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- 1. C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 1 RUNWAY CRANE GIRDERS
- 2. Overhead crane girders for industrial buildings (small lifting capacity) TYPES OF RUNWAY (GANTRY) GIRDERS Runway crane and girders: 1-crane bridge; 2- gantry girder; 3- crab; 4- end carriage; 5- payload; l-span of the crane bridge; a- spacing between the wheels of the crane; L-bay of the building C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 2
- 3. Section of runway girders for cranes with different loading: a)- hot rolled sections for light loads and small bays: b) and c)- build up sections from hot rolled shapes; d) runway girder with horizontal girder which delivers the reactions to the structural column ( heavy loads and big bays) The crane girders are made of I (IPE) and build up sections for smaller bays and lighter cranes (6 m, Q=50...100 kN). For bigger bays and lifting capacities of the cranes (9…12 m, Q200 kN) build-up cross sections are used . C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 3 TYPES OF GANTRY GIRDERS
- 4. Runway girder with horizontal girder made of steel plate: 1- top flange of the crane girder; 2- rail; 3- angle cleats for fixing the rail on top flange; 4- thick chequered plate; 5- angle stiffener; 6- joist supporting the plate between two running columns; 7-angle supporting the plate attached to the flange of the column; 8- splice for thee bolted connection of the joist to the column C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 4 TYPES OF GANTRY GIRDERS
- 5. Runway girders with platform sustained of steel lattice girder: 1- welds done at site; 2- bolted connection between the flange of the column and the elements of the horizontal lattice girder C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 5 TYPES OF GANTRY GIRDERS
- 6. Different systems of fixing the rails on the crane girder: a), b) square rails welded continuously to the top flange; c) - railway rails fixed with clamps; d), square rail fixed with angles fastened with bolts to the top flange; e)- KP profile of rail; f)- railway rails on elastic support (1-neoprene pad); g) rails attached with hooks to the top flange. Minimum thickness tr measured downwards from the wear surface of the rail C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 6 RAILS SYSTEMS
- 7. Buffers on the crane girders: a)- for cranes carrying light loads and easier working conditions; b), c) – for cranes carrying heavy loads and hard working conditions EVALUATION OF THE DISTRIBUTED LOADS (ACTIONS) ON RUNWAY GIRDERS L)30.0...15.0(g k,G uniform distributed loads on the length of the girder [kN/m]; 1) estimated characteristic value of the weight of the crane girder, extracted from tables of hot rolled sections or evaluated during the sizing procedure; for plate girders the following value may be adopted: 2) characteristic value of the weight of the rail (including the weight of the connections); for a square section we may determine the weight: 3) characteristic values of weights of the elements of the horizontal girder, in the case when they are part of the runway system, for ex. weight of the chequered steel plate or of the elements of the horizontal lattice girder. In all the cases the weight transferred to the runway girder is considered from half of the width of the platform, the other half being supported by the horizontal joists attached to external flanges of the columns. 2 b wg i k,pk.p wp,k – weight of the chequered steel plate of mild steels from catalogue, according with its thickness; for industrial purposes a minimum thickness is required because of corrosion exposure; bi – width of the column assimilated with the distance between the axis of the rail of the runway and axis of the transversal frame live loads according to the EN 1991-3 recommendations: Point load Qk = 3.0 kN if materials are deposited on the platform and Qk = 1.5 kN if the platforms insure only the access. Forces resulted from other elements existing on the runway (like buffers, a.s.o.). 15.17850hg 2 rk,r C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 7
- 8. Vertical loads cases Total wheel load on rail Crane stationary, lifting the payload Crane moving with the load i - impact factor; f – partial safety factor for vertical crane actions; Qmax – characteristic vertical wheel reaction from the hook load; Gk – sum of the weight of the crane, rails and others kf1maxf2 GQ kfmaxf4 GQ MAXIMUM VERTICAL LOADS Permanent loads: - weight of the trolley (carriage) and the lifted load ; - weight of the crane bridge; - self-weight of the crane girder and rails; - weight of the horizontal girder if this exists; Live load on the platform if there is the case, Qk,i. MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL LOADS Transverse surge from the crab ( the load is taken as 10% of the combined weight of the crab and the lifted load); Longitudinal surge load from the crane (5% of the static vertical reactions, i.e. from the weight of the crab, crane bridge and lifted load; Skew loads due to travelling; if the crane is class S1 or S2, then these forces would not need to be considered. Horizontal loads need not to be combined together. Forces from the point loads acting on the runway girder: 1- vertical actions on the wheels of the crane; 2- horizontal longitudinal actions from crane surge; 3- horizontal transversal actions from crab surge; 4- effect of skewing of the crane; 5- crab C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 8
