Non conventional energy sources


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Non conventional energy sources

  1. 1. Dr. DeepakMukesh Kumar Kalaiyarasu P. K. BharatiNirmal Kumar Ajay Kumar
  2. 2. World Energy Sources
  3. 3. INDIAN POWER SECTOR (June 2006)• THERMAL : 83272 MW• HYDEL : 32726 MW• NUCLEAR : 3900 MW• RENEWABLES : 6191 MW• TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY : 126089 MW (Source : Ministry of Power)
  4. 4. ENERGY SCENARIO - INDIA• Rapid economic development & Increasing population = High demand for Energy• A sustained 8% GDP growth of India requires an annual increase of: a) Commercial energy supply from 5.2% to 6.1% b) Total primary energy supply from 4.3% to 5.1%
  5. 5. There is a pressing need to explore Alternate Fuel Options which are sustainable, locally available and eco-friendly
  6. 6. RE IN INDIA• The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) is the nodal agency involved in facilitating growth of RE in India• The Ministry’s mandate covers the entire RE sector. ⇒ Solar RE sources covered by MNES are: ⇒ Wind ⇒ Small / Mini /Micro Hydel ⇒ Biomass ⇒ Energy from Urban & Industrial Wastes ⇒ Hydrogen Energy & Fuel Cells ⇒ Geothermal ⇒ Tidal Energy sources
  7. 7. Cont…• Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) is working as a non-banking financial company under the administrative control of MNES to provide term loans forR E projects.• MNES has established three specialized technical institutions viz. Solar Energy Center (SEC), Center for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) and Sardar Swaran Singh Institute of Renewable Energy.
  8. 8. RE – ENABLING LEGISLATIONS• To mainstream RE into the national energy matrix, it is strongly felt that India needs a comprehensive “Renewable Energy Policy” on lines of similar successful legislations like Germany, UK, Spain, Denmark, etc.• Legislations including the Electricity Act, 2003 and National Tariff policy have tried to promote RE by mandating state electricity regulatory commissions (SERCs) to ensure inclusion of RE-based electricity in energy mix of state utilities.
  9. 9. Cont… • Sections 3(1) and 3(2) Under Sections 3(1) and 3(2), it has been stated that the Central Government shall, from time to time, prepare and publish the National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy, in consultation with the state governments and authority for development of the power system based on optimal utilization of resources such as coal, natural gas, nuclear substances, hydro and renewable sources and energy. • Section 4 Section 4 states that the Central Government shall, after consultation with the state governments, prepare and notify a national policy, permitting stand-alone systems ( including those based on renewable sources of energy and other non-conventional sources of energy) for rural areas.
  10. 10. • Section 61 Section 61, 61(h) and 61(i) state that the appropriate commission shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, specify the terms and conditions for determination of tariff, and in doing so, shall be guided by the following, namely, the promotion of cogeneration and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy; and the National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy.• Section 86(1) Section 86(1) and 86(1)(e) state that the state commissions shall promote co- generation and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy by providing suitable measures for connectivity with the grid and sale of electricity to any person, and also specify, for purchase of electricity from such sources, a percentage of the total consumption of electricity in the area of a distribution licensee.
  11. 11. RE - FINANCIAL/FISCAL INCENTIVES IN INDIA• Income Tax Holiday• Accelerated Depreciation• Concessional Custom Duty / Duty Free Import• Capital Subsidy• Energy buyback, power wheeling and banking facilities• Sales Tax concession benefits• Electricity Tax exemption• Demand cut concession offered to industrial consumers who establish power generating units from renewable energy sources
  12. 12. Emerging Options of RE• Solar energy• Wind energy• Bio energy• Hydro energy• Geothermal energy• Nuclear Energy• Wave and tidal energy
  13. 13. Solar Energy• A specially constructed solar panel captures sunlight energy on solar photovoltaic (PV) cells, which then activate electrons. These electrons jump from atom to atom, creating the chain of electricity which runs through a charge controller in the form of a DC charge.
