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Linked data flows in multi-player games for servitization

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A presentation by Victoria Uren & Christopher Brewster for the Spring Servitization Conference held at Aston University May 20-22 2013

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Linked data flows in multi-player games for servitization

  1. 1. Linked data flows inmulti-player games forservitizationVictoria Uren & Christopher BrewsterSpring Servitization ConferenceMay 20-22 2013
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. The Problem – Barriers to Servitization• Adopting servitization is a major strategic decision• Profits may go down as well as up (Grönroos & Ojalsalo, 2004)• Income from new sources• …but new expenditure too• Manufacturers may need new skills• Service staff• Customer support tasks• New marketing approaches• Increased complexity of communication• Downstream with customers• Within the company• Upstream suppliers
  4. 4. Serious Games• Serious Games “entertain, educate & inform”• Allow experimentation in safe, simulated environments• “Traditional” military, medical & safety applications• Increasing use in business training
  5. 5. A Multi-player Game
  6. 6. Widget Producer GameBaseMakemachineSellmachineIntermediateServicemachineAdvancedGuaranteewidgetproduction
  7. 7. Base LevelCustomerSalesNegotiates priceFactoryProduces WPReceives WPSubmitsorderImages © 2004–2013 Florida Center for Instructional Technology
  8. 8. Base Level Data• production costs• number of machines sold• price for each machine• production capacity of factory
  9. 9. Intermediate LevelCustomerSalesNegotiates priceArranges servicecontractFactoryProduces WPReceives WPSubmitsorderImages © 2004–2013 Florida Center for Instructional TechnologyDesignerServiceFix WPReport faultsMakessparesUsessparesImprovescalls outserviceteamInforms of contractconditions
  10. 10. Intermediate Level Data• production costs• number of machinessold• price for eachmachine• production capacity offactory• number of units withservicing contractsand their value• unit average quality• cost of spare parts• cost of warehousingspares• cost of servicepersonnel time• Buyer satisfactionlevels• cost of design time
  11. 11. Advanced LevelImages © 2004–2013 Florida Center for Instructional TechnologyStrategicPlannerMonitors alldata and setstargets for nextroundNegotiatesguaranteeLendsubstitutemachine
  12. 12. Advanced Level Data• As for Intermediate, plus:• number of days for which a substitute machine mustbe supplied and cost• number of substitute Widget Producer units held instock and cost• number of units with premium servicing contractsand their value• number of substitute units requested• number of substitute units loaned on time
  13. 13. The Problem is Increased Complexity• As the game progresses – as servitzation is implemented• More players are involved• More data is required• Trade offs become more complex• Players need to know more about each other’s role• Should Sales offer the guarantee to a customer who is located farfrom the warehouse?• Is it worth the designer replacing failing component X with a moreexpensive one to reduce service call outs?• How should factory balance the production of new units vs spareparts to ensure service is maintained & orders fulfilled?• How many spares and replacement machines need to be stocked?
  14. 14. Potential Data Formats
  15. 15. Existing Business Data Exchange Standards• Electronic Data Exchange (EDI)• Data format for business transaction documents (e.g. invoices)• Developed initially by Motor industry• Significant start-up challenges• Can require complex mapping to incorporate new data• GS1 bar code standard• incorporates detail of many features of products
  16. 16. Data Opportunities• Open Data• data generated by the publicsector made available forpublic use, e.g. crimestatistics, health servicedata• Web 3.0 / Semantic web• innovative technologies formachine understandabledata on the web• Open Linked Data• a powerful merge of bothImage Semantic Web Stack, source Wikipedia
  17. 17. Open Linked Data• RDF/XML standard for sharable data• Published according to four simple rules (Berners-Lee 2006)1. Use URIs as names for things2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information,using the standards (RDF, SPARQL)4. Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover morethings
  18. 18. The Linked Data “Cloud”Image: http://lod-cloud.net/
  19. 19. Linked Data State of the Arthttp://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/posts/Linked-Data-Connecting-together-the-BBCs-Online-Content
  20. 20. Linked Data in Games• Supports incorporation of public datasets• OpenStreetMap – data about location of Buyers and servicedepots• GB Road traffic counts – data about traffic flow per major roadjunction per year• Supports reuse of the game architecture for different scenarios• MusikBrainz – data about albums, performers etc., forchanging business models in the music industry
  21. 21. Linked Data in Supply Chains• Linked data technologies don’t have to be open web• Intranet & VPN use web technologies• Different partners need different kinds of data:• raw materials, component production, assembly, fitting, repairand maintenance• Agile supply chains need to connect new partners to informationnetworks quickly:• Mapping for Linked data executed simply using SameAs links• EDI can be rendered as XML
  22. 22. Conclusions
  23. 23. Summary• Serious games open an opportunity to reduce barriers toservitization uptake by educating business people throughsimulated environments• Servitization barriers include increased complexity of data andcommunication channels• A game scenario was conceived which demonstrated data andcommunication complexity issues• Linked data proposed as a flexible data format both within thegame and in supply chains more widely
  24. 24. References• Grönroos, C., & Ojalsalo, K. (2004). Service Productivity: towardsa conceptualisation of the transformation of inputs into economicresults in services. Journal of Business Research, 57(4), 414–423.• Berners-Lee, T. (2006). Linked Data - Design Issues. RetrievedJuly 23, http://www.w3.org/ DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  25. 25. Thanks for listening – questions?

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