Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
DIGITAL HABIT FORMATION
ATD TK 2016
Julie Dirksen, Usable
Learning
A STORY OF TWO PROJECT
MANAGERS
CHALLENGE: A CONTRACTOR IS CLAIMING
HE DIDN’T KNOW THE DUE DATE FOR A
DELIVERABLE
CHALLENGE: DEVELOPERS COMING LATE
TO MEETINGS
CHALLENGE: A CLIENT NEEDS AN UPDATE
TO AN OLD PROJECT
SO WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
WHERE’S THE GAP
ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF
GAPS
 Knowledge – Instant access
 Knowledge – reference and use
 Procedure
 Skill
 Moti...
ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF
GAPS
 Knowledge – Instant access
 Knowledge – reference and use
 Procedure
 Skill
 Moti...
ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF
GAPS
 Knowledge – Instant access
 Knowledge – reference and use
 Procedure
 Skill
 Moti...
HABIT GAPS
A habit (or wont) is a
routine of behavior that is
repeated regularly and
tends to occur
unconsciously.
- Sourc...
ANATOMY OF A HABIT Unconscious and
automatic
THE ANATOMY OF A HABIT
1. Automatic or unconscious
2. Triggered
3. Motivated (or made easier)
4. Reinforced through Feedba...
1. AUTOMATIC OR UNCONSCIOUS
Who drove to/from work
recently?
GETTING TO AUTOMATICITY
 Familiarization
 Comprehension
 Conscious Effort
 Conscious Action
 Proficiency
 Unconsciou...
THE BENEFIT OF AUTOMATICITY
Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris
Practice
Haier 1992
WE ARE CREATURES OF HABIT
SEATBELTS
2. TRIGGERED
This is Max.
TRIGGERS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
WHAT ARE THE TRIGGERS?
Starting
meetings on
time
Recognizing
and
responding
to safety
hazards.
Giving
employees
consistent...
TOOLS: HABIT FORMATION
Implementation
Intentions:
If X happens, I will
do Y.
Gollwitzer, 1999
3. MOTIVATED
Habit
INTENT VS ACTION
TETANUS IS
BAD!!!!
High Fear
By the way,
tetanus is bad…
Low Fear
A map with
times
highlighted
Hours open...
OR MAKE IT EASIER
Increase Motivation
Lower
Friction
Image adapted from Joshua
Porter
HOW WELL DO YOU THINK THIS
WORKS?
I’m going to
tell you a
habit, and I’d
like to you do
it automatically
from now on…
USERS SHOULD DECIDE
The Ikea Effect
We like our own stuff better.
Norton et al 2012
SCARE TACTICS OFTEN FAIL
But pictures (more visceral
experiences) are more effective
than text.
Noar et al 2015
SOCIAL NORMING
Examples:
Making the norms visible
MAKE IT EASIER – SHRINK THE
HABIT
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iIkOi3srLo
HOTSEAT – SITTING IS THE NEW
SMOKING
http://www.madpow.com/case-
Context
Communicatio
n &
Mad*Pow
Design
http://gethotseat...
HOTSEAT: REDUCING BARRIERS
http://www.madpow.com/case-
Integrates with
your calendar
http://gethotseatapp.com
4. REINFORCED THROUGH
FEEDBACK
Clean Hand Hand with
e coli
bacteria
HYPERBOLIC DISCOUNTING
(KAHNEMAN AND TVERSKY)
MAKING PROGRESS VISIBLE
VISIBLE PROGRESS:
From Perfect Time-Based Productivity by Francis
MAKE THE INVISIBLE VISIBLE
Dan Lockton
designwithintent.
co.uk
MAKE THE INVISIBLE VISIBLE
Lester Shen
Center for Energy and the
Environment
5. REINFORCED THROUGH PRACTICE
OR REPETITION
HABIT APPS
HABIT
APPS
PRACTICING THE BEHAVIOR
Creating a sense of self-
efficacy
http://www.projectalert.com/resources/post
6. REINFORCED THROUGH
ENVIRONMENT
Soup, anyone?
Eating
Habits:
Is the
serving
bowl…
Here?
Or here?
MAKE CHOICES A BIT EASIER (OR
HARDER)
“in seven weeks, New York Googlers consumed 3.1 million fewer calories from
M&Ms”
So...
Source http://abcnews.go.com/Health/google-diet-search-giant-overhauled-eating-options-
nudge/story?id=18241908
Sugary
dri...
CHAINING HABITS TO EXISTING
BEHAVIORS
HABIT MAP
Identify the Habit
Identify
the
trigger(s)
Increase
Motivati
on
Decreas
e
Barriers
Hack the
Environm
ent
Make
Fe...
HABIT EXAMPLE: SAFETY
PROCEDURES
People take on small,
very specific, targeted
goals, only one at a
time
The group
decides...
YOU TRY IT
Identify the Habit
Identify
the
trigger(s)
Increase
Motivati
on
Decreas
e
Barriers
Hack the
Environm
ent
Make
F...
QUESTIONS
Julie@usablelearning.com
Twitter: usablelearning
Slides and references at:
www.usablelearning.com/resource
s
REFERENCES 1/2
Gaillot, Matthew T. & Roy F. Baumeister, The Physiology of Willpower: Linking Glucose to Self-Control.
Pers...
REFERENCES 2/2
Shiv, B. and A. Fedorikhin. 1999. Heart and Mind in Conflict: Interplay of Affect and Cognition in
Consumer...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Designing for Habit Formation

