Introduction of Monitoring and Evaluation
Difference between M & E
Understanding of Techniques of Monitoring
It carries with it
evidence, leading to
a judgment of value
intended to produce
Worthen and Sanders
Characteristics Evaluation Monitoring
Subject: Usually focused on strategic aspects addresses operational management issues
Character: incidental, flexible subject & methods continuous, regular, systematic
Primary client: stakeholders and external program management
Approach: objectivity, transparency utility
Methodology: demanding research methodologies,
rapid appraisal methods
Primary focus: focus on relevancy, outcomes, impact
focus on operational efficiency and
Objectives: to check outcomes / impact, verify
to identify and resolve implementation
to document successes and lessons
to assess progress towards objectives
William Gantt was an engineer who, during World War
1, developed a method to keep track of major
activities, depict the time and sequence of activities in
order to monitor a project .
Construct with the placement of vertical and
horizontal axis on a page. The various functions
and tasks to be completed in a project are listed
in sequence from first to last, along the axis. A
timeline with measured raises is recorded along
horizontal axis with beginning to end. Symbols
can be added to the Gantt chart that represent
report documents and specified activities.
Evaluation and Review
Technique (PERT) was
introduced by space
engineers (NASA) and
originally use to help
manage large projects
in which literally
thousands of tasks to
Desmond L. Cook took
the concept and applied
PERT is a network. The PERT network is
used in graphic presentation to depict the
activities to be accomplished in a project and
to show the sequence and relationship of
activities. Time estimates for each activity are
included in the PERT.
Stage or check point in the plan. It defines the start or finish of
one or more activities.
It represented by arrows joining two events following the direction
of the gap of time. It is symbol of work in hand of the
A network is a diagrammatic representation of a project having a
logical sequence of various activities which together makeup
Minimum possible period of the activity is time estimate.
Event is a
point in time.
There may be
many paths in a
PERT network; the
path that requires
amount of time for
completion is the
CPM is the project network analysis technique
for determining the minimum project duration.
useful approach to develop realistic schedules
based on knowledge of resources
Main application of this technique is, planning,
controlling and construction programs for the
large infrastructural and industrial projects.
Committees and Panels
What ?How?Whom? Participants/non-participants.
To filter out personal views and prejudices.
Unexpected results with observation.
Its part of learning and traditional culture to conduct
Gather data to seek social impact after need
assessment before the program.
A favorite method in Western nations is the
response sheet handed out at the end of
course. Having a yes/no response makes the
analysis easy but scaled responses, based on
Likert type options, produces more useful
Interviews can replace the written words, as
participants pass on verbally their views and
they are recorded, either in
writing at that time by the interviewer or on audio
tape for later analysis.
Committees are one useful technique for the
process of evaluation. It is elected internally or
externally based on experts focus on comments,
suggestions, and criticism.
A committee is drawn from participants in a
program whereas a panel is drawn from
outsiders. The panel can provide information, or
as it may be appropriately termed in these
circumstances ‘feedback’, to both the learners,
instructors and program managers.
It was originally developed by personnel at the
Rand Corporation in 1960s. The Delphi was
originally designed to provide the predictions of
The Delphi method technique is planning and
management technique of collecting and
utilizing specific information from several
experts as a basis for decision-making or
planning. Involvement in the Delphi process is
Step One: Experts are involved and selected.
Two: Topics and issues are asked from
experts/panel with time frame and best
Three: The survey containing the original topics
for consideration and time predictions to the
participants to measure “effectiveness and
probability” with seven-point scale.
Four: The responses are complied, summarized,
synthesized and feedback.
Five: Third questionnaire, the experts are asked
to review their position of group of experts, to
read the comments of other experts/opinion
leaders, and reevaluate their own position.
Six: Received responses are tabulated thus
becomes the source of information for
Final: Results are analyzed and report is
It has been used in Russia and USA as mean
of determining futures based on expert
opinion. Both positive and negative features
have been perceived to accompany such
techniques as the Delphi process, as well as,
such as brain storming techniques. This
approach developed in an effort to minimize
negative and highlight positive traits.
Group members are not allowed to have face to
Group members are not permitted to know the
identities of participants regarding any issue or
The responses or survey is presented in
frequency and percentage. Questions are
focused on “what” and “why”.
Administrators use models and simulations to
“test” plans or ideas in many ways. A simulation
may be applied to immediate planning efforts, or
a simulation may become part of strategic
The scenario is a means of communication
potential options for planners and decision
makers to consider. Futurists use scenarios to
depict their perceptions of what the future will
A method for determining what abilities are
needed to do a particular job. The standards of
success are established through actual
incidents going on the job.
Flangan used it to develop charts of the
personal and social developments of
elementary school children.
Films or tapes are used to study cause and
possible solutions of problem encountering in
achieving success. (e.g.)
PPBS is in effect an addition of a techniques
in planning and budgeting process for identifying,
costing and assigning a complexity of resources
for establishing priorities and strategies in a major
program and for forecasting costs, expenditure
and achievements within the immediate financial
year or over a longer period.
Combining two or more courses of action when
it is considered more effective rather than
pursuing them individually.