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Designing for Habit Formation

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Designing for Habit Formation

  1. 1. DIGITAL HABIT FORMATION ATD TK 2016 Julie Dirksen, Usable Learning
  2. 2. A STORY OF TWO PROJECT MANAGERS
  3. 3. CHALLENGE: A CONTRACTOR IS CLAIMING HE DIDN’T KNOW THE DUE DATE FOR A DELIVERABLE
  4. 4. CHALLENGE: DEVELOPERS COMING LATE TO MEETINGS
  5. 5. CHALLENGE: A CLIENT NEEDS AN UPDATE TO AN OLD PROJECT
  6. 6. SO WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
  7. 7. WHERE’S THE GAP
  8. 8. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF GAPS  Knowledge – Instant access  Knowledge – reference and use  Procedure  Skill  Motivation  Environment Starting meetings on time Something was missing…
  9. 9. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF GAPS  Knowledge – Instant access  Knowledge – reference and use  Procedure  Skill  Motivation  Environment Recognizing and responding to safety hazards.
  10. 10. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF GAPS  Knowledge – Instant access  Knowledge – reference and use  Procedure  Skill  Motivation  Environment Giving employees consistent and regular feedback.
  11. 11. HABIT GAPS A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur unconsciously. - Source: Wikipedia
  12. 12. ANATOMY OF A HABIT Unconscious and automatic
  13. 13. THE ANATOMY OF A HABIT 1. Automatic or unconscious 2. Triggered 3. Motivated (or made easier) 4. Reinforced through Feedback 5. Reinforced through Practice or Repetition 6. Reinforced through Environment
  14. 14. 1. AUTOMATIC OR UNCONSCIOUS Who drove to/from work recently?
  15. 15. GETTING TO AUTOMATICITY  Familiarization  Comprehension  Conscious Effort  Conscious Action  Proficiency  Unconscious Competence Glory Gery, EPSS 1991
  16. 16. THE BENEFIT OF AUTOMATICITY Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice Haier 1992
  17. 17. WE ARE CREATURES OF HABIT
  18. 18. SEATBELTS
  19. 19. 2. TRIGGERED This is Max.
  20. 20. TRIGGERS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
  21. 21. WHAT ARE THE TRIGGERS? Starting meetings on time Recognizing and responding to safety hazards. Giving employees consistent and regular feedback.
  22. 22. TOOLS: HABIT FORMATION Implementation Intentions: If X happens, I will do Y. Gollwitzer, 1999
  23. 23. 3. MOTIVATED Habit
  24. 24. INTENT VS ACTION TETANUS IS BAD!!!! High Fear By the way, tetanus is bad… Low Fear A map with times highlighted Hours open… x Leventhal 1965
  25. 25. OR MAKE IT EASIER Increase Motivation Lower Friction Image adapted from Joshua Porter
  26. 26. HOW WELL DO YOU THINK THIS WORKS? I’m going to tell you a habit, and I’d like to you do it automatically from now on…
  27. 27. USERS SHOULD DECIDE The Ikea Effect We like our own stuff better. Norton et al 2012
  28. 28. SCARE TACTICS OFTEN FAIL But pictures (more visceral experiences) are more effective than text. Noar et al 2015
  29. 29. SOCIAL NORMING Examples: Making the norms visible
  30. 30. MAKE IT EASIER – SHRINK THE HABIT https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iIkOi3srLo
  31. 31. HOTSEAT – SITTING IS THE NEW SMOKING http://www.madpow.com/case- Context Communicatio n & Mad*Pow Design http://gethotseatapp.com
  32. 32. HOTSEAT: REDUCING BARRIERS http://www.madpow.com/case- Integrates with your calendar http://gethotseatapp.com
  33. 33. 4. REINFORCED THROUGH FEEDBACK Clean Hand Hand with e coli bacteria
  34. 34. HYPERBOLIC DISCOUNTING (KAHNEMAN AND TVERSKY)
  35. 35. MAKING PROGRESS VISIBLE
  36. 36. VISIBLE PROGRESS: From Perfect Time-Based Productivity by Francis
  37. 37. MAKE THE INVISIBLE VISIBLE Dan Lockton designwithintent. co.uk
  38. 38. MAKE THE INVISIBLE VISIBLE Lester Shen Center for Energy and the Environment
  39. 39. 5. REINFORCED THROUGH PRACTICE OR REPETITION
  40. 40. HABIT APPS
  41. 41. HABIT APPS
  42. 42. PRACTICING THE BEHAVIOR Creating a sense of self- efficacy http://www.projectalert.com/resources/post
  43. 43. 6. REINFORCED THROUGH ENVIRONMENT Soup, anyone?
  44. 44. Eating Habits: Is the serving bowl… Here? Or here?
  45. 45. MAKE CHOICES A BIT EASIER (OR HARDER) “in seven weeks, New York Googlers consumed 3.1 million fewer calories from M&Ms” Source http://abcnews.go.com/Health/google-diet-search-giant-overhauled-eating-options- nudge/story?id=18241908
