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Profiling Facebook Users’ Privacy
Behaviors
Pamela Wisniewski, Bart P. Knijnenburg,
& Heather Richter Lipford
Workshop on ...
Introduction
}  Privacy: An interpersonal boundary process by which
a person or group regulates social interactions with
...
Facebook Privacy Options
News Feed
Chat
Timeline
Privacy Settings
Facebook Privacy Options
Untag
Unshare
Block
Background
}  Setting profile as “Friends
Only” (Stutzman et al. 2010)
}  Use of “advanced” privacy
settings (Ellison et...
Previous Work
}  21 Semi-Structured SNS user interviews
}  Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis
Disclosure
• Self
• Confidan...
Methodology
}  Web-based survey
}  Recruited participants 18-years-old or older with an active Facebook
account
}  Aske...
Data Analysis Approach
}  Adapted from Knijnenburg et al. 2013
}  Confirmed the multi-dimensionality of privacy behavior...
Results
}  308 Participants
}  119 males, 189 females
}  Average Age 35.74, (sd = 12 years; 18 – 75 years-old)
}  31% ...
Privacy Behavior CFA
Factor
 Code
 Item
 Loading
Altering News Feed (NWF)
AVE: 0.777
NFH
 Hid a story
 0.845
NFS
 Changed ...
Privacy Behavior User Classes
}  Comparing across MFA model results
BIC Entropy LL N p-value
1 class 21998 -10534.652 162...
Class Distributions
Privacy Behavior User Classes
}  Interactive Web Charts:
http://www.usabart.nl/chart/
Key Implications
}  SNS users employ a subset of privacy features
}  Exhibiting a multidimensional pattern from which em...
Feature Awareness vs. Privacy Behavior
15
C1	
  Privacy	
  
Maximizers	
  
C2	
  Selec4ve	
  
Sharers	
  
C3	
  Privacy	
 ...
Thank you!
}  Questions?
}  Author Contact Information
}  Pamela Wisniewski – pam@pamspam.com
}  Bart Knijnenburg – ba...
BoundaryType SNS Interface Controls Facebook MySpace Hi5 LinkedIn Ning
Disclosure Boundaries – Managing personal informati...
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Profiling Facebook Users' Privacy Behaviors

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Presented by Pam Wisniewski at the SOUPS 2014 workshop on Privacy Personas and Segmentation (PPS).

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Profiling Facebook Users' Privacy Behaviors