2,092 views

Published on

Presentation from ATD TK 2016 on Habit Formation

Published in: Design

Designing for Habit Formation

  1. 1. DIGITAL HABIT FORMATION ATD TK 2016 Julie Dirksen, Usable Learning
  2. 2. A STORY OF TWO PROJECT MANAGERS
  3. 3. CHALLENGE: A CONTRACTOR IS CLAIMING HE DIDN’T KNOW THE DUE DATE FOR A DELIVERABLE
  4. 4. CHALLENGE: DEVELOPERS COMING LATE TO MEETINGS
  5. 5. CHALLENGE: A CLIENT NEEDS AN UPDATE TO AN OLD PROJECT
  6. 6. SO WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
  7. 7. WHERE’S THE GAP
  8. 8. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF GAPS  Knowledge – Instant access  Knowledge – reference and use  Procedure  Skill  Motivation  Environment Starting meetings on time Something was missing…
  9. 9. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF GAPS  Knowledge – Instant access  Knowledge – reference and use  Procedure  Skill  Motivation  Environment Recognizing and responding to safety hazards.
  10. 10. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK - TYPES OF GAPS  Knowledge – Instant access  Knowledge – reference and use  Procedure  Skill  Motivation  Environment Giving employees consistent and regular feedback.
  11. 11. HABIT GAPS A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur unconsciously. - Source: Wikipedia
  12. 12. ANATOMY OF A HABIT Unconscious and automatic
  13. 13. THE ANATOMY OF A HABIT 1. Automatic or unconscious 2. Triggered 3. Motivated (or made easier) 4. Reinforced through Feedback 5. Reinforced through Practice or Repetition 6. Reinforced through Environment
  14. 14. 1. AUTOMATIC OR UNCONSCIOUS Who drove to/from work recently?
  15. 15. GETTING TO AUTOMATICITY  Familiarization  Comprehension  Conscious Effort  Conscious Action  Proficiency  Unconscious Competence Glory Gery, EPSS 1991
  16. 16. THE BENEFIT OF AUTOMATICITY Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice Haier 1992
  17. 17. WE ARE CREATURES OF HABIT
  18. 18. SEATBELTS
  19. 19. 2. TRIGGERED This is Max.
  20. 20. TRIGGERS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
  21. 21. WHAT ARE THE TRIGGERS? Starting meetings on time Recognizing and responding to safety hazards. Giving employees consistent and regular feedback.
  22. 22. TOOLS: HABIT FORMATION Implementation Intentions: If X happens, I will do Y. Gollwitzer, 1999
  23. 23. 3. MOTIVATED Habit
  24. 24. INTENT VS ACTION TETANUS IS BAD!!!! High Fear By the way, tetanus is bad… Low Fear A map with times highlighted Hours open… x Leventhal 1965
  25. 25. OR MAKE IT EASIER Increase Motivation Lower Friction Image adapted from Joshua Porter
  26. 26. HOW WELL DO YOU THINK THIS WORKS? I’m going to tell you a habit, and I’d like to you do it automatically from now on…
  27. 27. USERS SHOULD DECIDE The Ikea Effect We like our own stuff better. Norton et al 2012
  28. 28. SCARE TACTICS OFTEN FAIL But pictures (more visceral experiences) are more effective than text. Noar et al 2015
  29. 29. SOCIAL NORMING Examples: Making the norms visible
  30. 30. MAKE IT EASIER – SHRINK THE HABIT https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iIkOi3srLo
  31. 31. HOTSEAT – SITTING IS THE NEW SMOKING http://www.madpow.com/case- Context Communicatio n & Mad*Pow Design http://gethotseatapp.com
  32. 32. HOTSEAT: REDUCING BARRIERS http://www.madpow.com/case- Integrates with your calendar http://gethotseatapp.com
  33. 33. 4. REINFORCED THROUGH FEEDBACK Clean Hand Hand with e coli bacteria
  34. 34. HYPERBOLIC DISCOUNTING (KAHNEMAN AND TVERSKY)
  35. 35. MAKING PROGRESS VISIBLE
  36. 36. VISIBLE PROGRESS: From Perfect Time-Based Productivity by Francis
  37. 37. MAKE THE INVISIBLE VISIBLE Dan Lockton designwithintent. co.uk
  38. 38. MAKE THE INVISIBLE VISIBLE Lester Shen Center for Energy and the Environment
  39. 39. 5. REINFORCED THROUGH PRACTICE OR REPETITION
  40. 40. HABIT APPS
  41. 41. HABIT APPS
  42. 42. PRACTICING THE BEHAVIOR Creating a sense of self- efficacy http://www.projectalert.com/resources/post
  43. 43. 6. REINFORCED THROUGH ENVIRONMENT Soup, anyone?
  44. 44. Eating Habits: Is the serving bowl… Here? Or here?
  45. 45. MAKE CHOICES A BIT EASIER (OR HARDER) “in seven weeks, New York Googlers consumed 3.1 million fewer calories from M&Ms” Source http://abcnews.go.com/Health/google-diet-search-giant-overhauled-eating-options- nudge/story?id=18241908
