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Expansion of the design object


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Historical evolution of the design object, from construction materials to emergent performances. It presents a coherent theory of use value, cocreation, experience design and more. This is the first slide of the Design Thinking course given by Frederick van Amstel at PUCPR.

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Expansion of the design object

  1. 1. The expansion of the design object Frederick van Amstel Architecture and Design School Digital Design PUCPR
  2. 2. Design is a social activity •Design is not only a product •Design is a professional activity •Design has a historical tradition •Traditions change •Design transforms and creates objects, not necessarily physical objects
  3. 3. What is the object of design?
  4. 4. What is she designing?
  5. 5. What is him designing?
  6. 6. What is that the designer cocreates with the user?
  7. 7. Why so many ways of representing the object?
  8. 8. Design object is something that is or will be used by another activity. Hence design being social activity.
  9. 9. Social activity unfold in networks Design activity Cooking activity Surgery Law- making Design education Professional designers Utensils W orkflow Normas técnicas
  10. 10. The activity changes when its object expands. Yrjö Engeström
  11. 11. Contemporary expansion Design ThinkerDesign Doer ProcessProducts Amateur designers Users
  12. 12. Expansion history Object: construction materials (1800 - 1940) Object: complex entity (1930 - present) (Van Amstel, 2015) Object: emergent performance (1990 - present)
  13. 13. The first Bauhaus curriculum put emphasis over mastering construction material (1922)
  14. 14. Material innovation enabled new forms and shapes
  15. 15. The second Bauhaus curriculum included Science, town planning and social services (1932)
  16. 16. Ülm curriculum emphasized interdisciplinarity, information and knowledge (1951)
  17. 17. Brasilia: a city designed by multidisciplinary experts (1956)
  18. 18. The Anglepoise is a simple yet complex design (1927)
  19. 19. Juicy Salif squeezer refuses being a product and appeal to emotions (1990)
  20. 20. The Ideo shopping cart (1998) was designed based on the observed experience of US shoppers
  21. 21. Smell+ is a blind date app that connects people through body smells (2009)
  22. 22. Carneggie Mellon University new design curriculum (2014)
  23. 23. Emergent performance •Performance is a process not a product •Performance is different every time it repeats •Performance is measurable •Performance cannot be controlled since it is emergent •Performance examples: interaction, experience, emotion, service, business
  24. 24. Use value X Exchange value •Value is not money •Exchange value is often measured with money •Use value is sometimes measured with usability metrics (efficacy, efficiency, satisfaction) •Use value is related to the usefulness, utility and materiality of something
  25. 25. Industrial economy •Exchange value generation from functionality •Use value generation from object characteristics •Product Design •Graphic Design •Interior Design object the object has its own value
  26. 26. Experience economy •Exchange value generation from branding •Use value generation from object’s role in context •User Experience Design •Interaction Design •Service Design the object amplifies the value of something else object
  27. 27. Transforming products into services bridges the gap between company and market
  28. 28. Value co-creation at the boundaries of an organization (Amstel, 2015) Producer Negotiation for exchange value Cocreator Client Negotiation for use value
  29. 29. Apple for example offers current best integration across multiple products
  30. 30. Ikea furniture I assembled myself in the place I lived in the Netherlands. I had an emotional bond to them.
  31. 31. Value Proposition Canvas: value is created by reducing pains and increasing gains, i.e., through experience
  32. 32. Realtime feedback of fuel consumption in Fiat cars tries to influence the driver (cocreate an experience)
  33. 33. Contemporary expansion Design ThinkerDesign Doer ProcessProducts Amateur designers Users
  34. 34. Today’s design object •Includes the user behavior, as if it could be designed as part of the product •Embed many rules and a division of labor •Resists design through diversion, escalating complexity, •Is often shared and disputed among multiple activities (since people behavior is at play)
  35. 35. Thanks! Frederick van Amstel Architecture and Design School Digital Design PUCPR