  14. 14. • Perhaps the future is here now. It has predicted that 50% of the worlds energy will come from renewable sources by 2040.• The Earth receives 1,366 Watts per square meter (W/m2) from the sun continuously• India receives solar energy in the region of 5 to 7 kWh/m2 for 300 to 330 days in a year.• This energy is sufficient to set up 20 MW solar power plant/Km2 land area.
  15. 15. • Solar energy is, and has always been, the Earth’s primary energy resource – Drives our climate – Responsible for plant photosynthesis• Solar energy has been “alternative energy” only for a few decades in the industrialized parts of the world• Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) are the stored, concentrated, products of photosynthesis• Wind, biomass and hydro are the result of solar energy input
  16. 16. Factors That Affect Quantity, Quality And Timing Of Solar Energy AvailableCLIMATE AIM:-maximize heat gain in winter minimize heat gain in summer consider snow, ice and rain
  17. 17. Utilization Of Solar Energy• Solar thermal route – produce hot water or air, cook food, drying materials etc.• Solar electric (solar photovoltaic) routes. – produce electricity for lighting home, building, running motors, pumps, electric appliances, and lighting.
  18. 18. Solar Thermal Energy Application• Solar energy can be converted into thermal energy with the help of solar thermal devices (solar collectors and receivers). – Low-Grade Heating Devices - up to the temperature of 100°C. – Medium-Grade Heating Devices -up to the temperature of 100°-300°C – High-Grade Heating Devices -above temperature of 300°C Solar water heaters
  19. 19. Box type solar cooker Dish solar cooker used in a mid-day meal scheme
  20. 20. Solar electric (solar photovoltaic) routes• Photovoltaics: converting light to electricity• Silicon, semi-conducting material (solar cell) transforms light into direct current• Power transformed by inverter into alternating current for use• Works with existing electrical supply
  21. 21. Photovoltaic
  22. 22. • Photovoltaic cells only produce electricity when sun is shining• PV system needs clear access to sun rays most of the day, year around• Work best when the sun rays are perpendicular to the panels• Heat increases resistance to flow of electricity; cool, sunny days are ideal• Operate with little maintenance• Solar cells are currently costly; require a large initial capital investment
  23. 23. Photovoltaic Water PumpingSolar Street lighting system Photovoltaic Domestic
  24. 24. Solar Energy Benefits• About 70% of all air pollution (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates) comes from our use of fossil fuels for generating electricity, transportation, space and hot water heating• Solar energy emits no air or water pollutants, and virtually no solid waste• Solar energy produces no greenhouse gases, which are linked to global warming and climate change• “Fuel” doesn’t require mining, drilling or transportation, and costs nothing• Does not require energy supplies to be imported from insecure regions• Systems can be installed exactly where the energy is needed
  25. 25. Future of Solar Energy• Solar thermal energy is already very cost-effective for providing low temperature heat almost anywhere• PV is very cost-effective for providing electricity in remote areas and in niche applications• As the costs of fossil fuels and electricity increase, PV is becoming more cost- effective compared to electricity from conventional sources• The costs of all solar technologies are declining• Federal and state incentives are increasing the use of solar energy, which helps to increase awareness and promote solar technologies
  26. 26. Country’s first Solar Housing Complex at Kolkata• Community Hall & surrounding area 1 A Swimming Pool heated with solar collector. 2 8 kW Roof Top Solar PV System (grid connected). 3 4 kW BIPV System (grid connected). 4 Demonstration of 1.2 kW concentrating type Solar PV System (grid connected). 5 Stand alone high mast Solar Street Lights with Battery at the top and high power FL. 6 Battery operated pick-up Van. 7 Solar PV operated nameplate and signage. 8 Solar PV operated garden lights.• The complex comprises 25 houses each of Duplex Type with floor area of each house as 1760 sq. ft. and an open area of 860 sq. ft..
  27. 27. Wind Renewable,clean and non polluting energy sourceWind movement: day time-warm air moves up and cool air from water replaces night time- reverse.Renewable energy is a fundamental piece of the puzzle for not only a healthy planet, but a healthy life as well.