  46. 46. Source http://abcnews.go.com/Health/google-diet-search-giant-overhauled-eating-options- nudge/story?id=18241908 Sugary drinks at the bottom behind the frosted glass:
  47. 47. CHAINING HABITS TO EXISTING BEHAVIORS
  48. 48. HABIT MAP Identify the Habit Identify the trigger(s) Increase Motivati on Decreas e Barriers Hack the Environm ent Make Feedback Visible
  49. 49. HABIT EXAMPLE: SAFETY PROCEDURES People take on small, very specific, targeted goals, only one at a time The group decides how to go about improving safety Mobile app to record efforts with feedback and reinforcement is built in over time Participatory Effort Small goals Feedback and Reinforcement
  50. 50. YOU TRY IT Identify the Habit Identify the trigger(s) Increase Motivati on Decreas e Barriers Hack the Environm ent Make Feedback Visible Use your own topic Or Starting meetings on time Giving feedback Safety
  51. 51. QUESTIONS Julie@usablelearning.com Twitter: usablelearning Slides and references at: www.usablelearning.com/resource s
  52. 52. REFERENCES 1/2 Gaillot, Matthew T. & Roy F. Baumeister, The Physiology of Willpower: Linking Glucose to Self-Control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2007. Kahneman, Daniel; Tversky, Amos (1979). "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk" (PDF). Econometrica 47 (2): 263. doi:10.2307/1914185. ISSN 0012-9682. Bandura, Albert. 1977. “Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.” Psychological Review 84: 191-215. habit. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved May 05, 2015, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/habit. Fogg, BJ. “The Fogg Behavior Model.” Retrieved May 05, 2015, from www.behaviormodel.org. Baumeister, Roy and John Tierney. Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength. Penguin Books, 2012. Duhigg, Charles. The Power of Habit. Random House, 2014. Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011. Rubin, Gretchen. Better Than Before. Crown, 2015. Rainforest Alliance, “Follow the Frog,” www.rainforest-alliance.org. Heath, Chip and Dan. Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard. Crown Business, 2010. Wade, Francis. Perfect Time-Based Productivity: A unique way to protect your peace of mind as time demands increase (book) Johnson et al Percept Mot Skills. 2003 Dec;97(3 Pt 1):805-10. Sex differences in public restroom handwashing behavior associated with visual behavior prompts. Johnson HD1, Sholcosky D, Gabello K, Ragni R, Ogonosky N.
  53. 53. REFERENCES 2/2 Shiv, B. and A. Fedorikhin. 1999. Heart and Mind in Conflict: Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making. Journal of Consumer Research 26 (December): 278–282. Gery, Gloria, Electronic Performance Support Systems (book) Haier, R.J., B.V. Siegel Jr., A. MacLachlan, E. Soderling, S. Lottenberg, and M.S. Buchsbaum. 1992 Regional glucose metabolic changes after learning a complex visuospatial/motor task: a positron emission tomographic study. Brain Research 570: 134–14. Noar et al. Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies. Noar SM1, Hall MG2, Francis DB3, Ribisl KM4, Pepper JK4, Brewer NT4. Tob Control. 2015 May 6. pii: tobaccocontrol- 2014-051978. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051978. Norton et al. The IKEA effect: When labor leads to love. Michael I. Norton, Daniel Mochon, , Dan Ariely Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 3, July 2012, Pages 453–460 ABC News http://abcnews.go.com/Health/google-diet-search-giant-overhauled-eating-options- nudge/story?id=18241908 Leventhal Leventhal, H. (1965) ‘Effects of Fear and Specificity of Recommendation upon Attitudes and Behavior’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(1), pp. 20-29. Wansink, Brian. Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think (book) Gollwitzer, Peter Implementation Intentions. July 1999 • American Psychologist. Copyright 1999 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. Vol. 54. No. 7, 493-503 Hotseat Case Study http://www.madpow.com/case-studies/hotseat Project ALERT http://www.projectalert.com/ BJ Fogg – Tiny Habits http://tinyhabitsacademy.org/ Dan Lockton, Design with Intent http://designwithintent.co.uk/

×