  1. 1. Profiling Facebook Users’ Privacy Behaviors Pamela Wisniewski, Bart P. Knijnenburg, & Heather Richter Lipford Workshop on Privacy Personas and Segmentation (PPS)
  2. 2. Introduction }  Privacy: An interpersonal boundary process by which a person or group regulates social interactions with others }  SNS Privacy Research: Often frames privacy as SNS users’ decision to withhold or disclose personal information }  SNS Privacy Behaviors: The subset of privacy features and/ or settings that Facebook users leverage in order to manage interpersonal privacy boundaries }  Includes but is not limited to personal disclosure decisions
  3. 3. Facebook Privacy Options News Feed Chat Timeline Privacy Settings
  4. 4. Facebook Privacy Options Untag Unshare Block
  5. 5. Background }  Setting profile as “Friends Only” (Stutzman et al. 2010) }  Use of “advanced” privacy settings (Ellison et al. 2011) }  Selective sharing and customizing privacy defaults }  Associated with higher levels of social capital }  Use of “Friend Lists” or “Circles” (Kairam et al. 2012; Watson et al. 2012) Privacy Features Privacy Settings Disclosure Decisions
  6. 6. Previous Work }  21 Semi-Structured SNS user interviews }  Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis Disclosure • Self • Confidant Relational • Connection • Context Network • Discovery • Intersection Territorial • Inward- facing • Outward- facing Interactional • Disabling • Blocking SNS Interpersonal Boundary Types Privacy Behaviors – Settings/Features
  7. 7. Methodology }  Web-based survey }  Recruited participants 18-years-old or older with an active Facebook account }  Asked to log into their accounts to report privacy behaviors “To do this: You would have had to click on the drop down arrow at the top, right corner of a post on your News Feed as shown below.” How often have you done the following to modify posts on your News Feed?” Ø Hid a story Ø Reported Story or Spam Ø Changed friend subscription settings Ø Unsubscribed from a friend Ø Unsubscribed from status updates from a friend. (1 = Never, 7 = Always)
  8. 8. Data Analysis Approach }  Adapted from Knijnenburg et al. 2013 }  Confirmed the multi-dimensionality of privacy behaviors }  Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) }  Classified users based on privacy behaviors }  Mixture Factor Analysis (MFA)
  9. 9. Results }  308 Participants }  119 males, 189 females }  Average Age 35.74, (sd = 12 years; 18 – 75 years-old) }  31% identified as college students }  91.6% reported having a Facebook account > 2 years }  19.2% reported having a Facebook account > 6 years
  10. 10. Privacy Behavior CFA Factor Code Item Loading Altering News Feed (NWF) AVE: 0.777 NFH Hid a story 0.845 NFS Changed friend subscription 0.872 NFN Unsubscribed to a friend 0.908 NFP Unsubscribed to status updates 0.900 Timeline/Wall Moderation (WAL) AVE: 0.638 CWD Deleted content from Timeline/Wall 0.783 CWS Reported/marked content as spam 0.796 CWH Hid a story 0.817 Reputation Management (REP) AVE: 0.671 UNT Untagged a photo or post 0.800 TAK Requested friends to take down posts or photos 0.838 Limiting Access Control (LIM) AVE: 0.734 TAG Tag visibility privacy setting 0.683 SEE Wall/Timeline post visibility privacy setting 1.012 DEF Default privacy level Removed Blocking people (BLP) AVE: 0.838 BLU Blocked a user 0.892 RES Added a user to restricted list 0.938 Blocking apps/events (BLA) AVE: 0.621 BLE Blocked an event invite 0.746 BLA Blocked an app invite  0.828 Restricting Chat (CHA) AVE: 0.777 SCF Gone “offline” on Facebook chat 1.013 SCH Default chat visibility 0.744 Selective Sharing (SEL) AVE: 0.829 POS Posted a status to a custom friend list 0.867 PIC Posting a photo to a custom friend list 0.952 Friend Management (FRM) AVE: 0.910 LIN Categorized new friends into friend lists 0.915 LIO Categorized existing friends into friend lists 0.991 Withholding Contact Info. (CON) AVE: 0.780 CIB Withheld/restricted cell phone number 0.742 CIP Withheld/restricted other phone number 0.946 CIM Withheld/restricted IM screen name 0.880 CID Withheld/restricted street address 0.949 Withholding Basic Info. (BAS) AVE: 0.700 BAD Withheld/restricted “Interested In” 0.750 BAE Withheld/restricted religion 0.878 BAO Withheld/restricted political views 0.876 Concealing Network FRL Hid Friend list from profile Removed Denying Connection HID Hidden a friend request Removed UNF Unfriended (frequency) Removed χ2(295) = 432.59, p < .001; CFI = .987, TLI = .983; RMSEA = .039, 90% CI: [.031, .047]
  11. 11. Privacy Behavior User Classes }  Comparing across MFA model results BIC Entropy LL N p-value 1 class 21998 -10534.652 162 2 classes 20829 0.915 -9916.195 174 < .001 3 classes 20479 0.915 -9706.503 186 0.1032 4 classes 20324 0.880 -9594.600 198 0.7248 5 classes 20183 0.905 -9489.752 210 0.1774 6 classes 20104 0.922 -9415.822 222 0.4441 7 classes 20163 0.904 -9411.090 234 0.7039
  12. 12. Class Distributions
  13. 13. Privacy Behavior User Classes }  Interactive Web Charts: http://www.usabart.nl/chart/
  14. 14. Key Implications }  SNS users employ a subset of privacy features }  Exhibiting a multidimensional pattern from which emerged unique privacy management strategies }  Dimensionality was often tied to physical groupings within the interface design }  Privacy strategies extend beyond disclosure decisions }  Self-Censors vs. Selective Sharers }  Privacy behavior propensity provides valuable insights }  Low propensity highlights opportunities for privacy redesign and/or user education (i.e. Friend List Management vs. Selective Sharing) }  Profiling users offers new opportunities }  Privacy personalization, notifications, advice, and recommendations }  Better understanding of antecedents and outcomes associated with various profiles (i.e. Feature Awareness, Privacy Desires, Social Benefits, etc.)
  15. 15. Feature Awareness vs. Privacy Behavior 15 C1  Privacy   Maximizers   C2  Selec4ve   Sharers   C3  Privacy   Balancers   C4  Time   Savers   C5  Self-­‐ Censors   C6  Privacy   Minimalists   C1  Experts   13  (5.6)   6  (3)   28  (20.4)   4  (9.4)   1  (6.1)   5  (12.6)   C2  Near   Experts   11  (6.9)   8  (3.7)   31  (25.4)   7  (11.8)   4  (7.6)   10  (15.7)   C3   1  (4)   0  (2.1)   17  (14.6)   9  (6.8)   4  (4.4)   10  (9.1)   C4   1  (3.8)   0  (2)   1  (13.9)   4  (6.5)   12  (4.2)   21  (8.6)   C5  Near   Novices   1  (5.8)   0  (3.1)   11  (21.4)   22  (9.9)   7  (6.4)   19  (13.2)   C6  Novices   3  (3.9)   2  (2.1)   22  (14.3)   5  (6.6)   5  (4.3)   3  (8.8)   Class-to-class Membership
  16. 16. Thank you! }  Questions? }  Author Contact Information }  Pamela Wisniewski – pam@pamspam.com }  Bart Knijnenburg – bart.k@uci.edu }  Heather Richter Lipford – heather.lipford@uncc.edu
  17. 17. BoundaryType SNS Interface Controls Facebook MySpace Hi5 LinkedIn Ning Disclosure Boundaries – Managing personal information Confidant-Disclosures     Access Level Settings X X X X Delete Posts or Comments X X X X X UnTagging X X X Moderation X X X X Relationship Boundaries – Managing one’s interpersonal interactions Connection Access Level - Friend Request X X X X Deny Friend Request X X X X X Unfriend/Remove Connection X X X X X Context Group Labeling X X X X Group Management X Network Boundaries – Managing interactions between one’s connections Discovery Access Level – Friend List X Access Level – Profile X X X Hide Connections X X X Intersection See Relationship Context Territorial Boundaries – Managing one’s virtual spaces Inward-Facing Filters X X X X Preference Settings X X X Hiding X X X Outward-Facing See Confidant-Disclosure Interactional Boundaries – Managing access to self Disabling Search (FindingYou) X Posts/Commenting X X X Tagging X Friend Requests X Chat X X X

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