  28. 28. History• Over 5,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians used wind to sail ships on the Nile River• windmills to grind wheat and other grains. The earliest known windmills were in Persia (Iran).• 1920s, Americans used small windmills to generate electricity in rural areas without electric service
  29. 29. Wind farm• Advantage Ample Renewable Wide distribution Cheap and no toxic gas emissions less space-agro use.• Disadvantage Never predictable. noise More investment and less than fuel Transport
  30. 30. Wind farm1.Clusters of wind machines used to produce electricity.2. The worlds largest wind farm, the Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center in Texas,has 421 wind turbines that generate enough electricity to power 220,000homes per year.
  31. 31. Wind Energy Programme in India• Sixth Plan in 1983-84• Monsoon influence: – strong south-west summer monsoon starts in May-June, when cool, humid air moves towards the land – weaker north-east winter monsoon starts in October, when cool, dry sir moves towards the ocean – The gross potential is 48,561 MW and a total of about 10,242.5 MW of commercial projects have been established until March 31, 2009.
  32. 32. Position of India• Top five countries in terms of installed capacity Germany (22, 300 mw), US (16,800 mw), Spain (15,100 mw) India (8000 mw) and China (6,100 mw)• In capacity addition, the US was in the lead in 2007, followed by China and Spain.• China-3,449 mw of wind energy capacity, a growth of 156%• India-1730 mw new capacity was added up to December-end 2007.
  33. 33. Hydro Energy
  34. 34. Hydrologic Cycle
  35. 35. Hydropower to Electric Power ElectricalPotential Energy Energy Electricity Kinetic Energy Mechanical Energy
  36. 36. Schematic of Impound Hydropower
  37. 37. Conventional Impoundment Dam
  38. 38. Hydropower – Pros and ConsPositive NegativeEmissions-free, with virtually no CO2, NOX, Frequently involves impoundment of largeSOX, hydrocarbons, or particulates amounts of water with loss of habitat due to land inundationRenewable resource with high conversion Variable output – dependent on rainfall andefficiency to electricity (80+%) snowfallDispatchable with storage capacity Impacts on river flows and aquatic ecology, including fish migration and oxygen depletionUsable for base load, peaking and pumped Social impacts of displacing indigenous peoplestorage applicationsScalable from 10 KW to 20,000 MW Health impacts in developing countriesLow operating and maintenance costs High initial capital costsLong lifetimes Long lead time in construction of large projects
  39. 39. Bio-energyBio-energy is renewable energy derived from biologicalsourcesAvailable in three forms as solid (Biomass), liquid (Bio-fuels) and gaseous (Biogas)Bio-energy currently provides over 15% of the worlds energysupply.
  40. 40. BIOENERGY: Main Benefits Sustainability: clean and renewable energy source Availability: increased energy access - rural areas Flexibility: power, heat and transport Energy security: diversified energy mix, domestic sources Mitigation of climate change Diversification of rural livelihoods Reduction in land degradation
  41. 41. Bio-energy todayType Use Replaces Raw materialEthanol Transport Petrol Sugar MaizeBiodiesel Transport Diesel OilseedsBiomass Electricity Coal, gas Woody Home and oil materials, cooking and Kerosene crop and heating livestock waste
  42. 42. Bio-energy at a Glance in IndiaSource Estimated Cumulative installed capacity Potential, MW (as on March, 31, 2006), MWBiomass Power 16, 000 440.50Bagasse Cogeneration 3, 500 502.03Family size biogas plants 120 lakh 38.34 lakh
  43. 43. Biomass• Biomass is material derived from recently living organisms which includes plants, animals and their by-products . It has potential to generate power to the extent of more than 50% of the country’s requirements.• an estimated production of 350 million tons of agricultural waste every year, biomass is capable of supplementing coal equivalent to 200 million tonnes producing 17,000 MW of power and resulting in a saving of about Rs.20,000 crores every year.• Biomass can be used in three ways – one in the form of gas through gasifiers for thermal applications, second in the form of methane gas to run gas engines and the third through combustion to produce steam and thereby power
  44. 44. Devices•Biogas Plants•Biomass Gasifiers•Engine pump sets•Producers gas/ biogas based enginegenerator
  45. 45. Biomass Gasifiers• Biomass gasifiers convert the solid biomass ( basically woood waste and agricultural residues ) into a combustible gas mixture normally called as producer gas ( CO,H2,N2 and CH4)• Gasification of biomass results in saving of 50% in fuel consumption
  46. 46. BIO-FUEL (Ethanol & Biodiesel)• Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels— biofuels— for our transportation needs (cars, trucks, buses, airplanes, and trains). The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel• Ethanol is made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates (starches, sugars, or celluloses) through a process similar to brewing beer• Uses of ethanol:- mostly used as a fuel-additive to cut down a vehicles carbon monoxide and other smog causing emissions.• Government of India has started nationwide launch of 5 % ethanol blended petrol w.e.f. 1 January, 2003. The ratio should gradually be increased to 10 and 20%.