  46. 46. Source http://abcnews.go.com/Health/google-diet-search-giant-overhauled-eating-options- nudge/story?id=18241908 Sugary drinks at the bottom behind the frosted glass:
  47. 47. CHAINING HABITS TO EXISTING BEHAVIORS
  48. 48. HABIT MAP Identify the Habit Identify the trigger(s) Increase Motivati on Decreas e Barriers Hack the Environm ent Make Feedback Visible
  49. 49. HABIT EXAMPLE: SAFETY PROCEDURES People take on small, very specific, targeted goals, only one at a time The group decides how to go about improving safety Mobile app to record efforts with feedback and reinforcement is built in over time Participatory Effort Small goals Feedback and Reinforcement
  50. 50. YOU TRY IT Identify the Habit Identify the trigger(s) Increase Motivati on Decreas e Barriers Hack the Environm ent Make Feedback Visible Use your own topic Or Starting meetings on time Giving feedback Safety
  51. 51. QUESTIONS Julie@usablelearning.com Twitter: usablelearning Slides and references at: www.usablelearning.com/resource s
  52. 52. REFERENCES 1/2 Gaillot, Matthew T. & Roy F. Baumeister, The Physiology of Willpower: Linking Glucose to Self-Control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2007. Kahneman, Daniel; Tversky, Amos (1979). "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk" (PDF). Econometrica 47 (2): 263. doi:10.2307/1914185. ISSN 0012-9682. Bandura, Albert. 1977. “Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.” Psychological Review 84: 191-215. habit. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved May 05, 2015, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/habit. Fogg, BJ. “The Fogg Behavior Model.” Retrieved May 05, 2015, from www.behaviormodel.org. Baumeister, Roy and John Tierney. Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength. Penguin Books, 2012. Duhigg, Charles. The Power of Habit. Random House, 2014. Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011. Rubin, Gretchen. Better Than Before. Crown, 2015. Rainforest Alliance, “Follow the Frog,” www.rainforest-alliance.org. Heath, Chip and Dan. Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard. Crown Business, 2010. Wade, Francis. Perfect Time-Based Productivity: A unique way to protect your peace of mind as time demands increase (book) Johnson et al Percept Mot Skills. 2003 Dec;97(3 Pt 1):805-10. Sex differences in public restroom handwashing behavior associated with visual behavior prompts. Johnson HD1, Sholcosky D, Gabello K, Ragni R, Ogonosky N.
  53. 53. REFERENCES 2/2 Shiv, B. and A. Fedorikhin. 1999. Heart and Mind in Conflict: Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making. Journal of Consumer Research 26 (December): 278–282. Gery, Gloria, Electronic Performance Support Systems (book) Haier, R.J., B.V. Siegel Jr., A. MacLachlan, E. Soderling, S. Lottenberg, and M.S. Buchsbaum. 1992 Regional glucose metabolic changes after learning a complex visuospatial/motor task: a positron emission tomographic study. Brain Research 570: 134–14. Noar et al. Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies. Noar SM1, Hall MG2, Francis DB3, Ribisl KM4, Pepper JK4, Brewer NT4. Tob Control. 2015 May 6. pii: tobaccocontrol- 2014-051978. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051978. Norton et al. The IKEA effect: When labor leads to love. Michael I. Norton, Daniel Mochon, , Dan Ariely Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 3, July 2012, Pages 453–460 ABC News http://abcnews.go.com/Health/google-diet-search-giant-overhauled-eating-options- nudge/story?id=18241908 Leventhal Leventhal, H. (1965) ‘Effects of Fear and Specificity of Recommendation upon Attitudes and Behavior’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(1), pp. 20-29. Wansink, Brian. Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think (book) Gollwitzer, Peter Implementation Intentions. July 1999 • American Psychologist. Copyright 1999 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. Vol. 54. No. 7, 493-503 Hotseat Case Study http://www.madpow.com/case-studies/hotseat Project ALERT http://www.projectalert.com/ BJ Fogg – Tiny Habits http://tinyhabitsacademy.org/ Dan Lockton, Design with Intent http://designwithintent.co.uk/

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