- 9. COMBINATIONOFTHEVERTICALANDHORIZONTALLOADSINU.L.S. Considering the recommendations for grouping the vertical with the horizontal loads, the following combinations are: Dead loads (permanent) + live loads (accompanying variable) + vertical point loads from reactions on the wheels (basic variable); Dead loads (permanent) + live loads (accompanying variable) + horizontal point loads from: crane surge or crab surge or skew driving effects (as basic variables); Dead loads (permanent) + live loads (accompanying variable) + vertical point loads from reactions on the wheels (basic variable) + horizontal point loads from: crane surge or crab surge or skew driving effects (accompanying variable). RELEVANT INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS IN THE GIRDER The concentrated forces being mobile influence lines will be used to determine the maximum bending moments, shear forces and reactions on the supports. During the process of determination of the position of the convoy of mobile forces that will lead to the maximum bending moments some forces may remain outside the girder length. The factors that influence these situations are mainly the wheel spacing, a, and the width of the end carriage, aw. DESIGN VERIFICATIONS OF THE CRANE GIRDER Limit state of strength and stability: Lateral-torsional buckling Horizontal moment capacity Combined vertical and horizontal moments Web shear at supports Local compression under wheels Web bearing and buckling under the wheel and under the supports C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 9
- 10. Determination of maximum internal efforts and bending moments in the simple supported girders: a) the translation of the convoy of mobile forces along the girder for the position of maximum moment; b) b)- influence lines for bending moments and shear forces (in case of three mobile forces on the girder). C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 10
- 11. VERIFICATIONSINS.L.S. Vertical deflection of a crane girder under static vertical wheel loads Horizontal deflection under the transversal loads 600 L lim,v 500 L lim,h Fatigue verification is run according to EN 1993-1-9 THE EFFECTS OF THE ACTIONS FROM CRANES ON THE GIRDERS I. Biaxial bending produced by the vertical and longitudinal transversal actions; II. Axial compression or tension produced by the horizontal longitudinal actions; III. Torsion produced by horizontal transversal forces eccentrically applied with respect to the shear center of the cross section of the girder; IV. Horizontal and vertical shear forces, produced by the corresponding actions; V. Local stresses produced by the weighing forces, statically applied from the wheels on the top of the rail. C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 11
- 12. Local stresses in the web of the crane girder produced by vertical loads on the wheel at the top flange Local compression stresses, 0z,Ed wteffl Ed,zF Ed,oz Extending the length of distribution of the local stresses on the depth of the crane girder Case Description Effective length of distribution leff 1 The rail is fully restrained to the top flange 2 The rail is partially restrained to the top flange 3 The rail is placed on a flexible neoprene pad of 6mm thickness If,eff – moment of inertia of the flange of the crane girder with effective width beff with respect to its horizontal neutral axis; Ir – moment of inertia of the rail with respect to its horizontal neutral axis; Irf – moment of inertia of the cross section obtained from the flange of the crane girder with effective width beff and the rail with respect to its horizontal neutral axis; tw – thickness of the web but Where: b – total width of the top flange of the crane girder; bfr – width of the rail, see fig. 2; hr – height of the rail, see fig. 1; tf – thickness of the flange of the beam. Note: the wear of the rail must be considered 3 1 wreff tI25.3l 3 1 weff,freff tII25.3l 3 1 weff,freff tII25.4l frfreff thbb bbeff C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 12
- 13. Local shear stresses,0xz,Ed Local and global shear stresses produced by the vertical forces transferred from the wheel to the crane girder: 1- global shear stresses; 2-local shear stresses; 3- position of the load on the wheel Local stresses of bending produced by the eccentricity of application of the loads on the wheel, T,Ed tanh 2 wat EdT6 Ed,T 5.0 awh2awh2sinh awh2sinh tI 2 wat75.0 yEd,zEd eFT Torsion of the top flange of the crane girder Strength verifications of the crane girders 0.1 f 3 ffff 2 My Ed My Ed,z My Ed,x 2 My Ed,z 2 My Ed,x 00000 0.1 M M M M N N Rd,z Ed,z Rd,y Ed,y Rd Ed C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 13
- 14. Axial internal efforts Rd,tEd NN 2M ufTF,netA9.0 Rd,uN ; 0M yf TFARd,plN )Rd,uN,Rd,plNmin(Rd,tN Rd,cNEdN 0M yf TFARd,plNRd,cN Shear resistance of the top flange Rd,cVEdV 0M3 yf TFARd,plVRd,yV Shear resistance of the web in elastic or plastic; buckling in shear of the web 1 0M3yf Ed 72 t h w w Rd,pl My Ed,t Rd,T,pl V /3f25.1 1V 0 0.1 V V Rd,T,pl Ed C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 14
- 15. C.Teleman_ICE_S.S.III_Lecture6 15

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