  47. 47. Bio-diesel• Bio-diesel is produced from soyabeans, sunflower, and more recently Jatropha curcas and other crops. It can be extracted and refined into fuel, which can be burned in diesel engines and buses• Also used as an additives to reduce vehicle emissions• It was first experimented by Rudolf Diesel to run his first diesel engine. The engine was run on ground nut oil• At present India produces only 30% of petroleum & rest 70% is being imported which incurs a large amount of expenditure of about Rs 80,000 crore every year.• If even about 5% of bio-fuel is mixed in present diesel by the year 2012 we could supplement about 41.41% of total demand of diesel consumption.• India has launched a bio-fuel project in 200 district of 18 states where Jatropha curcas being cultivated. Currently widely being used for producing biodiesel in India as promoted as very easy to grow crop
  48. 48. Jatropha curcasOriginated in CaribbeanDrought resistant, perennial, can grow well in poor soilCan produce seeds for 50 yearsTree produces approx. 1600 liters of oil/haSeed has oil content of 37% which can be combusted as fuel withoutundergoing the process of refiningByproducts are used as press cake which is a good organic fertilizer
  49. 49. Biogas Biogas is a clean and efficient fuel, generated from cow- dung, human waste or any kind of biological materials derived through anaerobic fermentation process. The biogas consists of 60% methane with rest mainly carbon-dioxide. Biogas is a safe fuel for cooking and lighting. By-product is usable as high-grade manure. India has a potential of generating 6.38 x 1010 m3 of biogas from 980 million tones of cattle dung produced annually. In addition, 350 million tons of compost would also be produced. Under National Biogas and Manure Management Programme 38.34 lakh family size and 3952 community biogas plants has been installed in the country
  50. 50. Biogas plant
  51. 51. Bio-power• Bio-power or biomass power, is the use of biomass to generate electricity• Six major types of bio-power systemsi. Direct-firedii. Co-firingiii. Gasificationiv. Anaerobic digestionv. Pyrolysis andvi. Small-modular
  52. 52. BIOENERGY: Key Challenges Ensuring sustainability Safeguarding food security Protecting biodiversity Managing competition for land and water Controlling pollution of air, water and soils Removing barriers to bioenergy trade
  53. 53. How can developing countries reduce trade-offs between bio-energy crops and food production ? Develop biomass crops that yield higher amounts of energy per unit of land and water. Biotech could be very useful. Focus on food crops that generate by-products that can be used for bio- energy and breed for larger amounts of by-products. Develop and grow biomass in less-favored areas rather than in prime agricultural lands—an approach that would benefit some of the poorest people Invest in increasing the productivity of food crops themselves, since this would free up additional land and water Remove barriers to international trade in biofuels. The world has enough capacity to meet food needs and grow large amounts of biomass for energy use, but not in all countries and regions. Trade is a powerful way of spreading the benefits of this global capacity while enabling countries to focus on growing the kinds of food, feed, or energy crops for which they are most competitive.
