. 80. What’s the catch? Low Fast Budget Easy is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  81. 81. What’s the catch? Gamers are a self- selecting audience is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  82. 82. Playtesting is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  83. 83. 4 Tools is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  84. 84. Tool: Rapid e-Learning Tools is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  85. 85. Tool: Quandary is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  86. 86. Tool: Game Shows http://c3softworks.com/products/lms/ is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  87. 87. Tool: GameSalad (Mac Only) is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  88. 88. Tool: Thinking Worlds is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  89. 89. Questions? You can also reach me with questions at: • Speakers’ Clinic at 4 PM • Presentation Site: http://www.usablelearning.com/LS2010.html • Blog: http://usablelearning.wordpress.com • Twitter: http://twitter.com/usablelearning • Email: julie@usablelearning.com Thanks to: is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  90. 90. References • Books – Electronic Performance Support System by Gloria Gery – Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (A reasonable Wikipedia explanation can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_(psychology) ) – What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy by James Paul Gee – The Happiness Hypothesis by Jonathan Haidt is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  91. 91. References • Game Articles: – Learning to Play to Learn - Lessons in Educational Game Design by Nick Fortugno & Eric Zimmerman http://www.ericzimmerman.com/texts/learningtoplay.htm - originally published in Gamasutra http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20050405/zimmerman_01.shtml (Other publications by Eric Zimmerman http://www.ericzimmerman.com/writings.html) – Behavioral Game Design by John Hopson http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20010427/hopson_01.htm – Proof of Learning: Assessment in Serious Games by Sande Chen http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20051019/chen_01.shtml – Learning by Design: Games as Learning Machines by James Paul Gee http://www.gamasutra.com/gdc2004/features/20040324/gee_01.shtml – Your Brain on Video Games by Steven Johnson http://discovermagazine.com/2005/jul/brain-on-video- games/article_print is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  92. 92. References • General Articles – The Neuroscience of Leadership by David Rock and Jeffrey Schwartz http://www.strategy- business.com/press/freearticle/06207 – The New Science of Change by Christopher Koch http://www.cio.com/archive/091506/change.html – Hijacking the Brain Circuits With a Nickel Slot Machine by Sandra Blakeslee http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F70A14F7 355B0C7A8DDDAB0894DA404482 (paid access) – Getting past the brain's crap filter Posted by Kathy Sierra on December 22, 2004 on Creating Passionate Users Blog http://headrush.typepad.com/creating_passionate_users/2004/w eek52/index.html is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  93. 93. References • Egghead stuff – Predictability Modulates Human Brain Response to Reward by Gregory S. Berns, Samuel M. McClure, Giuseppe Pagnoni, and P. Read Montague http://www.ccnl.emory.edu/greg/Koolaid_JN_Print.pdf (Other recent publications by Gregory Berns http://www.ccnl.emory.edu/greg/) – When Things Are Better or Worse than Expected: The Medial Frontal Cortex and the Allocation of Processing Resources http://www.hnl.bcm.tmc.edu/articles/JNeuroScience2006PottsMontague.pdf Geoffrey F. Potts, Laura E. Martin, Philip Burton, and P. Read Montague (Other recent publications by Read Montague http://www.hnl.bcm.tmc.edu/faculty.html) – Reward signaling by dopamine neurons by Wolfram Schultz http://www.biopsychiatry.com/dopaminerev.htm – Recent publications by Jonathan Cohen http://www.csbmb.princeton.edu/ncc/jdc.html – Regional glucose metabolic changes after learning a complex visuospatial/motor task: a positron emission tomographic study by Richard J. Haier, Benjamin V. Siegel Jr., Andrew MacLachlan, Eric Soderling, Stephen Lottenberg and Monte S. Buchsbaum http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1617405 is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License
  94. 94. References • Games – Diner Dash: http://www.shockwave.com/gamelanding/dinerdash.jsp – Driver's Ed Game: http://www.mofunzone.com/online_games/driversed.shtml# – Super Collapse 3: http://www.shockwave.com/gamelanding/collapse3.jsp – Luck Charm Deluxe: http://www.shockwave.com/gamelanding/luckcharm.jsp – Insaniquarium http://www.shockwave.com – Luxor http://www.shockwave.com – Project ALERT: http://www.projectalert.com is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License

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