  54. 54. • Geothermal power (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat) is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. – from the original formation of the planet, – from radioactive decay of minerals, – and from solar energy absorbed at the surface• Hot Springs have been used for bathing at least since paleolithic times.• Used for – Space heating and bathing since ancient roman times – Now better known for generating electricity
  55. 55. Global View of Geothermal Energy
  56. 56. Electricity GenerationElectricity generation requires high temperature geothermal fields andspecialized heat cycles:Dry steam plants : Oldest & Simplest Directly use geothermal steam of 150°C or more to turn turbinesFlash steam plants Most common type of plant in operation today Require fluid temperatures of at least 180°C, usually moreBinary Cycle Power Plants The most recent development Can accept fluid temperatures as low as 57°C Most common type of geothermal electricity plant being built today Viable over a much greater geographical range
  57. 57. Installed geothermal electric capacity as of 2007 Country Capacity (MW) Country Capacity (MW) USA 2687 Russia 79 Philippines 1969.7 New Guinea 56 Indonesia 992 Guatemala 53 Mexico 953 Turkey 38 Italy 810.5 China 27.8 Japan 535.2 Portugal 23 New Zealand 471.6 France 14.7 Iceland 421.2 Germany 8.4 El Salvador 204.2 Ethiopia 7.3 Costa Rica 162.5 Austria 1.1 Kenya 128.8 Thailand 0.3 Nicaragua 87.4 Australia 0.2 TOTAL 9731.9• Geothermal electricity is generated in 24 countries around the world. About 10 GW of geothermal electric capacity is installed as of 2007, generating 0.3% of global electricity demand.• An additional 28 GW of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications.
  58. 58. Environmental Impact CO2, H2S Global Warming Acid Rain • Existing geothermal electric plants emit an average of 90-120 kg of CO2 per MWh of electricity, a small fraction Trace amount of of the emission intensity of conventional fossil fuel mercury, arsenic, etc. plants. with hot water • Some are equipped with emissions-controlling systems that reduces the exhaust of acids and volatiles • Geothermal plants can theoretically inject these substances, along with the gases, back into the earth, in a form of carbon sequestration.
  59. 59. Economics• Immune to fluctuations in fuel cost• High capital costs• Drilling accounts for most of the costs of electrical plants• Exploration of deep resources entails very high financial risks • Construction costs: about 2-5 million € per MW of capacity • Operational costs: 0.04-0.10 € per kWhA 2006 report by MIT, that took into account the use of enhanced geothermal system,estimated that an investment of 1 billion US dollars in research and development over15 years would permit the development of 100 GW of generating capacity by 2050 inthe United States alone
  60. 60. Indian Scenario • India has 400 medium to high enthalpy geothermal springs, clustered in seven provinces. • Capacity to produce 10,600 MW of power- five time greater than the combined power being produced from non-conventional energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass. Reykjavik, Iceland-based Glitnir Bank is partnering with Noida, Indias LNJ Bhilwara Group, a diversified business with operations in power generation. The Icelandic bank will hold a 40 percent stake in the geothermal venture, with Bhilwara holding 60 percent. The venture is being set up with initial capital of $10 million for its exploration phase.
  61. 61. • Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions.• The only method in use today is through nuclear fission, though other methods might one day include nuclear fusion and radioactive decay.• All utility-scale reactors heat water to produce steam, which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion.• On June 27, 1954, the USSRs Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant became the worlds first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid, and produced around 5 megawatts of electric power.• In 2007, 14% of the worlds electricity came from nuclear power with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for 56.5%.• As of 2007, the IAEA reported there are 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world, operating in 31 countries.• More than 150 nuclear-powered naval vessels have been built, and a few radioisotope rockets have been produced.
  62. 62. Life Cycle Mining Nuclear plant Reprocessing plant Repository
  63. 63. Indian Scenario Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydro and renewable sources of electricity As of 2008, India has 17 nuclear power plants in operation generating 4,120 MW while 6 other are under construction and are expected to generate an additional 3,160 MW. In February 2009, India also signed a US$700 million deal with Russia for the supply of 2000 tons nuclear fuel India now envisages to increase the contribution of nuclear power to overall electricity generation capacity from 4.2% to 9% within 25 years
  64. 64. Quantum mechanics predicts the existence of what are usually What is Zerocalled zero-point energies for the strong, the weak and the energy?electromagnetic interactions, where zero-point refers to theenergy of the system at temperature T=0, or the lowestquantized energy level of a quantum mechanical system.Although the term zero-point energy applies to all three ofthese interactions in nature, customarily it is used in referenceonly to the electromagnetic case.Origin of zero-point energy is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle He at absolute 0; not freezed??
  65. 65. IS IT POSSIBLE TO TAP ZERO POINT ENERGY? Huh!! It is possible So u’ll make to tap zero perpetual motion energy machineStochastic electrodynamics interpretation of the Bohr orbit does suggest a waywhereby energy might be extractedPatent has been issued and experiments have been underway at the Universityof Colorado (U.S. Patent 7,379,286)
  66. 66. Ocean EnergyThermal Mechanical Sun-heat Tides & Waves
  67. 67. Tidal EnergyTides: Daily rise and fall of oceanwater levels
  68. 68. Forms of tides Bay of Fundy, Canada High Tide Low Tide
  69. 69. Potential tidal power sources
  70. 70. Tidal cycle Spring Tides (strongest) 3 2Current Velocity (m/s) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1-Feb 6-Feb 11-Feb 16-Feb 21-Feb 26-Feb Date Neap Tides (weakest)
  71. 71. World-wide distribution of Tidal energy
  72. 72. Turning Tides into Usable Energy• Ebb generating system• A dam (barrage) is built across the mouth of an estuary.• Sluice gates allow incoming tides to fill the basin.• As the tide ebbs, the water is forced through a turbine system to generate electricity.
  73. 73. Rim turbine used at Annapolis Royal in Nova ScotiaTubular turbine proposed for use in the Severn tidal project in Great Britain
  74. 74. Shrouded turbine East river turbine Tidal turbine at NYCTurbine blade, SeaGen, UK
  75. 75. Advantages• Renewable• Abundant (estimated that it could produce 16% of worlds energy.)• Pollution free (except during construction)• Relatively consistent (unlike wind that is inconsistent and is highly concentrated in certain areas depending on the topography.)• Water is a free resource• Presents no difficulty to migrating aquatic animals (avoidable) Disadvantages• Disturbance/Destruction to marine life (effect wave climate that effects shallow/shore plant life)• Expensive to construct (estimated 1.2 billion dollars.)• Reliability ( have not been around long so we do not know long-term reliability is.)• Recreational costs (visual impact, sport fishing, swimming, etc.)• Cost of Maintenance Higher• Power transmission from offshore facilities harder• Power quality (waves fluctuation)
  76. 76. Turning Waves into Usable Energy • One of the best means to harness energy from Ocean. • 0.1% of ocean energy, if harnessed, could more than satisfy world energy demand • Wave hits the wave converter and converts its force into energy and is fed to generator to produce electricity
  77. 77. Wave energy potential varies greatly worldwide Figures in kW/m
  78. 78. Tapered channel system, Australian Islay wave power CRC station Floating system, USAOscillating water columnsystem
  79. 79. Advantages• The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced.• Most designs are inexpensive to operate and maintain.• Waves can produce a great deal of energy.• There are minimal environmental impacts. Disadvantages• Depends on the waves - sometimes youll get loads of energy, sometimes nothing.• Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong.• Must be able to withstand very rough weather.• Disturbance or destruction of marine life• Possible threat to navigation from collisions because the wave energy devices rise only a few feet above the water.• Degradation of scenic ocean front views from wave energy devices located near or on the shore, and from onshore overhead electric transmission lines.
  80. 80. Issue Analysis and Recommendations GovernmentBusiness Society
  81. 81. Society BusinessFind alternate energy sources – Rising cost of traditional energy• Increasing cost of “dirty” energy – Potential business opportunities• Less money for consumer goods – High initial investment• Harmful pollutionBenefits from alternate energy• Lower energy cost• Less pollution• Tax benefits Government – Decrease the nation’s oil/coal/gas dependency – Secure the nation’s future energy supply – Promote R&D investment
  82. 82. Estimated Cost of Production (per kilowatt-hour)CONVENTIONAL ENERGYCoal 2 – 6 centsGas 3 - 4 centsNuclear 2 –14 centsNONCONVENTIONAL ENERGYLarge-Scale Hydro 1.5-2.5 centsSmall-Scale Hydro 5 -12 centsBiomass 3 – 9 centsGeothermal 4 – 6 centsWind 3 – 9 centsSolar 12 -40 centsFuel Cell 8 -15 centsWave Energy 4 – 9 cents
  83. 83. Thank youIts easy to be thankful for the good things.